|— Gymnast —|
Nadia Comăneci during her practice session for an appearance at the Hartford Civic Center. (October 1977)
|Full name||Nadia Elena Comăneci|
November 12, 1961 |
|Height||5 ft 4 in (1.63 m)|
|Discipline||Women's artistic gymnastics|
|Years on national team||Romania|
|Gym||National Training Center|
|Former coach(es)||Béla Károlyi
|Eponymous skills||Comăneci salto (uneven bars)|
Nadia Elena Comăneci (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈnadi.a koməˈnet͡ʃʲ] ( listen); born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian former gymnast, winner of three gold medals at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the first gymnast to be awarded a perfect score of 10 in an Olympic gymnastics event. She also won two gold medals at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. She is one of the best-known gymnasts in the world and is credited with popularizing the sport around the world. In 2000, Comăneci was named as one of the Athletes of the Century by the Laureus World Sports Academy.
Nadia Elena Comăneci was born in Onești, Romania, the daughter of Gheorghe and Ștefania-Alexandrina Comăneci. Her mother was inspired to call her Nadia by a Russian film she watched while pregnant, whose heroine was called Nadya, the diminutive version of the Russian name Nadezhda, which means "hope." Comăneci has a brother named Adrian who is four years her junior.
Early gymnastics career
Comăneci began gymnastics in kindergarten with a local team called Flacăra ("The Flame"), with coaches Duncan and Munteanu. At age 6, she was chosen to attend Béla Károlyi's experimental gymnastics school after Károlyi spotted her and a friend turning cartwheels in a schoolyard. Károlyi was looking for gymnasts he could train from a young age and saw the two girls during recess. When recess ended, the girls ran inside. Károlyi went around the classrooms trying to find them, and eventually spotted Comăneci. (The other girl, Viorica Dumitru, went on to be one of Romania's top ballerinas.) Comăneci was training with Károlyi by the time she was 7 years old, in 1968. She was one of the first students at the gymnastics school established in Onești by Béla and his wife, Márta. Unlike many of the other students at the Károlyi school, Comăneci was able to commute from home for many years because she lived in the town.
Comăneci placed 13th in her first Romanian National Championships in 1969, at the age of 8. Béla Károlyi thought this was unlucky and gave her a doll to remind her never to place 13th again—she did not. A year later, in 1970, she began competing as a member of her hometown team and became the youngest gymnast ever to win the Romanian Nationals. In 1971, she participated in her first international competition, a dual junior meet between Romania and Yugoslavia, winning her first all-around title and contributing to the team gold. For the next few years, she competed as a junior in numerous national contests in Romania and dual meets with countries such as Hungary, Italy, and Poland. At the age of 11, in 1973, she won the all-around gold, as well as the vault and uneven bars titles, at the Junior Friendship Tournament (Druzhba), an important international meet for junior gymnasts.
Comăneci's first major international success came at the age of 13, when she nearly swept the 1975 European Championships in Skien, Norway, winning the all-around and gold medals on every event but the floor exercise, in which she placed second. She continued to enjoy success that year, winning the all-around at the "Champions All" competition and placing first in the all-around, vault, beam, and bars at the Romanian National Championships. In the pre-Olympic test event in Montreal, Comăneci won the all-around and the balance beam golds, as well as silvers in the vault, floor, and bars behind accomplished Soviet gymnast Nellie Kim, who would prove to be one of her greatest rivals over the next five years.
In March 1976, Comăneci competed in the inaugural edition of the American Cup at Madison Square Garden in New York City. She received rare scores of 10, which signified a perfect routine without any deductions, on vault in both the preliminary and final rounds of competition and won the all-around. Comăneci also received 10s in other meets in 1976, including the Chunichi Cup competition in Japan, where she posted perfect marks on the vault and uneven bars.
At the age of 14, Comăneci became one of the stars of the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. During the team compulsory portion of the competition on July 18, her routine on the uneven bars was awarded a perfect ten. It was the first time in modern Olympic gymnastics history that the score had ever been awarded. When Omega SA, the traditional Olympics scoreboard manufacturer, asked before the 1976 games whether four digits would be necessary for gymnastics, it was told that a perfect 10.00 was not possible. Nadia's perfect marks were thus displayed as 1.00 instead. The crowd was at first confused, but soon understood and gave her a rousing ovation. Over the course of the Olympics, Comăneci would earn six additional tens, en route to capturing the all-around, beam, and bars titles, and a bronze medal on the floor exercise. The Romanian team also placed second in the team competition, capturing silver.
