Location of New Zealand within the Realm of New Zealand
|Ethnic groups (2013)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Dame Patsy Reddy|
|Dame Sian Elias|
(House of Representatives)
|Stages of Independence from the United Kingdom|
|7 May 1856|
|26 September 1907|
|25 November 1947|
|268,021 km2 (103,483 sq mi) (76th)|
• Water (%)
• 2017 estimate
• 2013 census
|17.5/km2 (45.3/sq mi) (205th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|$173.2 billion (67th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2015)|| 0.915
very high · 13th
|Currency||New Zealand dollar ($) (NZD)|
|Time zone||NZST[n 5] (UTC+12)|
• Summer (DST)
|NZDT[n 6] (UTC+13)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||NZ|
New Zealand i// (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (or Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island (or Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.
Sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a Dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.7 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, with English predominant.
New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, education, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, regulated economy to a market economy. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister, who is currently Bill English. Queen Elizabeth II is the country's head of state and is represented by a governor-general, currently Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Government and politics
- 4 Environment
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demography
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, supposing it was connected to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand.
Aotearoa (often translated as "land of the long white cloud") is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa originally referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui (the fish of Māui) for the North Island and Te Waipounamu (the waters of greenstone) or Te Waka o Aoraki (the canoe of Aoraki) for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North (North Island), Middle (South Island) and South (Stewart Island / Rakiura). In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, and names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used, or both can be used together.
New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands. Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi (tribes) and hapū (subtribes) who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture. The Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862, largely because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases also contributed. In 1862, only 101 survived and the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933.
The first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and his crew in 1642. In a hostile encounter, four crew members were killed and at least one Māori was hit by canister shot. Europeans did not revisit New Zealand until 1769 when British explorer James Cook mapped almost the entire coastline. Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American whaling, sealing and trading ships. They traded European food, metal tools, weapons and other goods for timber, Māori food, artefacts and water. The introduction of the potato and the musket transformed Māori agriculture and warfare. Potatoes provided a reliable food surplus, which enabled longer and more sustained military campaigns. The resulting intertribal Musket Wars encompassed over 600 battles between 1801 and 1840, killing 30,000–40,000 Māori. From the early 19th century, Christian missionaries began to settle New Zealand, eventually converting most of the Māori population. The Māori population declined to around 40% of its pre-contact level during the 19th century; introduced diseases were the major factor.
In 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip assumed the position of Governor of the new British colony of New South Wales which according to his commission included New Zealand. The British Government appointed James Busby as British Resident to New Zealand in 1832 following a petition from northern Māori. In 1835, following an announcement of impending French settlement by Charles de Thierry, the nebulous United Tribes of New Zealand sent a Declaration of the Independence to King William IV of the United Kingdom asking for protection. Ongoing unrest, the proposed settlement of New Zealand by the New Zealand Company (which had already sent its first ship of surveyors to buy land from Māori) and the dubious legal standing of the Declaration of Independence prompted the Colonial Office to send Captain William Hobson to claim sovereignty for the United Kingdom and negotiate a treaty with the Māori. The Treaty of Waitangi was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840. In response to the New Zealand Company's attempts to establish an independent settlement in Wellington and French settlers purchasing land in Akaroa, Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840, even though copies of the Treaty were still circulating throughout the country for Māori to sign. With the signing of the Treaty and declaration of sovereignty the number of immigrants, particularly from the United Kingdom, began to increase.
New Zealand, still part of the colony of New South Wales, became a separate Colony of New Zealand on 1 July 1841. The colony gained a representative government in 1852 and the first Parliament met in 1854. In 1856 the colony effectively became self-governing, gaining responsibility over all domestic matters other than native policy. (Control over native policy was granted in the mid-1860s.) Following concerns that the South Island might form a separate colony, premier Alfred Domett moved a resolution to transfer the capital from Auckland to a locality near the Cook Strait. Wellington was chosen for its central location, with Parliament officially sitting there for the first time in 1865. As immigrant numbers increased, conflicts over land led to the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, resulting in the loss and confiscation of much Māori land.
In 1891 the Liberal Party, led by John Ballance, came to power as the first organised political party. The Liberal Government, later led by Richard Seddon, passed many important social and economic measures. In 1893 New Zealand was the first nation in the world to grant all women the right to vote and in 1894 pioneered the adoption of compulsory arbitration between employers and unions.
In 1907, at the request of the New Zealand Parliament, King Edward VII proclaimed New Zealand a Dominion within the British Empire, reflecting its self-governing status. In 1947 the country adopted the Statute of Westminster, confirming that the British Parliament could no longer legislate for New Zealand without the consent of New Zealand.
Early in the 20th century, New Zealand was involved in world affairs, fighting in the First and Second World Wars and suffering through the Great Depression. The depression led to the election of the First Labour Government and the establishment of a comprehensive welfare state and a protectionist economy. New Zealand experienced increasing prosperity following the Second World War and Māori began to leave their traditional rural life and move to the cities in search of work. A Māori protest movement developed, which criticised Eurocentrism and worked for greater recognition of Māori culture and of the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1975, a Waitangi Tribunal was set up to investigate alleged breaches of the Treaty, and it was enabled to investigate historic grievances in 1985. The government has negotiated settlements of these grievances with many iwi, although Māori claims to the foreshore and seabed have proved controversial in the 2000s.
Government and politics
New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy, although its constitution is not codified. Elizabeth II is the Queen of New Zealand and the head of state. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General, whom she appoints on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Governor-General can exercise the Crown's prerogative powers, such as reviewing cases of injustice and making appointments of ministers, ambassadors and other key public officials, and in rare situations, the reserve powers (e.g. the power to dissolve Parliament or refuse the Royal Assent of a bill into law). The powers of the Queen and the Governor-General are limited by constitutional constraints and they cannot normally be exercised without the advice of ministers.
The New Zealand Parliament holds legislative power and consists of the Queen and the House of Representatives. It also included an upper house, the Legislative Council, until this was abolished in 1950. The supremacy of Parliament, over the Crown and other government institutions, was established in England by the Bill of Rights 1689 and has been ratified as law in New Zealand. The House of Representatives is democratically elected and a government is formed from the party or coalition with the majority of seats. If no majority is formed, a minority government can be formed if support from other parties during confidence and supply votes is assured. The Governor-General appoints ministers under advice from the Prime Minister, who is by convention the parliamentary leader of the governing party or coalition. Cabinet, formed by ministers and led by the Prime Minister, is the highest policy-making body in government and responsible for deciding significant government actions. Members of Cabinet make major decisions collectively, and are therefore collectively responsible for the consequences of these decisions.
A parliamentary general election must be called no later than three years after the previous election. Almost all general elections between 1853 and 1993 were held under the first-past-the-post voting system. Since the 1996 election, a form of proportional representation called Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) has been used. Under the MMP system, each person has two votes; one is for electorate seats (including some reserved for Māori), and the other is for a party. Since the 2014 election, there have been 71 electorates (which includes 7 Māori electorates), and the remaining 49 seats are assigned so that representation in parliament reflects the party vote, although a party has to win one electorate or 5% of the total party vote before it is eligible for these seats.
Elections since the 1930s have been dominated by two political parties, National and Labour. Between March 2005 and August 2006, New Zealand became the only country in the world in which all the highest offices in the land—Head of State, Governor-General, Prime Minister, Speaker and Chief Justice—were occupied simultaneously by women. The current Prime Minister is Bill English, since December 2016. His National Government won a third term in office following the 2014 election.
New Zealand's judiciary, headed by the Chief Justice, includes the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal, the High Court, and subordinate courts. Judges and judicial officers are appointed non-politically and under strict rules regarding tenure to help maintain judicial independence. This theoretically allows the judiciary to interpret the law based solely on the legislation enacted by Parliament without other influences on their decisions.
New Zealand is identified as one of the world's most stable and well-governed states, with high government transparency and among the lowest perceived levels of corruption. The country rates highly for civic participation in the political process, with 77% voter turnout during the most recent elections, compared to an OECD average of 68%.
Foreign relations and military
Early colonial New Zealand allowed the British Government to determine external trade and be responsible for foreign policy. The 1923 and 1926 Imperial Conferences decided that New Zealand should be allowed to negotiate its own political treaties and the first commercial treaty was ratified in 1928 with Japan. On 3 September 1939 New Zealand allied itself with Britain and declared war on Germany with Prime Minister Michael Savage proclaiming, "Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand."
In 1951 the United Kingdom became increasingly focused on its European interests, while New Zealand joined Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty. The influence of the United States on New Zealand weakened following protests over the Vietnam War, the refusal of the United States to admonish France after the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, disagreements over environmental and agricultural trade issues and New Zealand's nuclear-free policy. Despite the United States' suspension of ANZUS obligations the treaty remained in effect between New Zealand and Australia, whose foreign policy has followed a similar historical trend. Close political contact is maintained between the two countries, with free trade agreements and travel arrangements that allow citizens to visit, live and work in both countries without restrictions. In 2013[update] there were about 650,000 New Zealand citizens living in Australia, which is equivalent to 15% of the population of New Zealand.
