Nagoya

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For the small town in Batam, Indonesia, see Nagoya, Batam.
Nagoya
名古屋市
Designated city
City of Nagoya[1]
From top left: Nagoya Port, Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Central Nagoya, Nagoya Castle, Nagoya TV Tower
Flag of Nagoya
Flag
Official logo of Nagoya
Logo
Location of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture
Location of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture
Nagoya is located in Japan
Nagoya
Nagoya
 
Coordinates: 35°11′N 136°54′E / 35.183°N 136.900°E / 35.183; 136.900Coordinates: 35°11′N 136°54′E / 35.183°N 136.900°E / 35.183; 136.900
Country Japan
Region Chūbu (Tōkai)
Prefecture Aichi Prefecture
Government
 • Mayor Takashi Kawamura
Area
 • Designated city 326.43 km2 (126.04 sq mi)
Population (August 1, 2011)
 • Designated city 2,266,249 (3rd)
 • Metro 8,923,445 (3rd)
Time zone Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
- Tree Camphor laurel
(Cinnamomum camphora)
- Flower Lilium
Phone number 052-972-2017
Address 3-1-1 Sannomaru, Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 460-0001
Website www.city.nagoya.jp
[2]

Nagoya (名古屋市 Nagoya-shi?) is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is Japan's third-largest incorporated city and the fourth most populous urban area. It is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Yokohama, Chiba, and Kitakyushu. It is also the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō Metropolitan Area. As of 2000, 2.27 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 8.74 million people.[3]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The city's name was historically written as 那古野 or 名護屋 (both read as Nagoya). One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka (なごやか?), meaning 'peaceful'. [1]

The name Chūkyō (中京, consisting of chū (middle) + kyō (capital)) is also used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse.

Origin[edit]

The Great Atsuta Shrine, which dates back to c. 100 CE and houses the holy sword Kusanagi, one of the imperial regalia of Japan
Nagoya Castle was constructed as the seat of the Owari branch of the ruling Tokugawa clan.

Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who gradually succeeded in unifying Japan. In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers (4.3 miles) away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya.

Tokugawa period[edit]

During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built partly from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle.[4] Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya (the Shrine), on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo (now Tokyo). A town developed around the temple to support travelers. The castle and shrine towns formed the city.

Industrialization[edit]

Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region. Its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname, Tajimi and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate. Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō.

During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889 and designated a city on September 1, 1956 by government ordinance.

World War II and modern era[edit]

Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II. The population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, third among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated that 25% of its workers were engaged in aircraft production. Important Japanese aircraft targets (numbers 193,194,198, 2010, and 1729) were within the city itself, while others (notably 240 and 1833) were to the north of Kagamigahara. It was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines. The Nagoya area also produced machine tools, bearings, railway equipment, metal alloys, tanks, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.

Air raids began on April 18, 1942 with an attack on a Mitsubishi Aircraft Works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant.[5] The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, and included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks. These incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres (5.9 sq mi) . The XXI Bomber Command established a new U.S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage ever released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries. It also destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to almost one-fourth of the entire city.[6][full citation needed] Nagoya Castle, which was being used as a military command post, was hit and mostly destroyed on May 14, 1945.[7] Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959.

In 1959, the city was flooded and severely damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon.

Geography[edit]

View of the Nōbi Plain, Kiso Three Rivers and Nagoya from Mount Sanpo and Mount Yoro

Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain. The city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters. The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, and the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward. The man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows from north to south, as part of the Shōnai River system. The rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows briefly south at Nonami and then west at Ōdaka into the bay.

The city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically.

Wards[edit]

A map of Nagoya's Wards

Nagoya has 16 wards:

Climate[edit]

Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters. The summer is noticeably wetter than the winter, although rain falls throughout the year.

