NTPC Limited

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NTPC
Formerly
National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd.
Public Sector Undertaking
Traded as
ISININE733E01010
IndustryElectricity
Founded7 November 1975; 44 years ago (1975-11-07)
Headquarters,
Area served
India
Key people
Gurdeep Singh (Chairman & MD)[2]
ServicesElectricity generation and distribution
natural gas exploration, production, transportation and distribution
Revenue92,179 crore (US$13 billion) (2019)[3]
22,771 crore (US$3.2 billion) (2019)[3]
11,749 crore (US$1.6 billion) (2019)[3]
Total assets242,609 crore (US$34 billion) (2019)[3]
OwnerGovernment of India (51.02%)[3]
Number of employees
19918 (2020[3])
Websitewww.ntpc.co.in

NTPC Limited, formerly known as National Thermal Power Corporation Limited, is an Indian Public Sector Undertaking, engaged in the business of generation of electricity and allied activities. It is a company incorporated under the Companies Act 1956 and is promoted by the Government of India. The headquarters of the company is situated at New Delhi. NTPC's core business is the generation and sale of electricity to state-owned power distribution companies and State Electricity Boards in INDIA. The company also undertakes consultancy and turnkey project contracts that involve engineering, project management, construction management, and operation and management of power plants.

The company has also ventured into oil and gas exploration and coal mining activities. It is the largest power company in India with an electric power generating capacity of 62,086 MW .[4] Although the company has approx. 16% of the total national capacity contributes to over 25% of total power generation due to its focus on operating its power plants at higher efficiency levels (approx. 80.2% against the national PLF rate of 64.5%).NTPC currently produces 25 billion units of electricity per month.

NTPC currently operates 55 power stations (24 Coal, 7 combined cycle gas/liquid fuel, 2 Hydro, 1 Wind, and 11 solar projects). Further, it has 9 coal and 1 gas station, owned by joint ventures or subsidiaries.

It was founded by Government of India in 1975, which now holds 54.74% of its equity shares on 30.06.2016 [5] (after divestment of its stake in 2004, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2016, & 2017)
In May 2010, NTPC was conferred Maharatna status by the Union Government of India,one of the only four companies to be awarded this status.[6] It is ranked 400th in the Forbes Global 2000 for 2016.[7]

History[edit]

1975 to 1994[edit]

The company was founded on 7 November 1975[8] as "National Thermal Power Corporation Private Limited". It started work on its first thermal power project in 1976 at Shaktinagar (named National Thermal Power Corporation Private Limited Singrauli) in Uttar Pradesh.[9] In the same year, its name was changed to "National Thermal Power Corporation Limited". In 1983, NTPC began commercial operations (of selling power) and earned profits of INR 4.5 crores in FY 1982–83. By the end of 1985, it had achieved power generation capacity of 2000 MW.
In 1986, it completed synchronisation of its first 500 MW unit at Singrauli. In 1988, it commissioned two 500 MW units, one each in Rihand and Ramagundam. In 1989, it started a consultancy division. In 1992, it acquired Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Station (with from Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam of Uttar Pradesh.[10] By the end of 1994, its installed capacity crossed 15,000 MW.

1995 to 2004[edit]

In 1995, it took over the Talcher Thermal Power Station from Orissa State Electricity Board.[9] In the year 1997, the Government of India conferred it with "Navratna" status. In the same year it achieved a milestone of the generation of 100 billion units of electricity in a year.[9] In 1998, it commissioned its first Naptha-based plant at Kayamkulam with a capacity of 350 MW. In 1999, its plant in Dadri, which had the highest plant load factor (PLF) in India of 96%, was certified with ISO-14001. During 2000, it commenced construction of its first hydro-electric power project, with 800 MW capacity, in Himachal Pradesh.[9]
In 2002, it incorporated 3 subsidiary companies: "NTPC Electric Supply Company Limited" for forward integration by entering into the business of distribution and trading of power; "NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Limited" for meeting the expected rise in energy trading; "NTPC Hydro Limited" to carry out the business of implementing and operating small and medium hydropower projects.[11] In the same year its installed capacity crossed 20,000 MW.[9]

