This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Nadodi Mannan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Nadodi Mannan (1958 film))
Jump to: navigation, search
Nadodi Mannan
Nadodi mannan poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by M. G. Ramachandran
Produced by M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Chakrapani
R. M. Veerappan
Written by Kannadasan
Ravindar (dialogues)
Screenplay by C. Kuppusami
K. Srinivasan
P. Neelakantan
Story by R. M. Veerappan
V. Lakshmanan
S. K. T. Sami
Starring M. G. Ramachandran
P. S. Veerappa
M. N. Nambiar
Bhanumathi Ramakrishna
M. N. Rajam
B. Saroja Devi
Music by S. M. Subbaiah Naidu
N. S. Balakrishnan
Cinematography G. K. Ramu
Edited by K. Perumal
C. P. Jambulingam
Production
company
Em.Gee.Yar Pictures
Distributed by Em.Gee.Yar Pictures
Release date
22 August 1958[1]
Running time
220 – 226 minutes[a]
Country India
Language Tamil
Budget 1.8 million[1]
Box office 11 million[4]

Nadodi Mannan (English: The Vagabond King)[1] is a 1958 Indian Tamil-language action adventure film directed by M. G. Ramachandran. He stars in dual roles alongside Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, M. N. Rajam and B. Saroja Devi. P. S. Veerappa, M. N. Nambiar, M. G. Chakrapani, T. K. Balachandran, J. P. Chandrababu, K. R. Ramsingh and T. P. Muthulakshmi play supporting roles.

The film revolves around a future king being replaced by his look-alike after he is abducted on the eve of his coronation. The look-alike begins to implement social and economic reforms to uplift the poor which irks the kingdom's high priest, who has kidnapped the very person the look-alike resembles. The rest of the film shows how the look-alike saves the man he impersonates and defeats the high priest.

Made on a budget of 1.8 million, Ramachandran co-produced the film with Chakrapani and R. M. Veerappan under the banner of Em.Gee.Yar Pictures. Kannadasan and Ravindar wrote the dialogues while C. Kuppusami, K. Srinivasan and P. Neelakantan were in charge of the screenplay. The cinematography was handled by G. K. Ramu while K. Perumal and C. P. Jambulingam did the editing. S. M. Subbaiah Naidu and N. S. Balakrishnan composed the film's soundtrack and score. Songs from the soundtrack like "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey", "Thadukkathey", "Summa Kedandha" and "Senthamizhe" became popular hits.

Filmed in both black and white as well as Gevacolor, Nadodi Mannan was released on 22 August 1958 and garnered positive critical reception. It was a commercial success, grossing 11 million in its lifetime, thereby becoming only the second Tamil film to earn 10 million after another Ramachandran starrer Madurai Veeran (1956); it became a silver jubilee film. Nadodi Mannan acquired cult status in Tamil cinema. It was dubbed into Telugu as Anaganaga Oka Raju and in Hindi as Hamen Bhi Jeene Do.

Plot[edit]

Marthandan is chosen by a majority of the imperial council of the kingdom of Ratnapuri to be its new ruler after the previous king died without naming a successor. However, the kingdom's Rajaguru (high priest) Vijayavarman, plans to kill Marthandan and make Pingalan, Marthandan's cousin, king. Meanwhile, Veerabahu, a loyal bodyguard of the late king, and his men, including his son Bhupathi and daughter Madhana, are not pleased to see Marthandan as king and are equally saddened by the situation of Ratnapuri's people. Food shortages and high unemployment have besieged Ratnapuri in addition to the taxes imposed by Vijayavarman without Marthandan's knowledge. This results in violent protests by the people led by Veerangan, Marthandan's look-alike, with the support of his friend Sagayam. They march to the palace condemning the monarchy and demanding democracy. Veerangan is imprisoned for his actions in Naganathapuram, a nearby town. Madhana is also incarcerated in the same prison on a similar charge. They are pardoned and released on the occasion of Marthandan's coronation. They travel together to Ratnapuri. Sharing the same ideals and revolutionary thoughts, they fall in love.

In the meantime, Marthandan arrives at Ratnapuri. Vijayavarman asks him to stay in an isolated palace on the outskirts and tells him that he should not meet his wife Manohari until the coronation, as the current moment is inauspicious. On entering a hotel in Ratnapuri, Veerangan and Sagayam beat up a gang of rowdies. Hired by Vijayavarman, they mistake Veerangan for Marthandan. Veerangan is chased by palace guards and ends up in Marthandan's room. Marthandan and Veerangan meet face to face. Veerangan tells him of the pathetic state the people of Ratnapuri, and Marthandan agrees to set everything right as soon as he takes charge. On the eve of the coronation, Vijayavarman arranges for Marthandan to be poisoned. He carries out his plan with the help of Karmegam, a royal advisor. Marthandan swoons after drinking a few sips of the poisoned beverage, but is soon saved by Veerangan and Ratnapuri's commander-in-chief. However, Marthandan is still unconscious and incapacitated. The commander-in-chief, and one of the ministers, persuade Veerangan to take Marthandan's place to ensure that the coronation takes place as scheduled. A reluctant Veerangan agrees to do so in the interests of the state, and arrives just in time for the coronation. It takes place smoothly and Veerangan, as Marthandan, becomes Ratnapuri's new king. Vijayavarman and Pingalan are taken aback and send men to investigate. They find the unconscious Marthandan and kidnap him.