New Zealand has a strong presence among the Pacific Island countries. A large proportion of New Zealand's aid goes to these countries and many Pacific people migrate to New Zealand for employment. Permanent migration is regulated under the 1970 Samoan Quota Scheme and the 2002 Pacific Access Category, which allow up to 1,100 Samoan nationals and up to 750 other Pacific Islanders respectively to become permanent New Zealand residents each year. A seasonal workers scheme for temporary migration was introduced in 2007 and in 2009 about 8,000 Pacific Islanders were employed under it. New Zealand is involved in the Pacific Islands Forum, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum (including the East Asia Summit). New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and participates in the Five Power Defence Arrangements.
The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three services: the New Zealand Army; the Royal New Zealand Air Force; and the Royal New Zealand Navy. New Zealand's national defence needs are modest because of the unlikelihood of direct attack, although it does have a global presence. The country fought in both world wars, with notable campaigns in Gallipoli, Crete, El Alamein and Cassino. The Gallipoli campaign played an important part in fostering New Zealand's national identity and strengthened the ANZAC tradition it shares with Australia.
In addition to Vietnam and the two world wars, New Zealand fought in the Second Boer War, the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Gulf War and the Afghanistan War. It has contributed forces to several regional and global peacekeeping missions, such as those in Cyprus, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Sinai, Angola, Cambodia, the Iran–Iraq border, Bougainville, East Timor, and the Solomon Islands.
New Zealand ranks eighth in the Center for Global Development's 2015 Commitment to Development Index, which ranks the world's most developed countries on their dedication to policies that benefit poorer nations. New Zealand is considered the fourth most peaceful country in the world according to the 2016 Global Peace Index.
Local government and external territories
The early European settlers divided New Zealand into provinces, which had a degree of autonomy. Because of financial pressures and the desire to consolidate railways, education, land sales and other policies, government was centralised and the provinces were abolished in 1876. The provinces are remembered in regional public holidays and sporting rivalries.
Since 1876, various councils have administered local areas under legislation determined by the central government. In 1989, the government reorganised local government into the current two-tier structure of regional councils and territorial authorities. The 249 municipalities that existed in 1975 have now been consolidated into 67 territorial authorities and 11 regional councils. The regional councils' role is to regulate "the natural environment with particular emphasis on resource management", while territorial authorities are responsible for sewage, water, local roads, building consents and other local matters. Five of the territorial councils are unitary authorities and also act as regional councils. The territorial authorities consist of 13 city councils, 53 district councils, and the Chatham Islands Council. While officially the Chatham Islands Council is not a unitary authority, it undertakes many functions of a regional council.
New Zealand is one of 16 realms within the Commonwealth. The Realm of New Zealand is the entire area over which the Queen of New Zealand is sovereign, and comprises New Zealand, Tokelau, the Ross Dependency, the Cook Islands and Niue. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. The New Zealand Parliament cannot pass legislation for these countries, but with their consent can act on behalf of them in foreign affairs and defence. Tokelau is a non-self-governing territory, but is administered by a council of three elders (one from each Tokelauan atoll). The Ross Dependency is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica, where it operates the Scott Base research facility. New Zealand citizenship law treats all parts of the realm equally, so most people born in New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau and the Ross Dependency before 2006 are New Zealand citizens. Further conditions apply for those born from 2006 onwards.
Administrative divisions of the Realm of New Zealand
|Sovereign states||New Zealand||Cook Islands||Niue|
|Regions||11 non-unitary regions||5 unitary regions||Chatham Islands||Outlying islands outside any regional authority
(the Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Islands, and Subantarctic Islands)
|Ross Dependency||Tokelau||15 islands||14 villages|
|Territorial authorities||13 cities and 53 districts|
|Notes||Some districts lie in more than one region||These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one||Special territorial authority||The outlying Solander Islands form part of the Southland Region||New Zealand's Antarctic territory||Non-self-governing territory of New Zealand||States in free association with New Zealand|
New Zealand is located near the centre of the water hemisphere and is made up of two main islands and a number of smaller islands. The two main islands (the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu) are separated by Cook Strait, 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide at its narrowest point. Besides the North and South Islands, the five largest inhabited islands are Stewart Island, the Chatham Islands, Great Barrier Island (in the Hauraki Gulf), d'Urville Island (in the Marlborough Sounds) and Waiheke Island (about 22 km (14 mi) from central Auckland). The country's islands lie between latitudes 29° and 53°S, and longitudes 165° and 179°E.
New Zealand is long and narrow (over 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) along its north-north-east axis with a maximum width of 400 kilometres (250 mi)), with about 15,000 km (9,300 mi) of coastline and a total land area of 268,000 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). Because of its far-flung outlying islands and long coastline, the country has extensive marine resources. Its exclusive economic zone is one of the largest in the world, covering more than 15 times its land area.
The South Island is the largest landmass of New Zealand and is the 12th largest island in the world. It is divided along its length by the Southern Alps. There are 18 peaks over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft), the highest of which is Aoraki / Mount Cook at 3,754 metres (12,316 ft). Fiordland's steep mountains and deep fiords record the extensive ice age glaciation of this south-western corner of the South Island. The North Island is the 14th largest island in the world and is less mountainous but is marked by volcanism. The highly active Taupo Volcanic Zone has formed a large volcanic plateau, punctuated by the North Island's highest mountain, Mount Ruapehu (2,797 metres (9,177 ft)). The plateau also hosts the country's largest lake, Lake Taupo, nestled in the caldera of one of the world's most active supervolcanoes.
The country owes its varied topography, and perhaps even its emergence above the waves, to the dynamic boundary it straddles between the Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that gradually submerged after breaking away from the Gondwanan supercontinent. About 25 million years ago, a shift in plate tectonic movements began to contort and crumple the region. This is now most evident in the Southern Alps, formed by compression of the crust beside the Alpine Fault. Elsewhere the plate boundary involves the subduction of one plate under the other, producing the Puysegur Trench to the south, the Hikurangi Trench east of the North Island, and the Kermadec and Tonga Trenches further north.
New Zealand is part of Australasia, and also forms the south-western extremity of Polynesia. The term Oceania is often used to denote the region encompassing the Australian continent, New Zealand and various islands in the Pacific Ocean that are not included in the seven-continent model.
New Zealand's climate is predominantly temperate maritime (Köppen: Cfb) with mean annual temperatures ranging from 10 °C (50 °F) in the south to 16 °C (61 °F) in the north. Historical maxima and minima are 42.4 °C (108.32 °F) in Rangiora, Canterbury and −25.6 °C (−14.08 °F) in Ranfurly, Otago. Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on the West Coast of the South Island to almost semi-arid in Central Otago and the Mackenzie Basin of inland Canterbury and subtropical in Northland. Of the seven largest cities, Christchurch is the driest, receiving on average only 640 millimetres (25 in) of rain per year and Wellington the wettest, receiving almost twice that amount. Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch all receive a yearly average of more than 2,000 hours of sunshine. The southern and south-western parts of the South Island have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1,400–1,600 hours; the northern and north-eastern parts of the South Island are the sunniest areas of the country and receive about 2,400–2,500 hours. The general snow season is early June until early October, though cold snaps can occur outside this season. Snowfall is common in the eastern and southern parts of the South Island and mountain areas across the country.
The table below lists climate normals for the warmest and coldest month in New Zealand's six largest cities. The North Island cities are generally slightly warmer in February, but the South Island cities are warmest in January.
|Location||Jan/Feb (°C)||Jan/Feb (°F)||July (°C)||July (°F)|
New Zealand's geographic isolation for 80 million years and island biogeography has influenced evolution of the country's species of animals, fungi and plants. Physical isolation has not caused biological isolation, and this has resulted in a dynamic evolutionary ecology with examples of very distinctive plants and animals as well as populations of widespread species. About 82% of New Zealand's indigenous vascular plants are endemic, covering 1,944 species across 65 genera and includes a single endemic family. The number of fungi recorded from New Zealand, including lichen-forming species, is not known, nor is the proportion of those fungi which are endemic, but one estimate suggests there are about 2,300 species of lichen-forming fungi in New Zealand and 40% of these are endemic. The two main types of forest are those dominated by broadleaf trees with emergent podocarps, or by southern beech in cooler climates. The remaining vegetation types consist of grasslands, the majority of which are tussock.
Before the arrival of humans an estimated 80% of the land was covered in forest, with only high alpine, wet, infertile and volcanic areas without trees. Massive deforestation occurred after humans arrived, with around half the forest cover lost to fire after Polynesian settlement. Much of the remaining forest fell after European settlement, being logged or cleared to make room for pastoral farming, leaving forest occupying only 23% of the land.
The forests were dominated by birds, and the lack of mammalian predators led to some like the kiwi, kakapo, weka and takahē evolving flightlessness. The arrival of humans, associated changes to habitat, and the introduction of rats, ferrets and other mammals led to the extinction of many bird species, including large birds like the moa and Haast's eagle.