Comăneci was the first Romanian gymnast to win the Olympic all-around title. She also holds the record for being the youngest Olympic gymnastics all-around champion ever. With the revised age-eligibility requirements in the sport (gymnasts must now turn 16 in the calendar year to compete in the Olympics; in 1976 gymnasts had to be 14 by the first day of the competition), it is currently not possible to break this record legally. Up until 2016, she held the distinction of being the most recent female all-around Olympic champion to have competed in a second Olympic Games. That distinction is now held by 2012 Olympic All-Around champion, Gabby Douglas, who was named to the 2016 Olympic Team on July 10.
Comăneci's achievements at the Olympics generated a significant amount of media attention. An instrumental piece from the musical score of the 1971 film Bless the Beasts and Children, "Cotton's Dream" (which was also used as the title theme music for the American soap opera The Young and the Restless) became associated with her after cinematographer/feature reporter Robert Riger used it against slow-motion montages of Nadia on the television program ABC's Wide World Of Sports. The song became a top-ten single in the fall of 1976, and the composers, Barry De Vorzon and Perry Botkin, Jr., renamed it "Nadia's Theme" in Comăneci's honour. However, Comăneci never actually performed to "Nadia's Theme." Her floor exercise music was a medley of the songs "Yes Sir, That's My Baby" and "Jump in the Line" arranged for piano. Comăneci's achievements are also pictured in the entrance area of Madison Square Garden in New York City, where she is shown presenting her perfect beam exercise.
Comăneci was the 1976 BBC Sports Personality of the Year in the overseas athletes category and the Associated Press's 1976 "Female Athlete of the Year". She also retained her title as the UPI Female Athlete of the Year. Back home in Romania, Comăneci's success led her to be awarded the "Sickle and Hammer Gold Medal", and named a "Hero of Socialist Labor"; she was the youngest Romanian to receive such recognition during the administration of Nicolae Ceaușescu.
Comăneci successfully defended her European all-around title in 1977, but when questions about the scoring were raised, Ceaușescu ordered the Romanian gymnasts to return home. The team followed orders and controversially walked out of the competition during the event finals.
Following the 1977 Europeans, the Romanian Gymnastics Federation removed Comăneci from her longtime coaches, the Károlyis, and sent her to Bucharest to train at the August 23 sports complex. The change was not positive for Comăneci. Grappling with both the stress of her parents' divorce and the new training environment, she was extremely unhappy and her gymnastics and overall fitness suffered. Comăneci competed in the 1978 World Championships in Strasbourg looking heavier and out of shape; she was also several inches taller than in Montreal. A fall from the uneven bars resulted in a fourth-place finish in the all-around behind Soviets Elena Mukhina, Nellie Kim, and Natalia Shaposhnikova. Comăneci did win the world title on beam, and a silver on vault.
After the 1978 "Worlds", Comăneci was permitted to return to Deva and to the Károlyis. In 1979, a newly slim and motivated Comăneci won her third consecutive European all-around title, becoming the first gymnast, male or female, to achieve this feat. At the World Championships that December, Comăneci led the field after the compulsory competition but was hospitalized before the optional portion of the team competition for blood poisoning caused by a cut in her wrist from her metal grip buckle. Against doctors' orders, she left the hospital and competed on the beam, where she scored a 9.95. Her performance helped give the Romanians their first team gold medal. After her performance, Comăneci spent several days recovering in All Saints Hospital and underwent a minor surgical procedure for the infected hand, which had developed an abscess.
Comăneci participated in the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, where she placed second, by a small margin, to Yelena Davydova in the individual all-around event. She successfully defended her Olympic title on the balance beam and tied with Nellie Kim for the gold medal in the floor exercise. There were controversies over the scoring in the all-around and floor exercise competitions. Romania finished second in the team competition.
In 1981 Comăneci participated in a gymnastics exhibition tour in the United States. During the tour, her coaches, Béla and Márta Károlyi, along with the Romanian team choreographer Géza Pozsár, defected. After her return to Romania, Comăneci's actions were strictly monitored. She was granted leave to attend the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles but was supervised for the entire trip. Aside from that journey, and a few select trips to Moscow and Cuba, Comăneci was forbidden to leave the country for any reason." "Life..." she wrote in her autobiography, "took on a new bleakness".
In Romania, between 1984 and 1989, Comăneci was a member of the Romanian Gymnastics Federation and helped coach the Romanian junior gymnasts. On the night of November 27, 1989, a few weeks before the revolution, she defected with a group of other young Romanians. Her overland journey took her through Hungary, Austria, and finally to the United States. Her arrival generated some negative press, focusing on her penchant for heavy makeup and flashy clothes, and the fact that her constant companion Constantin Panait (a Romanian exile who arranged her escape from Romania and initially exercised considerable control over her as her self-appointed business manager) was a married father of four.