Veerangan now finds himself saddled with the role of king for more days than he had initially bargained for because of Marthandan's sudden disappearance. He does not let this setback deter him and puts the opportunity to good use by beginning many reforms, and enacting several measures to uplift the poor. These steps are supported by the people while causing a political upheaval among the elite. However, he is troubled by the fact that he is deceiving Manohari who believes him to be Marthandan. Unable to keep it a secret from her, he tells her the truth. Perceiving his noble character, Manohari accepts him as her brother.

Madhana is killed by Pingalan's men, and a grief-stricken Veerangan vows to avenge her death. He discovers through Veerabahu that both Marthandan and Ratna, the previous king's daughter and the original heir to Ratnapuri's throne, have been kidnapped and held in custody on an island named Kanni Theevu. Veerangan sails to the island and comes across Ratna, who falls in love with him; he reciprocates her feelings. Pingalan and Karmegam arrive there only to find that the island's chieftain is none other than Vijayavarman, who has kidnapped Ratna after she was born. Vijayavarman plans to marry Ratna himself, get rid of Pingalan, and declare himself the ruler of Ratnapuri. Pingalan decides to take Ratna back and make himself king legally by marrying her. Ratna does not approve of it. Pingalan takes her away by force. Veerangan saves her from Pingalan's clutches. The duo then free Marthandan and Karmegam, who had been captured by Vijayavarman and is now reformed. Both Marthandan and Veerangan defeat Vijayavarman. Veerangan marries Ratna, and Marthandan issues a proclamation stating that Ratnapuri is a democracy.

Cast[edit]

Male actors
Female actors

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

After the release of Naam (1953),[5] M. G. Ramachandran and his brother M. G. Chakrapani, who were its co-producers and shareholders,[6] were keen to make a film under their own production banner.[1] Hence, they established Em.Gee.Yar Productions and hired M. Karunanidhi to draft a script for a film titled Vidivelli. The film was shelved after Karunanidhi was imprisoned for participating in the Kallakudi agitations in July 1953.[1][7] Ramachandran and Chakrapani then dissolved Em.Gee.Yar Productions and established the Em.Gee.Yar drama troupe instead, but the idea of producing a film was still on Ramachandran's mind.[1] Of the film's development, Ramachandran recalled:

In those days, I had thought about poverty and people's situation. Rather than saying 'thinking', it would be proper to say, I was experiencing the same. Occasionally, I thought, why these problems exist. The answer I received was, 'It's because of foreigner's rule.' But I didn't realize that the foreigner's rule will be forever. Therefore, even if the foreigner's rule vanishes, the rulers should be of good mind. Then, people will benefit. That's why I created the vagabond character. Then, I thought about the situation of the king. Those who are ruling us now, belong to our tribe. They live with us. But their thinking and talents are controlled by foreigners. Thus, I imagined, if they join with commoners? This was the focus of the king character.[1]

Ramachandran had dreamed of making his own film ever since he attended a screening of Frank Lloyd's historical drama, If I Were King (1938) starring Ronald Colman, in Calcutta.[8] This occurred while he was playing a minor role in Maya Machhindra (1939).[1] He wished to make a film that would express his political views and interests to the people of Tamil Nadu. To this end, he assembled a team of three people: R. M. Veerappan, V. Lakshmanan and S. K. T. Sami.[9][10] He gave them suggestions about the outline of the story and urged them to watch If I Were King and two other films: The Prisoner of Zenda (1937), another Colman film, and Elia Kazan's Viva Zapata! (1952).[11] After several brainstorming sessions, the team came up with a story loosely based on the three films and decided on the title Nadodi Mannan.[9][10] The trio then helped make it look more Indian.[10]

Nadodi Mannan was produced on a budget of 1.8 million,[b] which was considered approximately two-and-a-half times more expensive than the average Tamil film made at the time. Nearly a year was spent on pre-production and casting.[1] K. Ramnoth was appointed initially to direct the film, but died before production began resulting in Ramachandran taking over the position himself, thereby making his directorial debut.[1][13] This was the second film produced by Ramachandran, and the first under the production banner of Em.Gee.Yar Pictures, which was handled by Ramachandran, Chakrapani and Veerappan.[14][15] Kannadasan and Ravindar, who assisted Veerappan, Lakshmanan and Sami with the story, wrote the dialogues.[1][16] The screenplay was written by the trio of C. Kuppusami, K. Srinivasan and P. Neelakantan.[16] G. K. Ramu, K. Nageswar Rao and R. N. Nagaraja Rao were in charge of cinematography, art direction and stills.[16] K. P. Ramakrishnan and Arunachalam acted as stunt doubles for Ramachandran.[16][17][18]