Other indigenous animals are represented by reptiles (tuataras, skinks and geckos), frogs, spiders (katipo), insects (weta) and snails. Some, such as the wrens and tuatara, are so unique that they have been called living fossils. Three species of bats (one since extinct) were the only sign of native land mammals in New Zealand until the 2006 discovery of bones from a unique, mouse-sized land mammal at least 16 million years old. Marine mammals however are abundant, with almost half the world's cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) and large numbers of fur seals reported in New Zealand waters. Many seabirds breed in New Zealand, a third of them unique to the country. More penguin species are found in New Zealand than in any other country.
Since human arrival almost half of the country's vertebrate species have become extinct, including at least fifty-one birds, three frogs, three lizards, one freshwater fish, and one bat. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. However, New Zealand conservationists have pioneered several methods to help threatened wildlife recover, including island sanctuaries, pest control, wildlife translocation, fostering, and ecological restoration of islands and other selected areas.
New Zealand has a high-income economy with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of US$36,254. The currency is the New Zealand dollar, informally known as the "Kiwi dollar"; it also circulates in the Cook Islands (see Cook Islands dollar), Niue, Tokelau, and the Pitcairn Islands. New Zealand was ranked ninth in the 2015 Human Development Index and third in the 2016 Index of Economic Freedom.
Historically, extractive industries have contributed strongly to New Zealand's economy, focussing at different times on sealing, whaling, flax, gold, kauri gum, and native timber. With the development of refrigerated shipping in the 1880s meat and dairy products were exported to Britain, a trade which provided the basis for strong economic growth in New Zealand. High demand for agricultural products from the United Kingdom and the United States helped New Zealanders achieve higher living standards than both Australia and Western Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1973, New Zealand's export market was reduced when the United Kingdom joined the European Community and other compounding factors, such as the 1973 oil and 1979 energy crisis, led to a severe economic depression. Living standards in New Zealand fell behind those of Australia and Western Europe, and by 1982 New Zealand had the lowest per-capita income of all the developed nations surveyed by the World Bank. In the mid-1980s New Zealand deregulated its agricultural sector by phasing out subsidies over a three-year period. Since 1984, successive governments engaged in major macroeconomic restructuring (known first as Rogernomics and then Ruthanasia), rapidly transforming New Zealand from a highly protectionist economy to a liberalised free trade economy.
Unemployment peaked above 10% in 1991 and 1992, following the 1987 share market crash, but eventually fell to a record low (since 1986) of 3.4% in 2007 (ranking fifth from twenty-seven comparable OECD nations). However, the global financial crisis that followed had a major impact on New Zealand, with the GDP shrinking for five consecutive quarters, the longest recession in over thirty years, and unemployment rising back to 7% in late 2009. At May 2012, the general unemployment rate was around 6.7%, while the unemployment rate for youth aged 15 to 21 was 13.6%. In the September 2014 quarter, unemployment was 5.4%. New Zealand has experienced a series of "brain drains" since the 1970s that still continue today. Nearly one quarter of highly skilled workers live overseas, mostly in Australia and Britain, which is the largest proportion from any developed nation. In recent years, however, a "brain gain" has brought in educated professionals from Europe and less developed countries.
New Zealand is heavily dependent on international trade, particularly in agricultural products. Exports account for 24% of its output, making New Zealand vulnerable to international commodity prices and global economic slowdowns. Food products made up 55% of the value of all the country's exports in 2014; wood was the second largest earner (7%). Its major export partners are Australia, United States, Japan, China, and the United Kingdom. On 7 April 2008, New Zealand and China signed the New Zealand–China Free Trade Agreement, the first such agreement China has signed with a developed country. The service sector is the largest sector in the economy, followed by manufacturing and construction and then farming and raw material extraction. Tourism plays a significant role in the economy, contributing $12.9 billion (or 5.6%) to New Zealand's total GDP and supporting 7.5% of the total workforce in 2016. International visitor arrivals are expected to increase at a rate of 5.4% annually up to 2022.
Wool was New Zealand's major agricultural export during the late 19th century. Even as late as the 1960s it made up over a third of all export revenues, but since then its price has steadily dropped relative to other commodities and wool is no longer profitable for many farmers. In contrast dairy farming increased, with the number of dairy cows doubling between 1990 and 2007, to become New Zealand's largest export earner. In the year to June 2009, dairy products accounted for 21% ($9.1 billion) of total merchandise exports, and the country's largest company, Fonterra, controls almost one-third of the international dairy trade. Other agricultural exports in 2009 were meat 13.2%, wool 6.3%, fruit 3.5% and fishing 3.3%. New Zealand's wine industry has followed a similar trend to dairy, the number of vineyards doubling over the same period, overtaking wool exports for the first time in 2007.
In 2015, renewable energy, primarily geothermal and hydroelectric power, generated 40.1% of New Zealand's gross energy supply. Geothermal power alone accounted for 22% of New Zealand's energy in 2015.
New Zealand's transport network comprises 94,000 kilometres (58,410 mi) of roads, including 199 kilometres (124 mi) of motorways, and 4,128 kilometres (2,565 mi) of railway lines. Most major cities and towns are linked by bus services, although the private car is the predominant mode of transport. The railways were privatised in 1993, but were re-nationalised by the government in stages between 2004 and 2008. The state-owned enterprise KiwiRail now operates the railways, with the exception of Auckland and Wellington commuter services which are operated by Transdev and Metlink. Railways run the length of the country, although most lines now carry freight rather than passengers. Most international visitors arrive via air and New Zealand has six international airports, but currently[update] only the Auckland and Christchurch airports connect directly with countries other than Australia or Fiji.
The New Zealand Post Office had a monopoly over telecommunications until 1987 when Telecom New Zealand was formed, initially as a state-owned enterprise and then privatised in 1990. Chorus, which was split from Telecom in 2011, still owns the majority of the telecommunications infrastructure, but competition from other providers has increased. As of 2016[update], the United Nations International Telecommunication Union ranks New Zealand 13th in the development of information and communications infrastructure.
As of June 2016, the population of New Zealand is estimated at 4.69 million and is increasing at a rate of approximately 2.1% per year. New Zealand is a predominantly urban country, with 73.0% of the population living in the seventeen main urban areas (i.e. population 30,000 or greater) and 53.7% living in the four largest cities of Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Hamilton. New Zealand cities generally rank highly on international livability measures. For instance, in 2016 Auckland was ranked the world's third most liveable city and Wellington the twelfth by the Mercer Quality of Living Survey.
Life expectancy for New Zealanders in 2012 was 84 years for females, and 80.2 years for males. Life expectancy at birth is forecast to increase from 80 years to 85 years in 2050 and infant mortality is expected to decline. New Zealand's fertility rate of 2.1 is relatively high for a developed country, and natural births account for a significant proportion of population growth. Consequently, the country has a young population compared to most industrialised nations, with 20% of New Zealanders being 14 years old or younger. By 2050 the population is forecast to reach 5.3 million, the median age to rise from 36 years to 43 years and the percentage of people 60 years of age and older to rise from 18% to 29%. In 2008, the leading cause of premature death was cancer, at 29.8%, followed by ischaemic heart disease, 19.7%, and then cerebrovascular disease, 9.2%.
|5||Tauranga||Bay of Plenty||134,400||15||Whanganui||Manawatu-Wanganui||39,600|
|10||Rotorua||Bay of Plenty||57,800||20||Taupo||Waikato||24,100|
Ethnicity and immigration
In the 2013 census, 74.0% of New Zealand residents identified ethnically as European, and 14.9% as Māori. Other major ethnic groups include Asian (11.8%) and Pacific peoples (7.4%), of which two-thirds live in the Auckland Region.[n 7] The population has become more diverse in recent decades: in 1961, the census reported that the population of New Zealand was 92% European and 7% Māori, with Asian and Pacific minorities sharing the remaining 1%.
While the demonym for a New Zealand citizen is New Zealander, the informal "Kiwi" is commonly used both internationally and by locals. The Māori loanword Pākehā has been used to refer to New Zealanders of European descent, although others reject this appellation. The word Pākehā today is increasingly used to refer to all non-Polynesian New Zealanders.
The Māori were the first people to reach New Zealand, followed by the early European settlers. Following colonisation, immigrants were predominantly from Britain, Ireland and Australia because of restrictive policies similar to the white Australian policies. There was also significant Dutch, Dalmatian, German, and Italian immigration, together with indirect European immigration through Australia, North America, South America and South Africa. Following the Great Depression policies were relaxed and migrant diversity increased. In 2009–10, an annual target of 45,000–50,000 permanent residence approvals was set by the New Zealand Immigration Service—more than one new migrant for every 100 New Zealand residents. Just over 25% of New Zealand's population was born overseas, with the majority (52%) living in the Auckland Region. The United Kingdom remains the largest source of New Zealand's overseas population, with a quarter of all overseas-born New Zealanders born there; other major sources of New Zealand's overseas-born population are China, India, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and Samoa. The number of fee-paying international students increased sharply in the late 1990s, with more than 20,000 studying in public tertiary institutions in 2002.