Listing: NTPC got listed on BSE and NSE on 5 November 2004. Against the issue price of INR 62 per share, it closed the first day of listing with INR 75.55 per share.[12] On the day of listing, it became the third largest company in India in terms of market capitalisation.[13]

2005 to present[edit]

In October 2005, the company's name was changed from "National Thermal Power Corporation Limited" to "NTPC Limited".[9] The primary reason for this change was the company's foray into hydro and nuclear based power generation along with backward integration by coal mining. In 2006, it entered into an agreement with Government of Sri Lanka to set up two units of 250 MW each in Trincomalee in Sri Lanka.[9] During 2008 and 2011, NTPC entered into Joint Ventures with BHEL, Bharat Forge, NHPC, Coal India, SAIL, NMDC and NPCIL to expand its business of power generation.[9][10] By the end of 2010, its installed capacity crossed 31,000 MW.[9]

The company in 2009 joined forces with other state enterprises Rashtriya Ispat Nigam, Steel Authority of India, Coal India, National Minerals Development Corporation to invest in coal mining operations through a joint venture vehicle named International Coal Ventures Private Limited (ICVL). In July 2014 ICVL acquired a 65 percent stake in the Benga coal mine in Mozambique from the Rio Tinto Group[14]

Operations[edit]

NTPC operates from 70 locations in India, one location in Sri Lanka and 2 locations in Bangladesh.
Headquarters: In India, it has 8 regional headquarters (HQ):

Sr. No. Headquarters City
1 NCRHQ Delhi
2 ER-I HQ Patna
3 ER-II HQ Bhubaneshwar
4 NRHQ Lucknow
5 SRHQ Secunderabad
6 WR-I HQ Mumbai
7 WR-II HQ Raipur
8 Hydro HQ Delhi

Scheduling and generation dispatch: The scheduling and dispatch of all the generating stations owned by National Thermal Power Corporation are done by respective regional load dispatch centers, which are the apex body to ensure integrated operation of the power system grid in the respective region. All these load dispatch centers come under Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO).

NTPC plants and their capacity[edit]

The total installed capacity of the company is 62,110 MW (including 11,755 MW through JVs/Subsidiaries) across the country,(24 Coal based stations, 7 gas based stations, 1 Hydro station, 1 small hydro, 11 Solar PV and 1 Wind based Station) and 25 Joint Venture stations (9 coal based, 4 gas based, 8 hydro, 1 small hydro 2 Wind and 1 Solar PV).

Thermal Power[edit]

Coal-based power plants(Own Operational)[edit]

Sr. No. Project State Capacity in MW Units in MW Status
1 Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station Uttar Pradesh 2,000 5x200, 2x500 All units functional
2 NTPC Korba Chhattisgarh 2,600 3x200, 4x500 All units functional
3 NTPC Ramagundam Telangana 2,600 3x200, 4x500 All units functional.
4. Farakka Super Thermal Power Station West Bengal 2,100 3x200, 3x500 All units functional
5 Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power Station Madhya Pradesh 4,760 6x210, 7x500 All units functional. Largest Thermal Power Station in India
6 Rihand Thermal Power Station Uttar Pradesh 3,000 6x500 All units functional
7 Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Station Bihar 2,340 4x210, 3x500 All units functional
8 NTPC Dadri Uttar Pradesh 1,820 4x210, 2x490 All units functional
9 Talcher Super Thermal Power Station Odisha 3,000 6x500 All units functional
10 Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Station Uttar Pradesh 1,550 5x210, 1×500 All units functional
11 Talcher Thermal Power Station Odisha 460 2x110, 4x60 All units functional
12 Simhadri Super Thermal Power Station Andhra Pradesh 2,000 4x500 All units functional
13 Tanda Thermal Power Station Uttar Pradesh 1,760 4x110, 2×660 4x110,1×660 MW Units functional, 1×660 MW Unit Under Construction
14 Sipat Thermal Power Station Chhattisgarh 2,980 2x500, 3x660 All units functional
15 Mauda Super Thermal Power Station Maharashtra 2,320 2x500, 2x660 All units functional
16 Barh Super Thermal Power Station Bihar 3,300 3×660, 2x660 2x660 MW Functional, Three more units of 660 MW under construction.[15][16]
17 Kudgi Super Thermal Power Station Karnataka 2,400 3x800 All units functional.
18 NTPC Bongaigaon Assam 750 3x250 All units functional..
19 LARA Super Thermal Power Station Chhattisgarh 4,000 2x800, 3x800 1x800 MW unit functional, 1x800 MW unit under construction.
20 Solapur Super Thermal Power Station Maharashtra 1,320 2x660 All units functional.
21 Gadarwara Super Thermal Power Station Madhya Pradesh 3,200 2×800, 2×800 1x800 MW unit functional, 1x800 MW unit under construction.
22 North Karanpura Thermal Power Station Jharkhand 1,980 3×660 Under Construction
23 Darlipali Super Thermal Power Station Odisha 1,600 2×800 1x800 MW unit functional, 1x800 MW unit under construction.
24 Khargone Super Thermal Power Station Madhya Pradesh 1,320 2×660 1x660 MW unit functional, 1x660 MW unit under construction.
25 Telangana Super Thermal Power Project Telangana 1,600 2×800 Under construction[17]
26 Barauni Thermal Power Station Bihar 720 2×110, 2×250 1×110 MW, 2×250 MW.unit. All units functional[18][19]