Film historian Film News Anandan noticed publicity stills of Nadodi Mannan on Veerappan's office desk when he happened to visit the office of Em.Gee.Yar Pictures. He then offered to distribute them to the press. Veerappan agreed knowing that Anandan was then a member of the South Indian Film Journalists Association. After a few days, stills of the film were published in many magazines. Ramachandran was impressed with Anandan's work and, at Veerappan's suggestion, hired him as the film's public relations officer (PRO).[19][20] This was Anandan's debut film as a PRO; however, his name does not appear in the opening credits.[16][21]

Casting[edit]

During the filming of Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum (1956), an advertisement for Nadodi Mannan was released describing it as an adaptation of The Prisoner of Zenda.[c] A couple of days later, Bharani Pictures, the production company co-founded by P. S. Ramakrishna Rao and Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, released an advertisement for a film whose concept was similar to The Prisoner of Zenda. When Ramachandran and Bhanumathi heard their films were similar, they tried to convince each other to change their film's storyline. After much deliberation, Ramachandran told Bhanumathi that he was keeping "only the section of a commoner switched to king" in the original, while the rest of the film would be different. Ramachandran accepted that they were both confused over what to do next. A few days later, for unknown reasons, Bharani Pictures' planned film was shelved. Bhanumathi informed Ramachandran and told him he could go ahead with his film. She offered Ramachandran her shelved film's script, written by A. K. Velan, and asked him to use it for Nadodi Mannan. Ramachandran thanked her for her generosity, and offered her the role of Madhana; Bhanumathi agreed to work in the film.[1][23]

M. N. Rajam was cast as Manohari, the queen of Ratnapuri, and king Marthandan's wife. Ramachandran wanted Rajam for the role to avoid her being typecast as a character driven by jealousy and malice.[24] For the role of Ratna, B. Saroja Devi was selected after a successful audition. Saroja Devi was not fluent in Tamil at the time, so her dialogues were written in such a way that she would find it easier to pronounce them.[25] P. S. Veerappa, M. N. Nambiar and Chakrapani played the antagonists Vijayavarman, Pingalan and Karmegam.[26][27] T. K. Balachandran, who was prominent in Malayalam films, was cast as Bhupathi.[27] K. R. Ramsingh was selected for the role of Madhana and Bhupathi's father, Veerabahu, after Ramachandran was impressed by his performance in one of the stage plays he featured in.[27] J. P. Chandrababu played Veerangan's friend and sidekick, Sagayam.[28] T. P. Muthulakshmi was cast as Nagamma, a native of Kanni Theevu, who wants a husband. G. Sakunthala played Manohari's lady-in-waiting Nandini and K. S. Angamuthu the restaurateur Pappa respectively.[25][29]

Filming[edit]

Nadodi Mannan was filmed in black-and-white for the sequences in Ratnapuri, and in Gevacolor for the later scenes depicting the happenings on Kanni Theevu.[1][30] The film's colour sections were processed at the Film Centre laboratory in Mumbai.[3][16] Principal photography took place from 1956 to 1958 over a period of 156 days, which was more than the usual amount of time taken for shooting as most films in that period were completed in 40–50 days.[1] The song "Sammadhama" was the first sequence to be shot. The underwater sequence for the song "Kannil Vanthu Minnalpol", the dance scenes for the song "Maanaithedi Machchaan", and "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey" took 12, 9 and 3 days each to shoot. The climax scenes involving Ramachandran, Saroja Devi and Veerappa required 11 days of filming, while the sword fights between of Ramachandran and Nambiar were shot in a week.[1]

As director, Ramachandran wanted the end result to be perfect and shot multiple retakes for the same scene. Bhanumathi found his methods demanding as she was used to finishing her scenes in a single take. When she complained about the same, Ramachandran asked her to either do as he wished or leave the project. She left and did not return. Her remaining scenes were altered by having her character, Madhana, die.[8][31] Since Ramachandran shot retakes, a lot of film was wasted. At the time, film studios allowed the use of only a small number of film rolls to avoid budgetary concerns. Ramachandran bought 1,000 feet (300 m) from outside sources for 500,[b] which was considered expensive.[14]

During filming, Ramachandran received support from various members of the Tamil cinema industry. B. Nagi Reddy allowed Ramachandran to build the sets for Nadodi Mannan at Vijaya Vauhini Studios. Likewise, S. S. Vasan of Gemini Studios volunteered his equipment to ensure that the climax scenes came out well; it was the only time the studio's equipment was used outside its premises. The outdoor sequences were shot in collaboration with Aruna Films.[32] Ramachandran asked director Krishnaswami Subrahmanyam to participate in the filmmaking as an overseer. Subrahmanyam was impressed with Ramachandran's approach and felt there was no need for anyone to supervise him. Subrahmanyam also helped make arrangements for filming some outdoor shots at Munnar. These were done in collaboration with Aruna Films.[32][33] Aarumugam handled the editing initially, but left during the beginning of the film's principal photography; he was later replaced by K. Perumal. C. P. Jambulingam took responsibility for editing the film's colour portions after Perumal suddenly fell ill.[34] The final length of Nadodi Mannan was 19,830 feet (6,040 m).[3]