English is the predominant language in New Zealand, spoken by 96.1% of the population. New Zealand English is similar to Australian English and many speakers from the Northern Hemisphere are unable to tell the accents apart. The most prominent differences between the New Zealand English dialect and other English dialects are the shifts in the short front vowels: the short-"i" sound (as in "kit") has centralised towards the schwa sound (the "a" in "comma" and "about"); the short-"e" sound (as in "dress") has moved towards the short-"i" sound; and the short-"a" sound (as in "trap") has moved to the short-"e" sound.
After the Second World War, Māori were discouraged from speaking their own language (te reo Māori) in schools and workplaces and it existed as a community language only in a few remote areas. It has recently undergone a process of revitalisation, being declared one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987, and is spoken by 3.7% of the population.[n 8] There are now Māori language immersion schools and two television channels that broadcast predominantly in Māori. Many places have both their Māori and English names officially recognised.
As recorded in the 2013 census, Samoan is the most widely spoken non-official language (2.2%),[n 9] followed by Hindi (1.7%), "Northern Chinese" (including Mandarin, 1.3%) and French (1.2%). About 20,000 people use New Zealand Sign Language. It was declared one of New Zealand's official languages in 2006.
Christianity is the predominant religion in New Zealand, although its society is among the most secular in the world. In the 2013 census, 55.0% of the population identified with one or more religions, including 49.0% identifying as Christians. Another 41.9% indicated that they had no religion.[n 10] The main Christian denominations are, by number of adherents, Roman Catholicism (12.6%), Anglicanism (11.8%), Presbyterianism (8.5%) and "Christian not further defined" (i.e. people identifying as Christian but not stating the denomination, 5.5%). The Māori-based Ringatū and Rātana religions (1.4%) are also Christian in origin. Immigration and demographic change in recent decades has contributed to the growth of minority religions, such as Hinduism (2.1%), Buddhism (1.5%), Islam (1.2%) and Sikhism (0.5%). The Auckland Region exhibited the greatest religious diversity.
Primary and secondary schooling is compulsory for children aged 6 to 16, with the majority attending from the age of 5. There are 13 school years and attending state (public) schools is free to New Zealand citizens and permanent residents from a person's 5th birthday to the end of the calendar year following their 19th birthday. New Zealand has an adult literacy rate of 99%, and over half of the population aged 15 to 29 hold a tertiary qualification. There are five types of government-owned tertiary institutions: universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, specialist colleges, and wānanga, in addition to private training establishments. In the adult population 14.2% have a bachelor's degree or higher, 30.4% have some form of secondary qualification as their highest qualification and 22.4% have no formal qualification. The OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment ranks New Zealand's education system as the seventh best in the world, with students performing exceptionally well in reading, mathematics and science.
Early Māori adapted the tropically based east Polynesian culture in line with the challenges associated with a larger and more diverse environment, eventually developing their own distinctive culture. Social organisation was largely communal with families (whānau), subtribes (hapū) and tribes (iwi) ruled by a chief (rangatira), whose position was subject to the community's approval. The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Māori culture, particularly with the introduction of Christianity. However, Māori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of their identity, and Māori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand. Non-Māori Polynesian cultures are also apparent, with Pasifika, the world's largest Polynesian festival, now an annual event in Auckland.
The largely rural life in early New Zealand led to the image of New Zealanders being rugged, industrious problem solvers. Modesty was expected and enforced through the "tall poppy syndrome", where high achievers received harsh criticism. At the time New Zealand was not known as an intellectual country. From the early 20th century until the late 1960s, Māori culture was suppressed by the attempted assimilation of Māori into British New Zealanders. In the 1960s, as tertiary education became more available and cities expanded urban culture began to dominate. However, rural imagery and themes have been pervasive in New Zealand's art, literature and media.
New Zealand's national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Māori sources. The silver fern is an emblem appearing on army insignia and sporting team uniforms. Certain items of popular culture thought to be unique to New Zealand are called "Kiwiana".
As part of the resurgence of Māori culture, the traditional crafts of carving and weaving are now more widely practised and Māori artists are increasing in number and influence. Most Māori carvings feature human figures, generally with three fingers and either a natural-looking, detailed head or a grotesque head. Surface patterns consisting of spirals, ridges, notches and fish scales decorate most carvings. The pre-eminent Māori architecture consisted of carved meeting houses (wharenui) decorated with symbolic carvings and illustrations. These buildings were originally designed to be constantly rebuilt, changing and adapting to different whims or needs.
Māori decorated the white wood of buildings, canoes and cenotaphs using red (a mixture of red ochre and shark fat) and black (made from soot) paint and painted pictures of birds, reptiles and other designs on cave walls. Māori tattoos (moko) consisting of coloured soot mixed with gum were cut into the flesh with a bone chisel. Since European arrival paintings and photographs have been dominated by landscapes, originally not as works of art but as factual portrayals of New Zealand. Portraits of Māori were also common, with early painters often portraying them as "noble savages", exotic beauties or friendly natives. The country's isolation delayed the influence of European artistic trends allowing local artists to developed their own distinctive style of regionalism. During the 1960s and 70s many artists combined traditional Māori and Western techniques, creating unique art forms. New Zealand art and craft has gradually achieved an international audience, with exhibitions in the Venice Biennale in 2001 and the "Paradise Now" exhibition in New York in 2004.
Māori cloaks are made of fine flax fibre and patterned with black, red and white triangles, diamonds and other geometric shapes. Greenstone was fashioned into earrings and necklaces, with the most well-known design being the hei-tiki, a distorted human figure sitting cross-legged with its head tilted to the side. Europeans brought English fashion etiquette to New Zealand, and until the 1950s most people dressed up for social occasions. Standards have since relaxed and New Zealand fashion has received a reputation for being casual, practical and lacklustre. However, the local fashion industry has grown significantly since 2000, doubling exports and increasing from a handful to about 50 established labels, with some labels gaining international recognition.
Māori quickly adopted writing as a means of sharing ideas, and many of their oral stories and poems were converted to the written form. Most early English literature was obtained from Britain and it was not until the 1950s when local publishing outlets increased that New Zealand literature started to become widely known. Although still largely influenced by global trends (modernism) and events (the Great Depression), writers in the 1930s began to develop stories increasingly focused on their experiences in New Zealand. During this period literature changed from a journalistic activity to a more academic pursuit. Participation in the world wars gave some New Zealand writers a new perspective on New Zealand culture and with the post-war expansion of universities local literature flourished. Dunedin is a UNESCO City of Literature.
Media and entertainment
New Zealand music has been influenced by blues, jazz, country, rock and roll and hip hop, with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation. Māori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient South-East Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "doleful" sound. Flutes and trumpets were used as musical instruments or as signalling devices during war or special occasions. Early settlers brought over their ethnic music, with brass bands and choral music being popular, and musicians began touring New Zealand in the 1860s. Pipe bands became widespread during the early 20th century. The New Zealand recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand musicians have obtained success in Britain and the United States. Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of kapa haka (song and dance) has made a resurgence. The New Zealand Music Awards are held annually by Recorded Music NZ; the awards were first held in 1965 by Reckitt & Colman as the Loxene Golden Disc awards. Recorded Music NZ also publishes the country's official weekly record charts.
Radio first arrived in New Zealand in 1922 and television in 1960. The number of New Zealand films significantly increased during the 1970s. In 1978 the New Zealand Film Commission started assisting local film-makers and many films attained a world audience, some receiving international acknowledgement. The highest grossing New Zealand movies include: Hunt for the Wilderpeople, Boy, The World's Fastest Indian, Once Were Warriors, and Whale Rider. Deregulation in the 1980s saw a sudden increase in the numbers of radio and television stations. New Zealand television primarily broadcasts American and British programming, along with a large number of Australian and local shows. The country's diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives, have encouraged some producers to film big budget movies in New Zealand, including Avatar, The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, The Chronicles of Narnia, King Kong and The Last Samurai. The New Zealand media industry is dominated by a small number of companies, most of which are foreign-owned, although the state retains ownership of some television and radio stations. Since 1994, Freedom House has consistently ranked New Zealand's press freedom in the top twenty, with the 19th freest media in 2015[update].
Most of the major sporting codes played in New Zealand have British origins. Rugby union is considered the national sport and attracts the most spectators. Golf, netball, tennis and cricket have the highest rates of adult participation, while netball, rugby union and football (soccer) is popular among young people. Around 54% of New Zealand adolescents participate in sports for their school. Victorious rugby tours to Australia and the United Kingdom in the late 1880s and the early 1900s played an early role in instilling a national identity. Horseracing was also a popular spectator sport and became part of the "Rugby, Racing and Beer" culture during the 1960s. Māori participation in European sports was particularly evident in rugby and the country's team performs a haka, a traditional Māori challenge, before international matches.
