Nadere Reformatie

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Protestant Reformation

17th-century scholastics

Second scholasticism of the Jesuits
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Ramism among the Reformed scholastics
Metaphysical poets in the Church of England

Reactions within Christianity

Labadists against the Jesuits
Pietism against orthodox Lutherans
Nadere Reformatie within Dutch Calvinism
Richard Hooker against the Ramists

Reactions within philosophy

Modernists against Roman Catholics
Neologists against Lutherans
Spinozists against Dutch Calvinists
Deists against English Christianity
John Locke against Bishop Stillingfleet

Nadere Reformatie is a Dutch term that refers to a period of church history in the Netherlands, following the Reformation, from roughly 1600 until 1750. The term is most often translated into English as either "Dutch Second Reformation" or "Further Reformation," with the latter translation being preferred.

In broad terms, the period and its representatives are known for their desire to apply the principles of the Reformation to their day – their homes, churches, and, indeed, all sectors of Dutch society in the seventeenth and early eighteenth century. In their balance and value of both orthodoxy as well as piety, the Nadere Reformatie resembles English Puritanism, and German Pietism. In fact, Puritanism had much influence on the Nadere Reformatie. Many Puritan works were translated into Dutch during this time.

The two leading figures of the period are a professor, Gisbertus Voetius, and a pastor, Wilhelmus a Brakel. Brakel's main work, the Redelijke Godsdienst, an explanation, defense, and application of the Reformed faith, has been translated into English (see below).

Notable figures[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

  • Ames, William. The Marrow of Theology. Translated by John Dykstra Eusden. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 1997.
  • Brakel, Wilhelmus a. The Christian's Reasonable Service, 4 vols. Translated by Bartel Elshout. Morgan, Pennsylvania: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1992.
  • Koelman, Jacobus. The Duties of Parents. Translated by John Vriend. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2003.
  • Taffin, Jean. The Marks of God's Children. Translated by Peter Y. De Jong. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2003.
  • Teellinck, Willem. The Path of True Godliness. Translated by Annemie Godbehere. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2003.
  • Voetius, Gisbertus and Johannes Hoornbeeck." Translated by John Vriend and Harry Boonstra. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Academic, 2003.
  • Witsius, Herman. The Economy of the Covenants Between God and Man. 2 vols. Translated by William Crookshank. Reprint. Escondido, California: The den Dulk Christian Foundation, 1990.
  • Witsius, Herman. The Apostles' Creed. 2 vols. Translated by Donald Fraser, 1823. Reprint. Escondido, California: The den Dulk Christian Foundation, 1993.
  • Witsius, Herman. The Lord's Prayer. Translated by William Pringle, 1839. Reprint. Escondido, California: The den Dulk Christian Foundation, 1994.
  • Lodenstein, Jodocus van. A Spiritual Appeal to Christ's Bride. Translated by Bartel Elshout. Reformation Heritage Books, 2010.

Secondary literature[edit]

  • Beeke, Joel R. The Quest for Full Assurance: The Legacy of Calvin and His Successors. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Banner of Truth Trust, 1999.
  • Beeke, Joel R. “Insights for the Church from the Dutch Second Reformation,” Calvin Theological Journal 28 (1993): 420–424.
  • Brienen, T., K. Exalto, et al. De Nadere Reformatie: Beschrijving van haar Voornaamste Vertegenwoordigers. ‘s-Gravenhage: Uitgeverij Boekcentrum B.V., 1986.
  • Brienen, T., K. Exalto, et al. De Nadere Reformatie en het Gereformeerd Piëtisme. ‘s-Gravenhage: Uitgeverij Boekensentrum B.V., 1989.
  • Brienen, T., K. Exalto, et al. Theologische Aspecten van de Nadere Reformatie. Zoetermeer: Uitgeverij Boekencentrum B.V., 1993.
  • de Reuver, Arie. Sweet Communion: Trajectories of Spirituality from the Middle Ages through the Further Reformation. Trans. James A. De Jong (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007).
  • Elshout, Bartel. The Pastoral and Practical Theology of Wilhelmus à Brakel. Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 1997.
  • Heppe, Heinrich. Geschichte des Pietismus und der Mystik in der Reformirten Kirche, Namentlich der Niederlande. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1879.
  • Muller, Richard. Scholasticism and Orthodoxy in the Reformed Tradition: An Attempt at Definition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Calvin Theological Seminary, 1995.
  • Schuringa, Gregory D. "Embracing Leer and Leven: The Theology of Simon Oomius in the Context of Nadere Reformatie Orthodoxy." Grand Rapids, Michigan: PhD dissertation, Calvin Theological Seminary, 2003.
  • Shantz, Douglas H. Between Sardis and Philadelphia: the Life and World of Pietist Court Preacher Conrad Bröske. Leiden: Brill, 2008.
  • van Asselt, W. J. and E. Dekker, eds. De Scholastieke Voetius. Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 1995.
  • van Asselt, W. J. Reformation and Scholasticism: An Ecumenical Enterprise. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 2001.
  • van Lieburg, Fred. From Pure Church to Pious Culture. The Further Reformation in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic In Later Calvinism. International Perspectives, edited by W. Fred Graham (Kirksville, 1994).
  • van 't Spijker, W., et al. Oude Schrijvers. Houten: Den Hertog, 1997.

External links[edit]