Themes[edit]

Nadodi Mannan was inspired by films such as The Prisoner of Zenda, If I Were King and Viva Zapata!.[1][11] Ramachandran, in an account about the film he wrote in 1959, mentioned three specific differences from The Prisoner of Zenda. In the original, the look-alike and the queen have an intimate relationship while in Nadodi Mannan, Veerangan rejects Manohari's advances. When she realises that Veerangan is not Marthandan, she addresses him as her brother instead. Secondly, the look-alike was related to the king and shared the same interests. Veerangan is not related to Marthandan and initially has contrasting qualities until they meet. Thirdly, the character of Vijayavarman, and the sequences in Kanni Theevu, do not feature in the original, while these were incorporated as part of Nadodi Mannan's main plot.[1]

Sri Lankan film historian Sachi Sri Kantha noted that several of Ramachandran's films reflect the 1950s trend of films being "costume dramas" that focus on princes and folk heroes, citing Nadodi Mannan as an example.[6] Kantha points out that the protagonist featured in a "riding scene with an educational (or philosophical) song" with "either the heroine or a side-kick (comedian) or an actor in a minor role" alongside him is a recurring theme in many films starring Ramachandran. According to Kantha, this was after the song "Ethanai Kaalam Thaan Ematruvar Indha Naatinile" from Malaikkallan (1954) became popular. In Nadodi Mannan, the song "Summa Kedandha" which features Ramachandran alongside Bhanumathi, and "Uzhaipa Thilla" which features an extra, were described by Kantha as "educational songs with a riding scene".[1]

R. Ilangovan of Frontline magazine believed the lyrics for "Summa Kedandha", which were written by Kalyanasundaranar who was a member of the Communist Party of India, "are a classic example of how he presented forcefully the idea of radical reforms". Ilangovan mentions the presentation of reforms by Kalyanasundaranar in the song is indicated by two lines: The pessimistic "Kadu velanchenna machan, namakku kaiyum, kalum thane mitcham" (What if the fields are lush with crops, we are left with mere hands and legs), and “Kadu vilayttum ponnae, namakku kalam irukkuthu pennae” (Let the fields sprout, young lady, our time will come), which reflects an optimistic tone.[35]

Nadodi Mannan is considered by many critics, historians and intellectuals to be a propaganda film of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). Ramachandran was affiliated with the DMK at that time.[1][36] Film historians Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen, Vaasanthi, and S. Rajanayagam note that the black and red flag of the DMK, as well as the party's rising sun symbol, are seen in the film.[37] Rajadhyaksha and Willemen further state the Vijayavarman's corrupt nature is "a thinly disguised reference to the Congress Party".[2] Both Vaasanthi and another film historian, Selvaraj Velayutham, mention a scene where Ramachandran issues a decree that can be passed off as "a DMK election manifesto".[38][d] According to both Erik Barnouw and Sisir Kumar Das, the song "Senthamizhe" represents the glorification of the Tamil language, identity and culture. It also symbolises what Das describes as "a medium of propagation of D.M.K. ideology".[40] Ramachandran even went on to say, during the celebration of the film's 100th day theatrical run, that: "Nadodi Mannan has been produced to show that the DMK is the party which is serving the people of this country."[41][42]

Music[edit]

Nadodi Mannan
Soundtrack album by S. M. Subbaiah Naidu and N. S. Balakrishnan
Released 1958
Length 1:01:29
Label The Gramophone Company of India Ltd
Producer S. M. Subbaiah Naidu
N. S. Balakrishnan

Balakrishnan composed the songs "Paadupattathannale", "Sammadhama" and "Senthamizhe" while the rest were by S. M. Subbaiah Naidu, who was also in charge of the background score.[43] The songs' lyrics were written by Kalyanasundaranar, Suratha, Kavi Lakshmanadas, N. M. Muthukkoothan and M. K. Aathmanathan.[1][16][44] The song "Varuga Varuga Vendhe", written by Suratha, was also composed in Kannada, Malayalam and in Telugu with lyrics by Vijaya Narasimha, P. Bhaskaran, and Narayanababu respectively.[16][45] The song "Summa Kedandha" was written earlier for the news agency Janasakthi before Kalyansundaranar used it for the film with a few minor changes in the lyrics.[46] The songs were recorded on 45 RPM records produced by The Gramophone Company of India Ltd label, which also released the soundtrack.[47][48]