Coal-based (JV/ Subsidiary)[edit]

Sr. No. Name of the JV Location State Inst. capacity in megawatts
1 NSPCL. Joint venture with SAIL. Durgapur West Bengal 120
2 NSPCL. Joint venture with SAIL. Rourkela Odisha 120
3 NSPCL. Joint venture with SAIL. Bhilai Chhattisgarh 574
4 NPGC. Wholly owned subsidiary of NTPC. Aurangabad Bihar 1980
5 Muzaffarpur Thermal Power Station (MTPS). Wholly owned subsidiary of NTPC. Kanti Bihar 610
6 BRBCL Joint venture with Indian Railways. Nabinagar Bihar 1000
7 Aravali Power CPL JV with HPGCL & IPGCL Jhajjar Haryana 1500
8 NTECL JV with NTPC & TNEB Chennai Tamil Nadu 1500
9 Meja Thermal Power Station JV with NTPC & UPRVUNL Allahabad Uttar Pradesh 1320
10 PUVNL(Patratu) Joint venture with Jharkhand State Electricity Board. Patratu Jharkhand 4000
Total 9049

Gas-based power plants(Own Operational)[edit]

Sr.No. Power project State Capacity MW
1 Anta Rajasthan 419.33
2 Auraiya Uttar Pradesh 663.36
3 Kawas Gujarat 656.20
4 Dadri Uttar Pradesh 829.78
5 Jhanor-Gandhar Gujarat 657.39
6 Kayamkulam Kerala 359.58
7 Faridabad Haryana 431.59
Total 4,017.23

Gas-based (JV/ Subsidiary)[edit]

Sr.No. Power project State Capacity MW
1 Ratnagiri Gas and Power Private Limited (RGPPL) Maharashtra 1967
2 Assam Gas based power plant Assam 291
3 Agartala GT CCPP Tripura 135
4 Tripura Gas based CCPP Tripura 101

Hydro Power[edit]

The company has also stepped up its hydroelectric power (hydel) project implementation. Some of these projects are:

Hydro-electric power plants(Own operational)[edit]

Sr.No. Power project State Capacity MW
1 Koldam Dam Himachal Pradesh 800
2 Tapovan Vishnugad Uttarakhand 520
3 Lata Tapovan Uttarakhand 171
4 Rammam Hydro West Bengal 120

Hydro-electric power plants(JV/ Subsidiary)[edit]

Sr.No. Project State/UT Capacity MW
1 Tehri HPP (THDC) Uttarakhand 1000
2 Koteshwar HPP (THDC) Uttarakhand 400
3 Ranganadi HEP (NEEPCO) Arunachal 405
4 Doyang HEP (NEEPCO) Nagaland 75
5 Pare HEP (NEEPCO) Arunachal 110
6 Tuirial HEP (NEEPCO) Mizoram 60
7 Kopili HEP (NEEPCO) Assam 275
8 Kameng HEP (NEEPCO) Arunachal 300

Renewable Energy[edit]

NTPC has drafted its business plan of capacity addition of about 1,000 MW through renewable resources by 2017. In this endeavor, NTPC has already commissioned 870 MW Solar PV Projects.