With the help of Béla Károlyi and his friend Alexandru Stefu, a Romanian rugby coach, Comăneci was able to make a break with Panait and settle in Montreal. She successfully distanced herself from the image problems of her initial arrival from Romania. Comăneci spent most of her time touring and promoting lines of gymnastics apparel and aerobic equipment. She also dabbled in modeling, appearing in advertisements for wedding dresses and Jockey underwear.
While she was living in Montreal, former American gymnast Bart Conner, whom she had met for the first time in 1976 at the American Cup, contacted her and invited her to live in Norman, Oklahoma. They became engaged in 1994. With Conner, she returned to Romania for the first time since her defection (and since the fall of Communism and Ceaușescu's death), and the couple were married in Bucharest on April 27, 1996. The ceremony was broadcast live in Romania, and the reception was held in the former presidential palace.
In December 2003, Comăneci's book Letters to a Young Gymnast was published, a combination of a mentoring book and a memoir. The book answered questions that she received in letters from fans. She has also been the subject of several unofficial biographies, television documentaries, and a made-for-television film, Nadia, that was broadcast in the United States shortly before the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
Comăneci is active in many charities and international organizations. In 1999, she was the first athlete to be invited to speak at the United Nations to launch the Year 2000 International Year of Volunteers. She is currently on the International Board of Directors for the Special Olympics and is vice president of the Board of Directors of the Muscular Dystrophy Association. She has also personally funded the construction and operation of the Nadia Comăneci Children's Clinic, a clinic in Bucharest that provides low-cost and free medical and social support to Romanian children. In 2003 the Romanian government appointed her as an honorary consul general of Romania to the United States to deal with bilateral relations between the two nations.
In the world of gymnastics, Comăneci is the honorary president of the Romanian Gymnastics Federation, the honorary president of Romanian Olympic Committee, sports ambassador of Romania, and a member of the International Gymnastics Federation Foundation. She and her husband own the Bart Conner Gymnastics Academy, the Perfect 10 Production Company and several sports equipment shops. They are also the editors of International Gymnast magazine. Additionally, Comăneci and Conner have provided television commentary for many gymnastics meets, most recently the 2005 World Championships in Melbourne and the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. One of her perfect-10 Montreal uneven bars routine was featured in a commercial for Adidas that ran during the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.
On August 10, 2007, she was a "mob" participant on the American version of the game show 1 vs. 100, and was not eliminated until the last 20 members of the mob were left. In January 2008, she was one of the contestants in the celebrity edition of Donald Trump's television program The Apprentice.
Comăneci was the featured speaker at the 50th annual Independence Day Naturalization Ceremony on July 4, 2012, at Monticello (Virginia). She was the first athlete to speak in the history of the ceremony.
Comăneci received the Olympic Order, the highest award given by the International Olympic Committee, in 1984 and 2004. She is the only person to have received this honor twice, and was also the youngest recipient. She has also been inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. She has also won the BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year in the year 1976, at a mere age of fifteen, thus becoming the youngest recipient of this award too.
On the balance beam, Comăneci was the first gymnast to successfully perform an aerial walkover and an aerial cartwheel-back handspring flight series. She is also credited as being the first gymnast to perform a double-twist dismount.
Comăneci's skills on the floor exercise included a tucked double back salto and a double twist.
In the early part of her career, Comăneci's competitive vault was a piked Tsukahara (a half-turn pre-flight followed by a piked back salto). Later she vaulted a tucked Cuervo (handspring half turn into tucked back salto).
On the asymmetric bars, Comăneci performed her own release move, a kip to immediate straddled front salto to regrasp the high bar. The skill is named after her in the 2013–2016 women's Code of Points, where it is currently rated an "E" element (worth 0.5 points). Also named after her is the "Comăneci dismount," an underswing half turn into a back salto. This dismount is rated as a "B" element (worth 0.2 points) in the 2013–2016 Code of Points.
In popular culture
- The 1984 television film Nadia is a dramatization of Comăneci's life to that point.
- An animated version of Comăneci appeared in The Simpsons episode "Milhouse Doesn't Live Here Anymore," voiced by Tress MacNeille.
- She was shown in Marie Claire magazine's "The 8 Greatest Moments for Women in Sports".
- She is the subject of a chapter of the book No More Worlds to Conquer by Chris Wright (2015), which asks how she moved on in life when her career could be said to have peaked at the age of 14.
- List of Eastern Bloc defectors
- List of multiple Olympic medalists at a single Games
- List of Olympic female gymnasts for Romania
- List of top Olympic gymnastics medalists
- The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (2007). "Gymnastics". infoplease.com. Retrieved September 6, 2007.
- British Olympic Association (2007). "Gymnastics history". British Olympic Association. Retrieved September 6, 2007.
- "Munchkin leads European charge of gymnastics". CBS Sports. 2008-06-03. Archived from the original on 2009-08-20. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "Nadia Comaneci". CNN. July 7, 2008.