The soundtrack received positive feedback with songs like "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey,"[35] "Thadukkathey",[49] "Summa Kedandha" and "Senthamizhe" becoming popular hits.[1][35][50] Sachi Sri Kantha called "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey" a "magical educational song," further describing it as one of the songs that Ramachandran used to direct "his attention on the listlessness among Tamil workers".[1][6] Rajadhyaksha and Willemen mention in their book, Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, that "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey" had inaugurated "MGR's personal political programme".[2] Both Sridhar Swaminathan of The Hindu Tamil and Maayan of the Tamil magazine Ananda Vikatan also cite the same song as a good example of children's education.[51][52] A reviewer from The New Indian Express called the songs "philosophy-espousing" while noting how they "spelt the Dravidian tenets".[53]

Track list[16][48][54][55]
No. Title Lyrics Singer(s) Length
1. "Kannil Vandhu Minnalpol" Suratha T. M. Soundararajan, Jikki 04:24
2. "Kannoda Kannu" Kalyanasundaranar Jikki 06:24
3. "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey" Kalyanasundaranar T. M. Soundararajan 03:12
4. "Uzhaipa Thilla" Kavi Lakshmanadas Sirkazhi Govindarajan 03:35
5. "Thadukkathey" M. K. Aathmanathan J. P. Chandrababu, Jamuna Rani 03:03
6. "Maanaithedi Machan" Kalyanasundaranar Jikki 04:38
7. "Summa Kedandha" Kalyanasundaranar T. M. Soundararajan, Bhanumathi Ramakrishna 03:16
8. "Varuga Varuga Vendhe (Tamil)" Suratha N. L. Ganasaraswathi, P. S. Vaidehi 06:01
9. "Namma Dravidare Kulage (Kannada)" Vijaya Narasimha Jikki 06:01
10. "Dravidamaam (Malayalam)" P. Bhaskaran Santha P. Nair 06:01
11. "Kudakkalla Kimpuma (Telugu)" Narayanababu Jikki 06:01
12. "Paadupattathannale" M. K. Aathmanathan T. V. Rathinam 03:18
13. "Sammadhama" N. M. Muthukkoothan Bhanumathi Ramakrishna 02:29
14. "Senthamizhe" N. M. Muthukkoothan T. M. Soundararajan 03:06
Total length: 01:01:29

Release[edit]

Nadodi Mannan was released on 22 August 1958.[1] The expenses made for the film resulted in Ramachandran not having enough money to buy release prints.[e] Hence, Veerappan and Chakrapani decided to acquire a legal loan of 50,000 from AVM Productions.[b] However, Ramachandran's signature was required for the loan contract. When they consulted with him on this issue, he asked Veerappan and Chakrapani to tell the studio's founder A. V. Meiyappan that they would repay the loan and keep the price paid by the production company, Cinemas Limited, for distribution rights for the film's release in Sri Lanka as collateral. Meiyappan agreed to provide the loan, which was repaid by Veerappan immediately after the film's release.[14][57]

Critical reception[edit]

The film received positive critical reception.[2] Ananda Vikatan, in a review dated 7 September 1958, appreciated the film for being a commercial entertainer, describing it as a treat to the eyes, medicine for messages. The review concluded that the film could be seen more than once.[58] Ramakrishnan T. of The Hindu labelled Bhanumathi's performance "noteworthy".[59] Another critic from the same newspaper, K. Jeshi, appreciated the filmmaking techniques used to portray Ramachandran's dual roles, noting that it was "technically superior".[60] A reviewer from the entertainment and news website Sify termed it as "a pucca mass entertainer".[61]

Rajadhyaksha and Willemen mention that Nadodi Mannan was made "in a style derived from Gemini's post-Chandralekha (1948) films".[2] James K. Norton, author of the book Global Studies, India and South Asia, called the film "a prime example of how rhetoric and action were combined to build an image as a hero of the oppressed".[62] Rajanayagam however, criticised his role as Marthandan, pointing out that the character's mannerisms are "overdone to the point of annoyance".[63]

Box office[edit]

Shortly before its release, Ramachandran's take on the film's fate was: "I am a king if this were to succeed. If not, I will be a vagabond."[8][64] The film turned out to be an unprecedented success at the box office, grossing 11 million,[b] becoming only the second Tamil film to earn more than 10 million after Madurai Veeran (1956), which also featured Ramachandran in the lead.[4][8][b] The film ran for 100 days in 23 theatres worldwide.[4] It went on to achieve a theatrical run of 175 days and become a silver jubilee film.[65][66][f] It was dubbed into Telugu as Anaganaga Oka Raju and as Hamen Bhi Jeene Do in Hindi.[3][67]

The DMK party celebrated the success of Nadodi Mannan with a public function on 16 October 1958 at the Tamukkam Ground in Madurai. The function, which was attended by 200,000 people, saw Ramachandran being taken in a procession on a chariot drawn by four horses and garlanded twice. He was awarded a golden sword worth 110 pounds by the party leader C. N. Annadurai and member V. R. Nedunchezhiyan.[68][69] Ramachandran later donated the sword to the Kollur Mookambika Temple.[70] The film's 100th day theatrical run celebrations were held on 30 November 1958 at the Alagappa College in Madurai.[42][64]

Cancelled sequels[edit]