Solar photovoltaic power plants(Own Operational)[edit]

Sr.No. Project State/UT Capacity
1 Dadri Solar PV Uttar Pradesh 05 MW
2 Portblair Solar PV Andaman & Nicobar Island 05 MW
3 Ramagundam Solar PV Telangana 10 MW
4 Talcher Kaniha Odisha 10 MW
5 Faridabad Solar PV Haryana 05 MW
6 Unchahar Solar PV Uttar Pradesh 10 MW
7 Rajgarh Solar PV Madhya Pradesh 50 MW
8 Singrauli Solar PV Uttar Pradesh 15 MW
9 Ananthpuram Solar PV Andhra Pradesh 250 MW
10 Bhadla-Solar PV Rajasthan 260 MW
11 Mandsaur-Solar PV Madhya Pradesh 250 MW
Total 870 MW

Solar photovoltaic power plants(JV/ Subsidiary)[edit]

Sr.No. Project State/UT Capacity
1 Solar TGBPP Tripura (NEEPCO) Tripura 05 MW

Wind Power(Own Operational)[edit]

Sr.No. Project State/UT Capacity
1 Rojmal Gujarat 50 MW

Wind Power(JV/ Subsidiary)[edit]

Sr.No. Project State/UT Capacity
1 Patan Wind Power Project(THDC) Gujarat 50 MW
2 Devbhumi Dwarka Wind Power Project(THDC) Gujarat 63 MW

Small Hydro[edit]

Future goals[edit]

The company has developed a long-term plan to become a 128000 MW company by the year 2032. NTPC Limited is on an expansion spree to meet the power requirements of the country – it has targeted to add 14,058 MW in 12th Plan (From FY13 to FY 17) of which it had already added 4,170 MW in the year 2012–13, 1835 MW in the year 2013-14 1290 MW in the year 2014-15 and 1150 MW from April 2015 to 30 November 2015.

As of 30 November 2015, the company has 23004 MW under construction. NTPC is diversifying its capacity mix with lots of emphasis on renewable energy. As on 30.11.2015, NTPC has 110 MW Solar PV capacity under operation, 250 MW under construction, and 1260 MW under tendering. The company intends to add 10000 MW of Solar PV capacity in the next 5 years. On 18.07.2015, NTPC declared commercial its first Hydro Power plant at Koldam in the State of Himachal Pradesh. By the year 2032, Company has a long-term plan to reduce its fossil fuel capacity mix to 56%.

NTPC also plans to go global. The public sector company has signed a memorandum of agreement with the Government of Sri Lanka and Ceylon Electricity Board for setting up a 500 MW (2x250) coal-based thermal power plant in the island nation. An MoU has also been signed with Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Japan, for establishing an alliance for exchange of information and experts from different areas of the business. The company is also in the process of finalizing an MoU with Nigeria for setting up power plants against the allocation of LNG on a long-term basis for NTPC plants in India. NTPC also developing a joint-venture coal-based power plant 1,320 MW (2x660) with Bangladesh Power Development Board known as Bangladesh India Friendship Power Company in Rampal, Bangladesh which is facing tremendous opposition from the people of Bangladesh owing to the plant's dangerously close proximity to the Sundarbans. [20]

NTPC has also been allotted coal blocks namely, Pakri Barwadih, Chatti Bariatu and Kerandari in Jharkhand, Talipalli, Chhattisgarh and Dulanga, Odisha. Except for Pakri Barwadih all other blocks were canceled by a decision of the Supreme Court of India on 24 September 2014. However, the company was again allotted canceled block under Section 5 of Coal Mines (Special Provision Act 2015) [21] Besides these blocks, the Ministry of Coal has according to its press release dated 3 July 2013 allotted 4 more blocks namely, Banai and Bhalmuda in Chhattisgarh, Chandrabila and Kudanli Laburi in Odisha. Two more blocks namely Mandakini- II and Banhardih are expected to be allotted to NTPC soon. All these mines are having estimated Geological Reserves of 6.7 Billion Tonnes. NTPC has appointed Mining Cum Development Operator (MDO) for its Pakri Barwadih mine.[22]