New Zealand has competitive international teams in rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league and softball, and has traditionally done well in triathlons, rowing, yachting and cycling. New Zealand participated at the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1912 as a joint team with Australia, before first participating on its own in 1920. The country has ranked highly on a medals-to-population ratio at recent Games. The "All Blacks", the national men's rugby union team, are the most successful in the history of international rugby and the reigning World Cup champions. New Zealand is known for its extreme sports, adventure tourism and strong mountaineering tradition, as seen in the success of notable New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary. Other outdoor pursuits such as cycling, fishing, swimming, running, tramping, canoeing, hunting, snowsports and surfing are also popular. The Polynesian sport of waka ama racing has increased in popularity and is now an international sport involving teams from all over the Pacific.
The national cuisine has been described as Pacific Rim, drawing inspiration from Europe, Asia and Polynesia. Popular ingredients or dishes include lamb, salmon, crayfish (lobster), dredge oysters, whitebait, pāua (abalone), mussels, scallops, pipis and tuatua (both are types of New Zealand shellfish), kumara (sweet potato), kiwifruit, tamarillo and pavlova (considered a national dish). A hāngi is a traditional Māori method of cooking food using heated rocks buried in a pit oven. After European colonisation, Māori began cooking with pots and ovens and the hāngī was used less frequently, although it is still used for formal occasions such as tangihanga.
- "God Save the Queen" is officially a national anthem but is generally used only on regal and viceregal occasions.
- English is a de facto official language due to its widespread use.
- Language percentages add to more than 100% because some people speak more than one language. They exclude unusable responses and those who spoke no language (e.g. too young to talk).
- The proportion of New Zealand's area (excluding estuaries) covered by rivers, lakes and ponds, based on figures from the New Zealand Land Cover Database, is (357526 + 81936) / (26821559 – 92499–26033 – 19216) = 1.6%. If estuarine open water, mangroves, and herbaceous saline vegetation are included, the figure is 2.2%.
- The Chatham Islands have a separate time zone, 45 minutes ahead of the rest of New Zealand.
- Clocks are advanced by an hour from the last Sunday in September until the first Sunday in April. Daylight saving time is also observed in the Chatham Islands, an additional 45 minutes ahead.
- Ethnicity figures add to more than 100% as people could choose more than one ethnic group.
- In 2015, 55% of Māori adults (aged 15 years and over) reported knowledge of te reo Māori. Of these speakers, 64% use Māori at home and 50,000 can speak the language "very well" or "well".
- Of the 86,403 people that replied they spoke Samoan, 51,336 lived in the Auckland Region.
- Religion percentages may not add to 100% as people could claim multiple religions or object to answering the question.
- "New Zealand's National Anthems". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- "Protocol for using New Zealand's National Anthems". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- New Zealand Government (21 December 2007). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Fifth Periodic Report of the Government of New Zealand (PDF) (Report). p. 89. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
In addition to the Māori language, New Zealand Sign Language is also an official language of New Zealand. The New Zealand Sign Language Act 2006 permits the use of NZSL in legal proceedings, facilitates competency standards for its interpretation and guides government departments in its promotion and use. English, the medium for teaching and learning in most schools, is a de facto official language by virtue of its widespread use. For these reasons, these three languages have special mention in the New Zealand Curriculum.
- "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Languages spoken". stats.govt.nz. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Ethnic groups in New Zealand". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "The New Zealand Land Cover Database". New Zealand Land Cover Database 2. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- "Population clock". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 14 April 2016. The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
- "New Zealand". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "Income inequality". Statistics New Zealand. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- "New Zealand Daylight Time Order 2007 (SR 2007/185)". www.legislation.govt.nz. New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- Wilson, John (March 2009). "European discovery of New Zealand – Tasman's achievement". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- Wilson, John (September 2007). "Tasman's achievement". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
- Mackay, Duncan (1986). "The Search For The Southern Land". In Fraser, B. The New Zealand Book Of Events. Auckland: Reed Methuen. pp. 52–54.
- Nedell 2012, p. 33.
- McKinnon, Malcolm (November 2009). "Place names – Naming the country and the main islands". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- King 2003, p. 41.
- Hay, Maclagan & Gordon 2008, p. 72.
- Mein Smith 2005, p. 6.
- Brunner, Thomas (1851). The Great Journey: an expedition to explore the interior of the Middle Island, New Zealand, 1846-8. Royal Geographical Society.
- Williamson, Maurice (10 October 2013). "Names of NZ's two main islands formalised" (Press release). New Zealand Government. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- Wilmshurst, J. M.; Hunt, T. L.; Lipo, C. P.; Anderson, A. J. (2010). "High-precision radiocarbon dating shows recent and rapid initial human colonization of East Polynesia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (5): 1815. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.1815W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1015876108. PMC . PMID 21187404.
- McGlone, M.; Wilmshurst, J. M. (1999). "Dating initial Maori environmental impact in New Zealand". Quaternary International. 59: 5–0. doi:10.1016/S1040-6182(98)00067-6.
- Murray-McIntosh, Rosalind P.; Scrimshaw, Brian J.; Hatfield, Peter J.; Penny, David (1998). "Testing migration patterns and estimating founding population size in Polynesia by using human mtDNA sequences". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (15): 9047–52. Bibcode:1998PNAS...95.9047M. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.15.9047.
- Wilmshurst, J. M.; Anderson, A. J.; Higham, T. F. G.; Worthy, T. H. (2008). "Dating the late prehistoric dispersal of Polynesians to New Zealand using the commensal Pacific rat". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (22): 7676. Bibcode:2008PNAS..105.7676W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801507105. PMC . PMID 18523023.
- Moodley, Y.; Linz, B.; Yamaoka, Y.; Windsor, H.M.; Breurec, S.; Wu, J.-Y.; Maady, A.; Bernhöft, S.; Thiberge, J.-M.; et al. (2009). "The Peopling of the Pacific from a Bacterial Perspective". Science. 323 (5913): 527–530. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..527M. doi:10.1126/science.1166083. PMC . PMID 19164753.
- Ballara, Angela (1998). Iwi: The Dynamics of Māori Tribal Organisation from C.1769 to C.1945 (1st ed.). Wellington: Victoria University Press. ISBN 9780864733283.
- Clark, Ross (1994). "Moriori and Māori: The Linguistic Evidence". In Sutton, Douglas. The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press. pp. 123–135.
- Davis, Denise (September 2007). "The impact of new arrivals". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Davis, Denise; Solomon, Māui (March 2009). "'Moriori – The impact of new arrivals'". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Mein Smith 2005, p. 23.
- Salmond, Anne. Two Worlds: First Meetings Between Maori and Europeans 1642–1772. Auckland: Penguin Books. p. 82. ISBN 0-670-83298-7.
- King 2003, p. 122.
- Fitzpatrick, John (2004). "Food, warfare and the impact of Atlantic capitalism in Aotearo/New Zealand" (PDF). Australasian Political Studies Association Conference: APSA 2004 Conference Papers.
- Brailsford, Barry (1972). Arrows of Plague. Wellington: Hick Smith and Sons. p. 35. ISBN 0-456-01060-2.
- Wagstrom, Thor (2005). "Broken Tongues and Foreign Hearts". In Brock, Peggy. Indigenous Peoples and Religious Change. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 71 and 73. ISBN 978-90-04-13899-5.
- Lange, Raeburn (1999). May the people live: a history of Māori health development 1900–1920. Auckland University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-86940-214-3.
- "A Nation sub-divided". Australian Heritage. Heritage Australia Publishing. 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- Rutherford, James (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. McLintock, Alexander, ed. Busby, James. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Sir George Gipps. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Wilson, John (March 2009). "Government and nation – The origins of nationhood". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Settlement from 1840 to 1852. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Foster, Bernard (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. McLintock, Alexander, ed. Akaroa, French Settlement At. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Simpson, K (September 2010). "Hobson, William – Biography". In McLintock, Alexander. Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Phillips, Jock (April 2010). "British immigration and the New Zealand Company". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "Crown colony era – the Governor-General". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. March 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Wilson, John (March 2009). "Government and nation – The constitution [See Pages 2 and 3]". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Temple, Philip (1980). Wellington Yesterday. John McIndoe. ISBN 0-86868-012-5.
- "Parliament moves to Wellington". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. January 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "New Zealand's 19th-century wars – overview". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. April 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- McIvor, Timothy L. "Ballance, John". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- Wilson., John (March 2009). "History – Liberal to Labour". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- Hamer, David. "Seddon, Richard John". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- Boxall, Peter; Haynes, Peter (1997). "Strategy and Trade Union Effectiveness in a Neo-liberal Environment" (PDF). British Journal of Industrial Relations. 35 (4): 567–591. doi:10.1111/1467-8543.00069.