Ramachandran had planned a sequel to Nadodi Mannan titled Nadodiyin Magan. He also planned his second film to be titled after the song "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey". Both projects were abandoned.[70][71][g]

Re-releases[edit]

Nadodi Mannan was first re-released on 4 August 2006 in Chennai and Chengalpattu by Divya Films,[72] which spent 300,000 on poster designs and promotions for its re-release.[73][b] The film opened to a positive response from the audience.[73] It received another successful re-release on 18 March 2011 in Madurai.[74]

Legacy and influence[edit]

"When he introduced me in Nadodi Mannan, I was so naive. He took care of me so well and used to give advice and tips while acting. After that we have acted together in several films. Without MGR, there's no Saroja Devi!"
 – Saroja Devi on M. G. Ramachandran in an interview with Deccan Chronicle.[75]

Nadodi Mannan was a turning point in Ramachandran's career as both an actor and a politician. The film's success earned him the nickname "Puratchi Thalaivar" ("revolutionary leader").[2][76] Film historian Swarnavel Eswaran Pillai called Nadodi Mannan Ramachandran's "defining film as a star".[77] The film acquired cult status in Tamil cinema and propelled Saroja Devi to stardom.[78] T. S. Subramanian of Frontline noted that it was one among many of Ramachandran's films in the 1950s where he "espoused his personal ideals such as helping the poor, being chivalrous and fighting injustice."[79] Film historian and critic Randor Guy labelled Nadodi Mannan as among the most memorable films both Nambiar and Veerappa had worked in.[80][81]

The song "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey" was used as the title for a 1983 film starring Kamal Haasan.[82] In their 2006 reviews of Imsai Arasan 23rd Pulikecei, both Baskaran of The Hindu, and S. Sudha of Rediff.com, mention the film shared similarities with Nadodi Mannan.[83][84] In July 2007, S. R. Ashok Kumar of The Hindu asked eight Tamil film directors to list their all-time favourite Tamil films; K. Bhagyaraj named Nadodi Mannan. Bhagyaraj selected the film because he "enjoyed the way both heroes combine acting prowess with entertainment".[85] In the film Padikkadavan (2009), Assault Aarumugam (Vivek) is disguised as a woman and is chased by two thugs who mistake him for a real woman. During the chase, the song "Maanaithedi Machan" is played in the background.[86]