Listings and shareholding[edit]

The equity shares of NTPC are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange,[23] where it is a constituent of the BSE SENSEX index,[24] and the National Stock Exchange of India,[25] where it is a constituent of the S&P CNX Nifty.[26]

In Sep. 2015, the Government of India held around 74.96% equity shares in NTPC. Over 680,000 individual shareholders hold approx. 1.92% of its shares. Life Insurance Corporation of India is the largest non-promoter shareholder in the company with 10.03% shareholding.[27]

In August 2017, the GOI divested further its 5% stake in NTPC through OFS (Stock Exchange Mechanism) and reduced the holding of GOI in NTPC to 5,76,83,41,760 shares i.e. 64.96% out of total 8,24,54,64,400 shares.

The balance is held by public, FIIs, Mutual Funds, and Banks.

Shareholders Shareholding [5][28]
Promoters: Government of India 64.74%
Foreign Institutional Investors 16.13%
Financial Institutions/Banks 16.95%
Individuals/HUFs 01.78%
Others 0.4%
Total 100.0%

Employees[edit]

As of 31 March 2015, the company had 24,067 employees. The attrition rate for the FY 2014–15, including the trainee employees and employees working for subsidiaries and JVs, was 1.35%. Man MW Ratio of the company has fallen from 0.77 in the FY11 to 0.61 in FY 15. NTPC has been awarded continuously as great places to work for in PSUs category.

  • NTPC was ranked 2nd among the 250 largest power producer energy traders in the world by Platts in 2015. On overall basis NTPC ranked 56th amongst Platts 250 companies.[29]
  • In 2009, it received ICSI National Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance.[30]

Criticism[edit]

Land acquisition in tribal areas: The company (and other PSUs in India) has been allotted land for setting power plants and related infrastructure in rural/tribal areas across the country by Central Government and various state governments. Some of these lands have been allotted to NTPC (and other PSUs in India) through Land Acquisition Acts passed by Central/State Governments. Wherever a land acquisition law is enacted, it also places a liability on the PSUs/governments to take actions for proper rehabilitation of displaced residents of that rural/tribal area. Governments/PSUs are criticized if they do not fulfill their liability towards displaced residents. In many areas where land acquisition is proposed through land acquisition laws, local residents oppose the forcible acquisition as they are not sure of proper rehabilitation.

Future growth: Draft National Electricity Plan, 2016 prepared by GoI states that India does not need additional coal-fired power plants till 2027 with the commissioning of various coal-based power plants which are presently under construction.[31] India is no more facing regular power shortages to purchase electricity at high prices offering higher profit margins to the power generating companies. With the help of assured power purchase agreements (PPA) from the state-owned DisComs, earlier NTPC was able to sell its power at higher margins on the deployed capital and higher overhead costs. Moreover, its main expertise of generating power from coal-fired stations is becoming obsolete in terms of technology and economics against non-conventional power generation like wind, solar, etc.[32] In future, for the satisfactory growth mainly from wind and solar power projects, NTPC shall be ready to slash all its extra profit margins on capital deployed to bring down the power sale price at par with the IPPs to secure the projects in open competitive bidding.

Government has decided to scrap the coal fired power stations which are more than 25 years old to reduce the pollution.[33] Instead of scrapping old pulverised coal fired units, NTPC should replace coal with torrefied crops waste/biomass as fuel in these units (nearly 11,000 MW) to make them profitable and productive assets without contributing to pollution.[34]

To utilize its proven O&M expertise, NTPC may venture on a major scale to implement the solar thermal storage power as they can offer clean and cheaper electricity than fossil fuel-fired power generation plants[35]

Rather than install emissions-cutting technologies, NTPC has chosen to lobby the government to extend pollution reduction deadlines.[36]

Controversies with projects:

  • Loharinag Pala Hydro Power Project by NTPC Ltd: Loharinag Pala Hydro Power Project (600 MW i.e. 150 MW × 4 units) is located on the river Bhagirathi (a tributary of the Ganges) in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand state. This is the first project downstream from the origin of the Ganges at Gangotri. The project was at the advanced stage of construction when it was discontinued by the Government of India in August 2010.
  • Rupasiyabagar Khasiabara HPP, 261 MW in Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand State, near China Border. This project is yet to be given investment approval..
  • Badarpur Thermal Power Station has been permanently closed due to pollution issue in Delhi NCR . The total installed capacity of all of its units was 705 MW which has been retired and fully closed since 15 October 2018.[37][38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Contact Us - NTPC". www.ntpc.co.in.
  2. ^ "Board of Directors - NTPC". www.ntpc.co.in.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Annual Report 2019". ntpc.co.in. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  4. ^ https://energy.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/power/ntpc-kameng-projects-2nd-150-mw-unit-commercially-operational/76725160. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ a b "Shareholding Pattern - NTPC". www.ntpc.co.in.
  6. ^ "4 PSUs get maharatna status – Indian Express". Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  7. ^ "NTPC Limited". www.forbes.com. Forbes. May 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  8. ^ "History - NTPC". www.ntpc.co.in.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i "History of NTPC". NTPC Limited. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  10. ^ a b "Company History - NTPC Ltd". Economic Times. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  11. ^ "Chairman's statement in 27th Annual Report" (PDF). NTPC. 24 September 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  12. ^ "NTPC does a power listing". Times of India. 5 November 2004. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  13. ^ "Power major NTPC lists at premium". The Hindu. 6 November 2004. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  14. ^ "Indian JV to acquire Rio Tinto's Riversdale coal assets in Mozambique". India Gazette. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  15. ^ "Power add-on to quench Nitish's thirst for electrification".
  16. ^ "NTPC commissions fifth unit of Barh thermal project in Bihar". 5 March 2015 – via The Economic Times.
  17. ^ "Future Capacity Additions - NTPC". www.ntpc.co.in.
  18. ^ https://energy.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/power/ntpc-acquires-720-mw-barauni-thermal-power-plant-in-bihar/67115504
  19. ^ https://www.indiainfoline.com/article/news-top-story/ntpc-acquires-barauni-thermal-power-station-118121600028_1.html
  20. ^ "' A power plant like Rampal would never be allowed in India' - Dhaka Tribune". www.dhakatribune.com.
  21. ^ 5618GI1.p65
  22. ^ Thriveni-Sainik appointed as MDO for NTPC's Pakri-Barwadih coal block of Jharkhand * Coal Power Steel
  23. ^ "NTPC LTD". BSEindia.com. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  24. ^ "Scripwise Weightages in S&P BSE SENSEX". BSE India. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  25. ^ "NTPC Limited". NSE India. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  26. ^ "Download List of CNX Nifty stocks (.csv)". NSE India. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  27. ^ http://www.ntpc.co.in/download/shareholdig-pattern-31032015-ntpc
  28. ^ "Shareholding Pattern - NTPC". www.ntpc.co.in.
  29. ^ "Platts Top 250 Rankings". top250.platts.com.
  30. ^ "ICSI National Awards for Excellence in Corporate Governance for 2009". ICSI. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  31. ^ "Draft National Electricity Plan, 2016, CEA" (PDF). Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  32. ^ "NTPC may drop further expansion plans of Kudgi thermal project in Karnataka". Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  33. ^ "NTPC to phase out 11000 MW old power plants in five years - Piyush Goyal". Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  34. ^ "Overview of Wood Pellet Co-firing" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  35. ^ "Dispatchable Concentrated Solar Power Broke Price Records in 2017". Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  36. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-ntpc-emissions-exclusive/exclusive-indias-ntpc-snubs-foreign-emissions-tech-shuts-out-ge-others-from-2-billion-orders-idUSKBN1YN0G1?il=0
  37. ^ https://www.hindustantimes.com/delhi-news/badarpur-power-plant-shut-action-plan-to-tackle-air-pollution-in-delhi-ncr-comes-into-force/story-Exu4ZryrjCEYZN2Wzpgs9H.html
  38. ^ https://www.hindustantimes.com/delhi-news/badarpur-thermal-plant-delhi-s-biggest-power-generator-to-shut-down-from-october-15/story-6r1DhoDjb7G0yr48iv8IqI.html

External links[edit]