- "Dominion status – Becoming a dominion". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. September 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- "War and Society". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Easton, Brian (April 2010). "Economic history – Interwar years and the great depression". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Derby, Mark (May 2010). "Strikes and labour disputes – Wars, depression and first Labour government". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Easton, Brian (November 2010). "Economic history – Great boom, 1935–1966". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Keane, Basil (November 2010). "Te Māori i te ohanga – Māori in the economy – Urbanisation". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- Royal, Te Ahukaramū (March 2009). "Māori – Urbanisation and renaissance". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Healing the past, building a future: A Guide to Treaty of Waitangi Claims and Negotiations with the Crown (PDF). Office of Treaty Settlements. March 2015. ISBN 978-0-478-32436-5. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Report on the Crown's Foreshore and Seabed Policy (Report). Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Barker, Fiona (June 2012). "Debate about the foreshore and seabed". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- "New Zealand's Constitution". The Governor-General of New Zealand. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Factsheet – New Zealand – Political Forces". The Economist. The Economist Group. 15 February 2005. Archived from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- "New Zealand Legislation: Royal Titles Act 1974". New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. February 1974. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "The Governor-General of New Zealand". Official website of the Governor-General. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "The Queen's role in New Zealand". The British Monarchy. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- Harris, Bruce (2009). "Replacement of the Royal Prerogative in New Zealand". New Zealand Universities Law Review. 23: 285–314. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- "The Reserve Powers". Official website of the Governor-General. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "Parliament Brief: What is Parliament?". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- McLean, Gavin (February 2015). "Premiers and prime ministers". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Wilson, John (November 2010). "Government and nation – System of government". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Principles of Cabinet decision making". Cabinet Manual. Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "The electoral cycle". Cabinet Manual. Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
- "First past the post – the road to MMP". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. September 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Reviewing electorate numbers and boundaries". Electoral Commission. 8 May 2005. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- "Sainte-Laguë allocation formula". Electoral Commission. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Collins, Simon (May 2005). "Women run the country but it doesn't show in pay packets". The New Zealand Herald.
- "New Zealand profile - Leaders". BBC News. 12 March 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "The Current Chief Justice". Courts of New Zealand. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "The Judiciary". Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "The Fragile States Index 2016". The Fund for Peace. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Democracy Index 2015". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2015". Transparency International. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "New Zealand". OECD Better Life Index. 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. External Relations. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "Michael Joseph Savage". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. July 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Patman, Robert (2005). "Globalisation, Sovereignty, and the Transformation of New Zealand Foreign Policy" (PDF). Working Paper 21/05. Centre for Strategic Studies, Victoria University of Wellington. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
- "Department Of External Affairs: Security Treaty between Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America". Australian Government. September 1951. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "The Vietnam War". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. June 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Sinking the Rainbow Warrior – nuclear-free New Zealand". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Nuclear-free legislation – nuclear-free New Zealand". New Zealand History. August 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Lange, David (1990). Nuclear Free: The New Zealand Way. New Zealand: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-014519-2.
- "Australia in brief". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "New Zealand country brief". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Collett, John (4 September 2013). "Kiwis face hurdles in pursuit of lost funds". Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Bertram, Geoff (April 2010). "South Pacific economic relations – Aid, remittances and tourism". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Howes, Stephen (November 2010). "Making migration work: Lessons from New Zealand". Development Policy Centre. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "Member States of the United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "New Zealand". The Commonwealth. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Members and partners". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "The future of the Five Power Defence Arrangements". The Strategist. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Welcome to NZDF". New Zealand Defence Force. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Ayson, Robert (2007). "New Zealand Defence and Security Policy,1990–2005". In Alley, Roderic. New Zealand In World Affairs, Volume IV: 1990–2005. Wellington: Victoria University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-86473-548-5.
- "The Battle for Crete". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. May 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "El Alamein – The North African Campaign". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. May 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Holmes, Richard (September 2010). "World War Two: The Battle of Monte Cassino". Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Gallipoli stirred new sense of national identity says Clark". New Zealand Herald. April 2005.
- Prideaux, Bruce (2007). Ryan, Chris, ed. Battlefield tourism: history, place and interpretation. Elsevier Science. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-08-045362-0.
- Burke, Arthur. "The Spirit of ANZAC". ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "South African War 1899–1902". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. February 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "New Zealand in the Korean War". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "NZ and the Malayan Emergency". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "New Zealand Defence Force Overseas Operations". New Zealand Defence Force. January 2008. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- "Commitment to Development Index 2015". Center For Global Development. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Global Peace Index 2016". Institute for Economics and Peace. Retrieved 27 August 2016
- "New Zealand's Nine Provinces (1853–76)" (PDF). Friends of the Hocken Collections. March 2000. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Provincial Divergencies. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- "Public holidays". New Zealand Department of Labour. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- "Overview – regional rugby". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. September 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Dollery, Brian; Keogh, Ciaran; Crase, Lin (2007). "Alternatives to Amalgamation in Australian Local Government: Lessons from the New Zealand Experience" (PDF). Sustaining Regions. 6 (1): 50–69. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2007.
- Sancton, Andrew (2000). Merger mania: the assault on local government. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0-7735-2163-1.
- "Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2010 (boundaries at 1 November 2010)". Statistics New Zealand. 26 October 2010. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- Smelt 2009, p. 33.
- "Glossary". localcouncils.govt.nz. Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- "Minutes of the Statutory Meeting of the Chatham Islands Council". Chatham Islands Council. October 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Gimpel, Diane (2011). Monarchies. ABDO Publishing Company. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-617-14792-0. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "System of Government". Government of Niue. Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Government – Structure, Personnel". Government of the Cook Islands. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Tokelau Government". Government of Tokelau. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Scott Base". Antarctica New Zealand. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
- "Check if you're a New Zealand citizen". New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. The Sea Floor. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- "Hauraki Gulf islands". Auckland City Council. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Hindmarsh (2006). "Discovering D'Urville". Heritage New Zealand. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- "Distance tables". Auckland Coastguard. Archived from the original on 23 January 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- McKenzie, D. W. (1987). Heinemann New Zealand atlas. Heinemann Publishers. ISBN 0-7900-0187-X.
- "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
- "Geography". Statistics New Zealand. 1999. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
- Offshore Options: Managing Environmental Effects in New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone (PDF). Wellington: Ministry for the Environment. 2005. ISBN 0-478-25916-6.
- Coates, Glen (2002). The rise and fall of the Southern Alps. Canterbury University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-908812-93-0.
- Garden 2005, p. 52.
- Grant, David (March 2009). "Southland places – Fiordland's coast". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Central North Island volcanoes". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Walrond, Carl (March 2009). "Natural environment – Geography and geology". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
- "Taupo". GNS Science. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- Lewis, Keith; Nodder, Scott; Carter, Lionel (March 2009). "Sea floor geology – Active plate boundaries". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Wallis, G. P.; Trewick, S. A. (2009). "New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent". Molecular Ecology. 18 (17): 3548–3580. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04294.x. PMID 19674312.
- Wright, Dawn; Bloomer, Sherman; MacLeod, Christopher; Taylor, Brian; Goodliffe, Andrew (2000). "Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series". Marine Geophysical Researches. 21 (5): 489–512. Bibcode:2000MarGR..21..489W. doi:10.1023/A:1026514914220.
- Hobbs, Joseph J. (2016). Fundamentals of World Regional Geography. Cengage Learning. p. 367. ISBN 9781305854956.
- Lewis, Martin W.; Kären E. Wigen (1997). The Myth of Continents: a Critique of Metageography. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-520-20742-4.
Interestingly enough, the answer [from a scholar who sought to calculate the number of continents] conformed almost precisely to the conventional list: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania (Australia plus New Zealand), Africa, and Antarctica.
- Mullan, Brett; Tait, Andrew; Thompson, Craig (March 2009). "Climate – New Zealand's climate". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Summary of New Zealand climate extremes". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. 2004. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Walrond, Carl (March 2009). "Natural environment – Climate". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Mean monthly rainfall". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Archived from the original (XLS) on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Mean monthly sunshine hours". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Archived from the original (XLS) on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "New Zealand Weather - New Zealand Climate". Tourism New Zealand. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- "Climate data and activities". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Cooper, R.; Millener, P. (1993). "The New Zealand biota: Historical background and new research". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 8 (12): 429. doi:10.1016/0169-5347(93)90004-9.
- Trewick SA, Morgan-Richards M. 2014. New Zealand Wild Life. Penguin, New Zealand. ISBN 9780143568896
- Lindsey, Terence; Morris, Rod (2000). Collins Field Guide to New Zealand Wildlife. HarperCollins (New Zealand) Limited. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-86950-300-0.
- "Frequently asked questions about New Zealand plants". New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. May 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- De Lange, Peter James; Sawyer, John William David & Rolfe, Jeremy (2006). New Zealand indigenous vascular plant checklist. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. ISBN 0-473-11306-6.
- Wassilieff, Maggy (March 2009). "Lichens – Lichens in New Zealand". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2010) [originally published in 1966]. Mixed Broadleaf Podocarp and Kauri Forest. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- Mark, Alan (March 2009). "Grasslands – Tussock grasslands". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
- "Commentary on Forest Policy in the Asia-Pacific Region (A Review for Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand and Western Samoa)". Forestry Department. 1997. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- McGlone, M.S. (1989). "The Polynesian settlement of New Zealand in relation to environmental and biotic changes" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 12(S): 115–129. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2014.