Baradwaj Rangan, writing for The Hindu in 2014, mentions in his review of Kaththi that the film's basic plot was "the old Naadodi Mannan [sic] template, shaped with a relevant, burning social angle."[87] For the same newspaper, Namrata Joshi noted that Prem Ratan Dhan Payo (2015) bore a resemblance to Nadodi Mannan in terms of a prince's look-alike taking his place.[88] Lyricist Thamarai mentions in her interview with Rangan that she wishes to write songs as beautiful as "Thoongathey Thambi Thoongathey".[89]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ While Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen state the runtime is 220 minutes,[2] Film News Anandan gives the film's runtime as 226 minutes.[3]
  2. ^ a b c d e f The exchange rate in 1958 was 4.79 Indian rupees () per 1 US dollar (US$).[12]
  3. ^ T. M. Ramachandran, editor of the magazine "Film World", stated that Nadodi Mannan was a "free adaptation" of The Prisoner of Zenda and not an official one.[22]
  4. ^ S. Rajanayagam mentions in his book, Popular Cinema and Politics in South India: The Films of MGR and Rajinikanth, that when Ramachandran assumed office as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, news reporters asked him what his plans were. To this, he replied "See my Nadodi Mannan and you will get the answer".[39]
  5. ^ According to film trade analyst Sreedhar Pillai, six release prints were released for Nadodi Mannan.[56]
  6. ^ A Silver Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 25th anniversary.
  7. ^ Neither S. Kirubakaran nor S. R. Ashok Kumar mention why the projects were abandoned.[70][71]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Kantha, Sachi Sri (6 March 2015). "MGR Remembered – Part 25". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 355.
  3. ^ a b c d Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – 1958 – ல் வெளியான படப்பட்டியல் – தயாரிப்பாளர்கள் விபரம் – நாடோடி மன்னன் [History of Landmark Tamil Films – List of films of 1958 – Credits – Nadodi Mannan] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017. 
  5. ^ Guy, Randor (29 December 2012). "Naam (1953)". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 June 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c Kantha, Sachi Sri (30 September 2014). "MGR Remembered – Part 21". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017. 
  7. ^ Kannan 2010, p. 204.
  8. ^ a b c d சுவாமிநாதன், ஸ்ரீதர் (22 March 2016). "எம்ஜிஆர் 100 - 26 - படம் ஓடினால் மன்னன், ஓடாவிட்டால் நாடோடி!" [MGR100 - 26 - If the film is successful, he is a king, if not he is a vagabond!]. The Hindu Tamil (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – கதை தேர்வுக்கு காரணம்... [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Reason behind the story] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – கதையை செதுக்கிய மூவர் [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – The trio who made the story] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  11. ^ a b சூரியராஜ், ப. (16 April 2017). "தனுஷ் மட்டுமில்லை இந்த தமிழ் ஹீரோக்களும் இயக்குநர்கள்தான்..!" [Not just Dhanush, these Tamil actors are directors too..!]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  12. ^ "Rupee's journey since Independence: Down by 65 times against dollar". The Economic Times. 24 August 2013. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  13. ^ Baskaran 2013, p. 197.
  14. ^ a b c நெல்லைபாரதி (1 February 2014). "எம்.ஜி.ஆர் வாங்கிய கடன்" [The loans MGR bought]. The Hindu Tamil (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  15. ^ Ramachandran, M. G. (director) (1958). Nadodi Mannan (motion picture) (in Tamil). India: Em.Gee.Yar Pictures. From 00:00:15 to 00:00:25. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ramachandran, M. G. (director) (1958). Nadodi Mannan (motion picture) (in Tamil). India: Em.Gee.Yar Pictures. Opening credits from 00:00:45 to 00:03:35. 
  17. ^ Rangarajan, Malathi (8 June 2013). "Double impact". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  18. ^ Parameswaran, Prathibha (21 November 2016). "A stunt director's diary: ‘We would be given a platform ticket and asked to jump from the train’". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  19. ^ Rangarajan, Malathi (12 December 2002). "A pioneer speaks ...". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  20. ^ Kumar, S. R. Ashok (31 October 2004). "A giant among chroniclers". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  21. ^ Rangarajan, Malathi (10 May 2012). "Tryst with the past". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  22. ^ Ramachandran, T. M. (1974). Film World, Volume 10. Charlottesville, Virginia: University of Virginia. p. 88. 
  23. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – பானுமதியின் பெருந்தன்மை [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Bhanumathi's generosity] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  24. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – திறமையை நிரூபித்தார் எம்.என்.ராசம் [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – M. N. Rajam showed her talent] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  25. ^ a b Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – அசத்தினார் சரோஜாதேவி [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Saroja Devi impressed] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  26. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – வீரப்பாவை சிரிக்கச் சொல்லவில்லை! [History of Landmark Tamil Films – I never asked Veerappa to laugh!] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  27. ^ a b c Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – பிங்கலனாக பிரகாசித்த நம்பியார் [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Nambiar shined as Pingalan] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  28. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – சகாயமாக சாதித்த சந்திரபாபு [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Chandrababu succeeded as Sagayam] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  29. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – முத்திரை பதித்த முத்துக்கள் [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Stamped Pearls] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  30. ^ Ramachandran, M. G. (director) (1958). Nadodi Mannan (motion picture) (in Tamil). India: Em.Gee.Yar Pictures. Gevacolor portions from 02:16:00 onwards. 
  31. ^ "பிளாஷ்பேக்: நாடோடி மன்னன் படத்திலிருந்து வெளியேறிய பானுமதி". Dinamalar (in Tamil). 24 October 2016. Archived from the original on 15 June 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  32. ^ a b Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – நாகி ரெட்டி, வாசனுக்கு நன்றி [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – A note of thanks to Nagi Reddy and Vasan] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  33. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – சுப்பிரமணியம் அவர்களின் பெருந்தன்மை [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Subrahmanyam's generosity] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  34. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – ஜம்பம் இல்லாத ஜம்பு [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – No-nonsense Jambu] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  35. ^ a b c Ilangovan, R. (11 June 2014). "Songs of the soil". Frontline. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  36. ^ Das 1991, pp. 38–39; Barnouw 1996, pp. 163–164; Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 355; Vaasanthi 2008, pp. 36, 38; Rajanayagam 2015, p. 154; Kannan 2017, p. 107.
