Naga fireballs (Thai: บั้งไฟพญานาค; RTGS: bang fai phaya nak), also known as bung fai phaya nak or "Mekong lights", and formerly, "ghost lights" are a phenomenon said to be seen annually on the Mekong River. Glowing balls are alleged to naturally rise from the water high into the air. The balls are said to be reddish and to range in size from smaller sparkles up to the size of basketballs. They quickly rise up to a couple of hundred metres before disappearing. The number of fireballs reported varies between tens and thousands per night. The phenomenon is attributed to phaya nak, a giant serpent said to live in the Mekong.
Naga fireballs have been reported over an approximately 250 kilometre-long section of the Mekong River centered approximately on Phon Phisai in the Phon Phisai District. Fireballs have also been reported rising from smaller rivers, lakes, and ponds in the region.
The fireballs were called "ghost lights" by locals until the mid-1980s, when the local council, not unaware of their tourism potential, officially named them "phaya nak lights". One observer noted that, "...the 'age-old' tradition is, actually, 35 years old."
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Although the fireballs are regularly seen on the river during the Phayanak Festival, a 2002 iTV documentary showed Laotian soldiers firing tracer rounds into the air across the river from the festival. Skeptic Brian Dunning suggests that it would be impossible for anyone across the half-mile river to hear a gunshot because it would take 2.5 seconds for the sound to travel to the spectators, and by then the crowd watching would have already noticed the light and started cheering, drowning out any sound to reach them. Thai biologist Jessada Denduangboripant analysed footage of a Naga fireball event and concluded that the effect was caused by the firing of flare guns from the other side of the river.
Some individuals have attempted to explain the phenomenon scientifically. One explanation is that the fireball is a result of flammable phosphine gas generated by the marshy environment. Dunning writes that such fireballs are very unlikely to spontaneously ignite, and would not stay lit when at the speeds the fireballs travel, and that there is no science that can explain "the Naga Fireballs to be naturally produced burning gas bubbles."
A similar explanation involves a similar phenomenon in plasma physics. A free-floating plasma orb, created when surface electricity (e.g., from a capacitor) is discharged into a solution. However, most plasma ball experiments are conducted using high voltage capacitors, microwave oscillators, or microwave ovens, not under natural conditions.
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- Knoblauch, Jessica (15 March 2010). "5 natural events that science can't explain". Mother Nature News. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
- Duangmee, Phoowadon (21 September 2011). "Let there be lights". The Nation. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
- Dunning, Brian. "Skeptoid #183: The Naga Fireballs". Skeptoid. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- Krausz, Tibor (4 July 2016). "Myth busters: Thai scientists debunk sweating crystals, boiling oil and other superstitions". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- "Science Ministry solves Naga fireballs mystery". The Nation.[not specific enough to verify]
- "Free Floating Plasma Orb". American Physical Society.
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