- Taylor, R. and Smith, I. (1997). The state of New Zealand’s environment 1997. Ministry for the Environment, Wellington.
- "New Zealand ecology: Flightless birds". TerraNature. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- Holdaway, Richard (March 2009). "Extinctions – New Zealand extinctions since human arrival". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Kirby, Alex (January 2005). "Huge eagles 'dominated NZ skies'". BBC News.
- "Tuatara: New Zealand reptiles". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- Ryan, Paddy (March 2009). "Snails and slugs – Flax snails, giant snails and veined slugs". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Native Animals". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- "Tiny Bones Rewrite Textbooks, first New Zealand land mammal fossil". University of New South Wales. 31 May 2007. Archived from the original on 31 May 2007.
- Worthy, Trevor H.; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Archer, Michael; Musser, Anne M.; Hand, Suzanne J.; Jones, Craig; Douglas, Barry J.; McNamara, James A.; Beck, Robin M. D. (2006). "Miocene mammal reveals a Mesozoic ghost lineage on insular New Zealand, southwest Pacific". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (51): 19419–23. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10319419W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605684103. PMC . PMID 17159151.
- "Marine Mammals". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- "Sea & shore birds". New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "Penguins". New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Jones, Carl (2002). "Reptiles and Amphibians". In Perrow, Martin; Davy, Anthony. Handbook of ecological restoration: Principles of Restoration. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 362. ISBN 0-521-79128-6.
- Towns, D.; Ballantine, W. (1993). "Conservation and restoration of New Zealand Island ecosystems". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 8 (12): 452. doi:10.1016/0169-5347(93)90009-E.
- Rauzon, Mark (2008). "Island restoration: Exploring the past, anticipating the future" (PDF). Marine Ornithology. 35: 97–107.
- Diamond, Jared (1990). Towns, D; Daugherty, C; Atkinson, I, eds. New Zealand as an archipelago: An international perspective (PDF). Wellington: Conservation Sciences Publication No. 2. Department of Conservation. pp. 3–8.
- "Currencies of the territories listed in the BS exchange rate lists". Bank of Slovenia. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Rankings on Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Historical evolution and trade patterns". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. 1966. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
- Stringleman, Hugh; Peden, Robert (October 2009). "Sheep farming – Growth of the frozen meat trade, 1882–2001". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- Baker, John (February 2010) [originally published in 1966]. McLintock, Alexander, ed. Some Indicators of Comparative Living Standards. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2010. Table pdf downloadable from 
- Wilson, John (March 2009). "History – The later 20th century". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Nixon, Chris; Yeabsley, John (April 2010). "Overseas trade policy – Difficult times – the 1970s and early 1980s". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Evans, N. "Up From Down Under: After a Century of Socialism, Australia and New Zealand are Cutting Back Government and Freeing Their Economies". National Review. 46 (16): 47–51.
- Trade, Food Security, and Human Rights: The Rules for International Trade in Agricultural Products and the Evolving World Food Crisis. Routledge. 2016. p. 125. ISBN 9781317008521.
- Wayne Arnold (2 August 2007). "Surviving Without Subsidies". New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
... ever since a liberal but free-market government swept to power in 1984 and essentially canceled handouts to farmers ... They went cold turkey and in the process it was very rough on their farming economy
- Easton, Brian (November 2010). "Economic history – Government and market liberalisation". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Hazledine, Tim (1998). Taking New Zealand Seriously: The Economics of Decency (PDF). HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 1-86950-283-3.
- "NZ tops Travellers' Choice Awards". Stuff Travel. May 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "Unemployment". 2010 Social report. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Unemployment at record low as job growth surges". NZ Herald. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Bingham, Eugene (7 April 2008). "The miracle of full employment". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- "New Zealand Takes a Pause in Cutting Rates". The New York Times. 10 June 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "New Zealand's slump longest ever". BBC News. 26 June 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- Bascand, Geoff (February 2011). "Household Labour Force Survey: December 2010 quarter – Media Release". Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Unemployment rate lifts to 6.7pc". New Zealand Herald. 3 May 2012.
- "Household Labour Force Survey: September 2014 quarter". Statistics New Zealand. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- Davenport, Sally (2004). "Panic and panacea: brain drain and science and technology human capital policy". Research Policy. 33 (4): 617–630. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2004.01.006.
- O'Hare, Sean (September 2010). "New Zealand brain-drain worst in world". The Daily Telegraph. United Kingdom.
- Collins, Simon (March 2005). "Quarter of NZ's brightest are gone". New Zealand Herald.
- Winkelmann, Rainer (2000). "The labour market performance of European immigrants in New Zealand in the 1980s and 1990s". The International Migration Review. The Center for Migration Studies of New York. 33 (1): 33–58. doi:10.2307/2676011. JSTOR 2676011. Journal subscription required
- Bain 2006, p. 44.
- Groser, Tim (March 2009). "Speech to ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement Seminars". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "Improving Access to Markets:Agriculture". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Standard International Trade Classification R4 – Exports (Annual-Jun)". Statistics New Zealand. April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- O'Sullivan, Fran (April 2008). "Trade agreement just the start – Clark". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "China and New Zealand sign free trade deal". The New York Times. April 2008.
- "Key Tourism Statistics" (PDF). Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- Easton, Brian (March 2009). "Economy – Agricultural production". Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Stringleman, Hugh; Peden, Robert (March 2009). "Sheep farming – Changes from the 20th century". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Stringleman, Hugh; Scrimgeour, Frank (November 2009). "Dairying and dairy products – Dairying in the 2000s". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Stringleman, Hugh; Scrimgeour, Frank (March 2009). "Dairying and dairy products – Dairy exports". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Global New Zealand – International Trade, Investment, and Travel Profile: Year ended June 2009 – Key Points". Statistics New Zealand. June 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Stringleman, Hugh; Scrimgeour, Frank (March 2009). "Dairying and dairy products – Manufacturing and marketing in the 2000s". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Dalley, Bronwyn (March 2009). "Wine – The wine boom, 1980s and beyond". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Wine in New Zealand". The Economist. 27 March 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- "Agricultural and forestry exports from New Zealand: Primary sector export values for the year ending June 2010". New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 14 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2011.
- Energy in New Zealand 2016 (PDF) (Report). Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. September 2016. p. 47. ISSN 2324-5913.
- "Appendix 1: Technical information about drinking water supply in the eight local authorities". oag.govt.nz. Office of the Auditor-General. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Water supply". Greater Wellington Regional Council. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "State highway frequently asked questions". NZ Transport Agency. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- Humphris, Adrian (April 2010). "Public transport – Passenger trends". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Atkinson, Neill (November 2010). "Railways – Rail transformed". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "About Metlink". Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Atkinson, Neill (April 2010). "Railways – Freight transport". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "International Visitors" (PDF). Ministry of Economic Development. June 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "10. Airports". Infrastructure Stocktake: Infrastructure Audit. Ministry of Economic Development. December 2005. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "Overview of the New Zealand Telecommunications Market 1987–1997". Ministry of Economic Development. November 2005. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "2016 Global ICT Development Index". International Telecommunication Union. 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- "National Population Estimate: At 30 June 2016". Statistics New Zealand. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- "Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2009". Statistics New Zealand. 30 June 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "Quality of Living Ranking 2016". London: Mercer. 23 February 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- "NZ life expectancy among world's best". web page. Fairfax NZ. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- "New Zealand mortality statistics: 1950 to 2010" (PDF). Ministry of Health of New Zealand. 2 March 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2016 (provisional)". Statistics New Zealand. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016. For urban areas, "Subnational population estimates (UA, AU), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996, 2001, 2006-16 (2017 boundary)". Statistics New Zealand. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- Collins, Simon (October 2010). "Ethnic mix changing rapidly". New Zealand Herald.
- Dalby, Simon (September 1993). "The 'Kiwi disease': geopolitical discourse in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the South Pacific". Political Geography. Elsevier. 12 (5): 437–456. doi:10.1016/0962-6298(93)90012-V.
- Callister, Paul (2004). "Seeking an Ethnic Identity: Is "New Zealander" a Valid Ethnic Category?" (PDF). New Zealand Population Review. 30 (1&2): 5–22.
- Misa, Tapu (8 March 2006). "Ethnic Census status tells the whole truth". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 12 April 2012.
- "Draft Report of a Review of the Official Ethnicity Statistical Standard: Proposals to Address the 'New Zealander' Response Issue" (pdf). Statistics New Zealand. April 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- Ranford, Jodie. "'Pakeha', Its Origin and Meaning". Māori News. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
Originally the Pakeha were the early European settlers, however, today ‘Pakeha’ is used to describe any peoples of non-Maori or non-Polynesian heritage. Pakeha is not an ethnicity but rather a way to differentiate between the historical origins of our settlers, the Polynesians and the Europeans, the Maori and the other
- Socidad Peruana de Medicina Intensiva (SOPEMI) (2000). Trends in international migration: continuous reporting system on migration. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. pp. 276–278.
