Ethnic conflict in Nagaland
The ethnic conflict in Nagaland, in northeastern India, is an ongoing conflict fought between the ethnic Nagas and the governments of India and Myanmar. Nagaland inhabited by the Nagas is located at the tri-junction border of India on the West and South, north and Myanmar on the East.
"Naga terrirtory" existed with "Full Sovereignty" before the advent of the British colonial expansionism in 1881. In 1947, the people of India and the Naga territory were liberated from the British rule. As early as January 10, 1929, Naga had informed the British government that they would not join the Union of India. After India regain sovereignty from British colonial rule, India included Nagaland which was previously known as Naga Hills as part of state of Assam. The land of Nagas was divided among two countries, India and Myanmar. "National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)", which wants an independent "greater Nagaland" to include territory now in Myanmar, based on ethnicity; and the "Naga National Council (Adino)".
The question of "Naga Sovereignty" was put to plebiscite on May 16, 1951. In order to defend themselves, the Naga after much deliberation formed the armed wing of NNC, came to be known as NSG (Naga Safe Guards) under Kaito Sukhai.
Several rebel groups have operated in Nagaland since the mid-twentieth century, including the following:
- Naga National Council, a political organization active in the late 1940s and early 1950s, which became separatist under Angami Zapu Phizo.
- Naga National Council (Adino) – NNC (Adino): the oldest political Naga organisation, now led by the daughter of Naga rebel A.Z. Phizo.
- 'National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah)': formed on January 31, 1980 by Isak Chishi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S.S. Khaplang . They want to establish a ‘Greater Nagaland’ (‘Nagalim’ or the People’s Republic of Nagaland) based on Mao Tse Tung’s model.
- 'National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)': formed on April 30, 1988, its goal is to establish a ‘greater Nagaland’ based on ethnicity, comprising the Naga-dominated areas within India, and contiguous areas in Myanmar.
- Naga Federal Government- separatist movement active in Nagaland during the 1970s. After its leader was captured and the headquarters destroyed, NFG's activities decreased.
- Naga Federal Army-separatist guerrilla organization active in the 1970s. Several hundred members of NFA reportedly have received training in China.
- "Government signs landmark Nagaland peace treaty with NSCN(I-M) in presence of PM Narendra Modi". The Economic Times. India. 3 August 2015.
- Uppsala conflict data expansion. Non-state actor information. Codebook pp. 81-82
- Anuario 2007 de los Procesos de Paz. ECP pp. 86
- National Socialist Council of Nagaland - Isak-Muivah
- National Socialist Council of Nagaland - Khaplang
- The India-Naga Conflict: A Long-Standing War with Few Prospects of Imminent Solution. Katherine Phillips. Intern, Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit, London. CHRI News, verano de 2004.
- "Encyclopaedia of Scheduled Tribes in India: In Five Volume", p. 253, by By P. K. Mohanty.
- Schmid, A.P.; Jongman, A.J. (2005). Political Terrorism: A New Guide To Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, And Literature. Transaction Publishers. p. 572. ISBN 9781412804691. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
- Baptist Agenda for Peace in Nagalim, India
- "A remote land of jungle, Jesus - and religious war", Daily Herald, 5 May 2003
- "Peace talks an insult to Nagas", The Week, 9 Feb 2003.
- "Religious Fervor May Dominate Emerging Indian State of Nagalim", The Washington Diplomat, October 2003
- "The most Baptist state in the world—Nagaland—is vying to become a powerhouse for cross-cultural missions", Christianity Today, February 20.
- "We want t penetrate China, Cambodia, Burma, Vietnam and Laos and Nepal with the Gospel", Christian Today (India), 29 August 2003.
- "Nagas want solution, not election", Baptist Peace Fellowship of North America, February 1998
- "Church Backs Terrorism in the North-East", Ind Pride
- "Role of the Church – Charity or...?", Vanvasi Kalyan Parishad
- http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/november/nagaland1954.htm "Nagaland 1954"], On War