  37. ^ Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 355; Vaasanthi 2008, p. 36; Rajanayagam 2015, p. 155.
  38. ^ Vaasanthi 2008, p. 36; Velayutham 2008, p. 69.
  39. ^ Rajanayagam 2015, p. 155.
  40. ^ Das 1991, pp. 38–39; Barnouw 1996, p. 163.
  41. ^ Norton 1993, p. 90; Vaasanthi 2008, p. 38.
  42. ^ a b Jeshi, K. (15 December 2013). "Flashbacks of a director". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  43. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – இனிய, உணர்ச்சிகரமான இசை [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Melodious, morale-lifting music] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  44. ^ Shivapprasadh, S. (15 August 2013). "Twin talent". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  45. ^ Film News Anandan (23 October 2004). சாதனைகள் படைத்த தமிழ்த் திரைப்பட வரலாறு – நாடோடி மன்னன் பற்றி எம்.ஜி.ஆர். – பாடல்களின் முக்கியத்துவம் [History of Landmark Tamil Films – MGR on Nadodi Mannan – Importance of songs] (in Tamil). Chennai: Sivakami Publishers. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  46. ^ சுவாமிநாதன், ஸ்ரீதர் (25 February 2016). "எம்ஜிஆர் 100 - 8 - எம்.ஜி.ஆரின் பொதுவுடமை" [MGR 100 - 8 - MGR's communal beliefs]. The Hindu Tamil. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  47. ^ "S.M. Subbiah Naidu – Nadodi Mannan". Discogs. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  48. ^ a b "Nadodi Mannan". Saregama. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  49. ^ Guy, Randor (2 October 2009). "A voice that mesmerised". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  50. ^ Das 1991, p. 39.
  51. ^ சுவாமிநாதன், ஸ்ரீதர் (28 May 2016). "எம்ஜிஆர் 100 - 74 - குழந்தை உள்ளம்!" [MGR100 - 74 - Childish mindset!]. The Hindu Tamil (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  52. ^ மாயன் (13 April 2016). "பட்டுக்கோட்டை எனும் பாட்டுக்கோட்டை !" [The king of songs who is Pattukkottai !]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  53. ^ "Will he? Won't he?". The New Indian Express. 22 May 2017. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  54. ^ "Nadodi Mannan". Gaana.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  55. ^ "Nadodi Mannan (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)". iTunes. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  56. ^ Pillai, Sreedhar (20 February 2016). "Centres that mean business". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
  57. ^ முத்துராமன், எஸ்.பி. (9 September 2015). "சினிமா எடுத்துப் பார் 25- அந்த நாட்கள்!" [Try to make cinema 25- Those days!]. The Hindu Tamil. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  58. ^ Munusamy; Manickam (7 September 1958). "சினிமா விமர்சனம்: நாடோடி மன்னன்" [Movie Review: Nadodi Mannan]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017. (Subscription required (help)). 
  59. ^ T., Ramakrishnan (6 August 2002). "The day of the heroine?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017. 
  60. ^ Jeshi, K. (18 September 2011). "Following a star". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017. 
  61. ^ "Nadodi Mannan-Old is gold!". Sify. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
  62. ^ Norton 1993, p. 90.
  63. ^ Rajanayagam 2015, p. 15.
  64. ^ a b Kannan 2010, p. 229.
  65. ^ Rajanayagam 2015, p. 153.
  66. ^ "Curtains come down on Thangam theatre, once Asia's largest". Firstpost. Press Trust of India. 5 August 2011. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  67. ^ Narasimham, M. L. (6 February 2015). "Panduranga Mahatyam (1957)". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
  68. ^ Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 355; Kannan 2010, p. 229.
  69. ^ சுவாமிநாதன், ஸ்ரீதர் (9 March 2016). "எம்ஜிஆர் 100 - 17 - நிழலில் எதிரிகள்; நிஜத்தில் நண்பர்கள்" [MGE 100 - 17 - Enemies on screen, friends in real life]. The Hindu Tamil (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  70. ^ a b c கிருபாகரன், எஸ். (18 January 2017). "எம்.ஜி.ஆர் 100 : கருணாநிதி நட்பு, கிரிக்கெட் ஆர்வம், படப்பிடிப்புதளப் பண்பு... 100 சுவாரஸ்ய தகவல்கள்!" [MGR 100 : Friendship with Karunanidhi, A Cricket enthusiast, Attirbution to filmmaking... 100 interesting facts!]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  71. ^ a b Kumar, S. R. Ashok (8 February 2000). "Box office collection". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  72. ^ "Nadodi Mannan-Old is gold! - Slide 1". Sify. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  73. ^ a b Pillai, Sreedhar (10 August 2006). "MGR magic!". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  74. ^ Karthikeyan, D. (3 May 2011). "MGR continues to live in the minds of Madurai people". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  75. ^ Subramanian, Anupama (8 January 2016). "Chennai is my pugundha veedu: Saroja Devi". Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  76. ^ Kantha, Sachi Sri (6 June 2015). "MGR Remembered – Part 28". Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  77. ^ Pillai 2015, p. 16.
  78. ^ NFDC 1998; Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 87; Pillai 2015, p. 241.
  79. ^ Subramanian, T. S. (July 2004). "The celluloid connection". Frontline. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  80. ^ Guy, Randor (9 August 2014). "Rajaguru of villains". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  81. ^ Guy, Randor (2 August 2014). "The superstar villain". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  82. ^ Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, pp. 118, 651.
  83. ^ Baskaran, Sundararaj Theodore (3 November 2006). "King who has exploded myths". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  84. ^ Sudha, S. (13 July 2006). "Great satire from Shankar". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 2 December 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  85. ^ Kumar, S. R. Ashok (13 July 2007). "Filmmakers' favourites". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  86. ^ Padikkadavan [Uneducated Man] (Motion picture) (in Tamil). Dhanush, Tamannaah, Vivek. Sun Pictures. 2009. From 2:03:05 to 2:03:35. 
  87. ^ Rangan, Baradwaj (22 October 2014). "Kaththi review: Beneath the flab, some solid masala moments". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  88. ^ Joshi, Namrata (14 November 2015). "Prem Ratan Dhan Payo: Salman saves the day". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017. 
  89. ^ Rangan 2014, p. 161.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Nadodi Mannan on IMDb