- Walrond, Carl (21 September 2007). "Dalmatians". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "New Zealand Peoples". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- "International Migration Outlook – New Zealand 2009/10" (PDF). New Zealand Department of Labour. 2010. p. 2. ISSN 1179-5085. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Birthplace and people born overseas". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Butcher, Andrew; McGrath, Terry (2004). "International Students in New Zealand: Needs and Responses" (PDF). International Education Journal. 5 (4).
- 2013 Census QuickStats, Statistics New Zealand, 2013, ISBN 978-0-478-40864-5
- Hay, Maclagan & Gordon 2008, p. 14.
- * Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
- Phillips, Jock (March 2009). "The New Zealanders – Bicultural New Zealand". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Squires, Nick (May 2005). "British influence ebbs as New Zealand takes to talking Māori". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "Waitangi Tribunal claim – Māori Language Week". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. July 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Ngā puna kōrero: Where Māori speak te reo – infographic". stats.govt.nz. Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- "John Drinnan: 'Maori' will remain in the name Maori Television". The New Zealand Herald. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
According to 2015 figures supplied by Maori TV, its two channels broadcast an average of 72 per cent Maori language content - 59 per cent on the main channel and 99 per cent on te reo.
- "New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) Studies". Victoria University of Wellington. 25 August 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- New Zealand Sign Language Act 2006 No 18 (as at 30 June 2008), Public Act – New Zealand Legislation. Legislation.govt.nz (30 June 2008). Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- GALLUP WorldView Archived 19 October 2013 on Wayback Machine. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Religious affiliation". Statistics New Zealand. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – tables". Statistics New Zealand. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Kaa, Hirini (May 2011). "Māori and Christian denominations". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Morris, Paul (May 2011). "Diverse religions". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Dench, Olivia (July 2010). "Education Statistics of New Zealand: 2009". Education Counts. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Education Act 1989, Section 3". New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. 1989. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "Education Act 1989 No 80 (as at 01 February 2011), Public Act. Part 14: Establishment and disestablishment of tertiary institutions, Section 62: Establishment of institutions". Education Act 1989 No 80. New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Studying in New Zealand: Tertiary education". New Zealand Qualifications Authority. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Educational attainment of the population". Education Counts. 2006. Archived from the original (xls) on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- "What Students Know and Can Do: Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science 2010." (PDF). OECD.org. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
- Kennedy 2007, p. 398.
- Hearn, Terry (March 2009). "English – Importance and influence". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Conclusions – British and Irish immigration". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. March 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Stenhouse, John (November 2010). "Religion and society – Māori religion". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Māori Social Structures". Ministry of Justice. March 2001. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Tapaleao, Vaimoana (8 March 2008). "Thousands attend Pasifika". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
- Kennedy 2007, p. 400.
- Kennedy 2007, p. 399.
- Phillips, Jock (March 2009). "The New Zealanders – Post-war New Zealanders". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Phillips, Jock (March 2009). "The New Zealanders – Ordinary blokes and extraordinary sheilas". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Phillips, Jock (March 2009). Rural mythologies – The cult of the pioneer. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Barker, Fiona (June 2012). New Zealand identity – Culture and arts. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Wilson, John (September 2016). Nation and government – Nationhood and identity. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
- Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Visual arts and crafts". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Elements of Carving. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Surface Patterns. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- McKay, Bill (2004). "Māori architecture: transforming western notions of architecture". Fabrications. 14 (1&2): 1–12. doi:10.1080/10331867.2004.10525189.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Painted Designs. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Tattooing. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- "Beginnings – history of NZ painting". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. December 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- "A new New Zealand art – history of NZ painting". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. November 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- "Contemporary Maori art". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. November 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- Rauer, Julie. "Paradise Lost: Contemporary Pacific Art At The Asia Society". Asia Society and Museum. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Textile Designs. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- Keane, Basil (March 2009). "Pounamu – jade or greenstone – Implements and adornment". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- Wilson, John (March 2009). "Society – Food, drink and dress". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Design and fashion". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Fashion in New Zealand – New Zealand's fashion industry". The Economist. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
- Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Writing and publishing". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "The making of New Zealand literature". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. November 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "New directions in the 1930s – New Zealand literature". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- "The war and beyond – New Zealand literature". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. November 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- "28 cities join the UNESCO Creative Cities Network". UNESCO. December 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Music". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Maori Music. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Musical Instruments. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Instruments Used for Non-musical Purposes. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Music: General History. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Music: Brass Bands. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. Music: Pipe Bands. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Performing arts". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "History – celebrating our music since 1965". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- "About RIANZ – Introduction". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Trisha Dunleavy and Hester Joyce, eds. New Zealand Film and Television: Institution, Industry, and Cultural Change (Intellect Books, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2012).
- Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Film and broadcasting". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Top 20 highest grossing box office new zealand movies of all time". Flicks.co.nz. July 2012.
- Cieply, Michael; Rose, Jeremy (October 2010). "New Zealand Bends and 'Hobbit' Stays". New York Times.
- "Production Guide: Locations". Film New Zealand. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Scores and Status Data 1980-2015". Freedom of the Press 2015. Freedom House. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Hearn, Terry (March 2009). "English – Popular culture". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- "Sport, Fitness and Leisure". New Zealand Official Yearbook. Statistics New Zealand. 2000. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
Traditionally New Zealanders have excelled in rugby union, which is regarded as the national sport, and track and field athletics.
- Phillips, Jock (February 2011). "Sports and leisure – Organised sports". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "More and more students wear school sports colours". New Zealand Secondary School Sports Council. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- Crawford, Scott (January 1999). "Rugby and the Forging of National Identity". In Nauright, John. Sport, Power And Society In New Zealand: Historical And Contemporary Perspectives (PDF). ASSH Studies In Sports History.
- "Rugby, racing and beer". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Derby, Mark (December 2010). "Māori–Pākehā relations – Sports and race". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "NZ's first Olympic century". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "London 2012 Olympic Games: Medal strike rate – Final count (revised)". Statistics New Zealand. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "Rio 2016 Olympic Games: Medals per capita". Statistics New Zealand. 30 August 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- Kerr, James (14 November 2013). "The All Blacks guide to being successful (off the field)". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Fordyce, Tom (23 October 2011). "2011 Rugby World Cup final: New Zealand 8-7 France". BBC Sport. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Bain 2006, p. 69.
- "World mourns Sir Edmund Hillary". The Age. Melbourne. 11 January 2008.
- "Sport and Recreation Participation Levels" (PDF). Sport and Recreation New Zealand. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- Yousef, Robyn (30 January 2011). "Waka ama: Keeping it in the family". New Zealand Herald. Auckland. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- "New Zealand Tourism Guide". January 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- "Story: Shellfish". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Burton, David. "Cooking – Cooking methods". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Royal, Charles; Kaka-Scott, Jenny. "Māori foods – kai Māori". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- Alley, Roderic (2008). New Zealand in World Affairs IV 1990–2005. New Zealand: Victoria University Press. ISBN 978-0-864-73548-5.
- Bain, Carolyn (2006). New Zealand. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74104-535-5.
- Garden, Donald (2005). Stoll, Mark, ed. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific: an environmental history. Nature and Human Societies. ABC-CLIO/Greenwood. ISBN 978-1-57607-868-6.
- Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008). Dialects of English: New Zealand English. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2529-1.
- Kennedy, Jeffrey (2007). "Leadership and Culture in New Zealand". In Chhokar, Jagdeep; Brodbeck, Felix; House, Robert. Culture and Leadership Across the World: The GLOBE Book of In-Depth Studies of 25 Societies. United States: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-8058-5997-3.
- King, Michael (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. New Zealand: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-301867-4.
- Mein Smith, Philippa (2005). A Concise History of New Zealand. Australia: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54228-6.
- Nedell, Jack (2012). Around the World in 80 Years. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 9781477143858.
- Smelt, Roselynn; Jui Lin, Yong (2009). New Zealand. Cultures of the World (2nd ed.). New York, US: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-3415-3.
- Bateman, David, ed. (2005). Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia (6th ed.). ISBN 1-86953-601-0.
- Sinclair, Keith; revised by Dalziel, Raewyn (2000). A History of New Zealand. ISBN 978-0-14-029875-8.
- Statistics New Zealand. New Zealand Official Yearbook (annual). ISBN 1-86953-776-9 (2010).
- New Zealand Government portal
- Ministry for Culture and Heritage – includes information on flag, anthems and coat of arms
- Statistics New Zealand
- General Information
- New Zealand entry from The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- New Zealand at DMOZ
- New Zealand from BBC News
- Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
- New Zealand OECD
- New Zealand, directory from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- New Zealand at Encyclopædia Britannica
- New Zealand weather
- Key Development Forecasts for New Zealand from International Futures
- Wikimedia Atlas of New Zealand