- "Olympic Champion Nadia Comăneci Young Athlete, August 1978
- Nadia Comaneci (2011). Letters to a Young Gymnast. Basic Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-465-02505-3.
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 5
- Whatever Happened to Nadia Comăneci? Barbara Fisher and Jennifer Isbister, 2003, Gymnastics Greats.com
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg.
- Nadia Comaneci (2011). Letters to a Young Gymnast. Basic Books. pp. 17–19. ISBN 978-0-465-02505-3.
- Deford, Frank. "Nadia Awed Ya". Sports Illustrated. August 2, 1976.
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 19
- Mehrhof, J. H. (2001). "Nadia Comăneci". History Reference Center (from Great Athletes, Salem Press, p. 473). EBSCO Industries, Inc. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- List of competitive results Gymn-Forum
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 27–28
- "Gymnast Posts Perfect Mark" Robin Herman, New York Times, March 28, 1976.
- "Scores for 1976 Chunichi Cup". Gymn Forum. 2001-01-09. Archived from the original on 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- UPI Athletes of the Year
- "Biography: COMANECI, Nadia". U.S. Gymnastics Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- Cousineau, Phil (2003). The Olympic Odyssey: Rekindling the True Spirit of the Great Games. Quest Books. pp. 160–161. ISBN 0835608336.
- "50 stunning Olympic moments No5: Nadia Comaneci scores a perfect 10". The Guardian. December 14, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- Ziert, Paul (2005). "Still A Perfect 10" (PDF). Olympic Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- Legends: Nadia Comăneci International Gymnast magazine
- "Within the International Federations" (PDF). Olympic Review. 1980. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-08. Retrieved 2013-06-13.
- "Nadia Comăneci: The Perfect 10" International Olympic Committee (IOC) website
- List of winners, BBC Sports Personality of the Year (Overseas) BBC press office
- Associated Press Athletes of the Year MSN Encarta. Archived 2009-11-01.
- "Decretul nr. 250/1976 privind conferirea de distinctii ale Republicii Socialiste Romania unor sportivi, antrenori si activisti din domeniul educatiei fizice si sportului" (in Romanian). Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 61–62
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 64–68
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 68–72
- "Nadia." The Epistle, (All Saints Episcopal Hospital), January 1980
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 87–91
- Little Girls in Pretty Boxes. Ryan, Joan. 1995, Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-47790-2
- "Miss Comăneci, 19, Makes Fresh Start". Ira Berkow, New York Times, March 6, 1981
- Little Girls in Pretty Boxes. Ryan, Joan. 1995, Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-47790-2 pg. 201
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 121
- Letters to a Young Gymnast. Comăneci, Nadia. 2004, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01276-0 pg. 137–148
- Schneider, Karen S. (November 26, 1990). "After Escaping Her Romanian Svengali, Nadia Comăneci Tries to Get Her Life Back on the Beam". People. 34 (21). Retrieved 2011-07-19.
- "Nadia Tumbles over Wedding" Cincinnati Post, April 6, 1996
- shobha aradhya (June 11, 1984). "Nadia (TV Movie 1984)". IMDb.
- "Nadia Comăneci, Bart Conner Welcome Baby Boy" Associated Press, June 6, 2006
- "Former Gymnasts Nadia Comăneci and Bart Conner Baptized Their First Child, Dylan Paul" Catalina Iancu, Jurnalul National, August 28, 2006
- "MDA's Perfect 10s" Muscular Dystrophy Association
- Honorary Consulates of Romania in the US Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- Roenigk, Alyssa (August 17, 2008). "The First Family of Gymnastics". ESPN The Magazine. Retrieved 2008-08-21.
- "Trump's celebrity 'Apprenti' revealed" Gina Serpe, E! News, November 19, 2007
- "Nadia Comaneci". International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-06-04. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "SPORTS ACTIVE: NO TURNING BACK – Nadia Comăneci's perfect Olympic 10" George Chesterson, The Independent, April 11, 2004
- "A Great Leap Backward" Anita Verschoth, Sports Illustrated, April 12, 1976
- "The Games: Up in the Air" Time, August 2, 1976
- Friedman, Megan. "Historic Moments in Female Sports – Athletic Women". Marieclaire.com. Retrieved 2015-04-16.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nadia Comăneci.|
- Official Site of Bart Conner and Nadia Comăneci
- International Gymnast Magazine
- Profile of Nadia Comăneci
- List of competitive results at Gymn Forum
- The Nadia Comaneci Foundation Website
- Interview with Nadia Comăneci, September 2012 (Romanian)
- Nadia Comăneci at the Internet Movie Database
|Awards and achievements|
|United Press International
Athlete of the Year
|BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year
Billie Jean King
|Flo Hyman Memorial Award