Climate data for Nagoya, Aichi (1981~2010; records 1891~2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.0
(69.8)
22.6
(72.7)
25.8
(78.4)
30.5
(86.9)
34.8
(94.6)
35.8
(96.4)
38.9
(102)
39.9
(103.8)
38.0
(100.4)
32.7
(90.9)
27.2
(81)
21.3
(70.3)
39.9
(103.8)
Average high °C (°F) 9.0
(48.2)
10.1
(50.2)
13.9
(57)
19.9
(67.8)
24.1
(75.4)
27.2
(81)
30.8
(87.4)
32.8
(91)
28.6
(83.5)
22.8
(73)
17.0
(62.6)
11.6
(52.9)
20.7
(69.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
5.2
(41.4)
8.7
(47.7)
14.4
(57.9)
18.9
(66)
22.7
(72.9)
26.4
(79.5)
27.8
(82)
24.1
(75.4)
18.1
(64.6)
12.2
(54)
7.0
(44.6)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
1.1
(34)
4.2
(39.6)
9.6
(49.3)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
23.0
(73.4)
24.3
(75.7)
20.7
(69.3)
14.1
(57.4)
8.1
(46.6)
3.1
(37.6)
11.9
(53.4)
Record low °C (°F) −10.3
(13.5)
−9.5
(14.9)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.8
(37)
8.2
(46.8)
14.0
(57.2)
14.4
(57.9)
9.5
(49.1)
1.5
(34.7)
−2.7
(27.1)
−7.2
(19)
−10.4
(13.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 48.4
(1.906)
65.6
(2.583)
121.8
(4.795)
124.8
(4.913)
156.5
(6.161)
201.0
(7.913)
203.6
(8.016)
126.3
(4.972)
234.4
(9.228)
128.3
(5.051)
79.7
(3.138)
45.0
(1.772)
1,535.4
(60.448)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 5
(2)
8
(3.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
14
(5.5)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.5 mm) 6.8 7.5 10.2 10.4 11.4 12.8 13.0 8.7 11.9 9.5 7.2 6.9 116.3
Avg. snowy days 6.4 5.4 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 16.4
Avg. relative humidity (%) 64 61 59 60 65 71 74 70 71 68 66 65 66.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.1 170.0 189.1 196.6 197.5 149.9 164.3 200.4 151.0 169.0 162.7 172.2 2,092.8
Source #1: [8]
Source #2: [9] (records)

Demographics[edit]

One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents. The population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km². Also as of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.[10]

The area is 326.45 square kilometres (126.04 sq mi). Its metropolitan area extends into the Mie and Gifu prefectures, with a total population of about 9 million people, surpassed only by Osaka and Tokyo.

Transportation[edit]

Chubu International Airport, constructed on an artificial island

Nagoya is served by Chūbu Centrair International Airport (NGO), built on an artificial island in Tokoname. The airport has international flights and a high volume of domestic flights.

A second airport is Nagoya Airfield (Komaki Airport, NKM) near the city's boundary with Komaki and Kasugai. On February 17, 2005 Nagoya Airport's commercial international flights moved to Centrair Airport. Nagoya Airfield is now used for general aviation and as an airbase and is the main Fuji Dream Airlines hub.

Nagoya Station, the world's largest train station by floor area, is on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen line, the Tōkaidō Main Line, and the Chūō Main Line, among others. Nagoya Railroad and Kintetsu provide regional rail service to the Tōkai and Kansai regions. Nagoya Subway provides urban transit service.

Nagoya Port is the largest port by international trade value in Japan. Toyota Motor Corporation exports via this port.

Economy[edit]

Port of Nagoya

Nagoya is the center of Greater Nagoya, which earned nearly 70 percent of Japan's 2003 trade surplus.[11]

Transportation[edit]

Nagoya's main industry is automotive. Many companies are based out of Nagoya. Toyota's luxury brand Lexus, Denso, Aisin Seiki Co., Toyota Industries, JTEKT and Toyota Boshoku have their headquarters in or near Nagoya. Mitsubishi Motors has an R & D division in the suburb of Okazaki. Major component suppliers such as Magna International and PPG also have a strong presence here. Spark plug maker NGK and Nippon Sharyo, known for manufacturing rolling stock including the Shinkansen are headquartered there.

Headquarters[edit]

JR Central, which operates Tōkaidō Shinkansen, has its headquarters in Nagoya, as does ceramics company Noritake. Other companies with headquarters here include: Brother Industries, which is known for office electronics such as multifunction printers; Hoshizaki Electric, which is known for commercial ice machines and refrigeration equipment; and confectionery company Marukawa. Many small machine tool and electronics companies are also based in the area.[12]

Other[edit]

Robot technology is another rapidly developing industry. Mechanized puppets, called "karakuri ningyo", are a traditional craft from the area. A materials engineering industry is developing.[13]

The World Expo 2005, also known as Aichi Expo was held near Nagoya in the neighboring cities of Nagakute and Seto from March 25 to September 25, 2005.

The city offers venues for conferences and congresses led by the Nagoya Congress Center and the Nagoya International Exhibition Hall.

Education[edit]

Nanzan University

Nagoya has mostly state-run primary and secondary schools.

State and private colleges and universities primarily located in the eastern area. Some Western-style institutions were founded early in the Meiji era, with more opening during the Taishō and Shōwa eras. Nagoya University was set up in 1871 as a medical school. Nanzan University was established by the Roman Catholic Society of the Divine Word in 1932 as a high school and expanded to include Nanzan Junior College and the Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture. Some universities specialise in engineering and technology, such as Nagoya University Engineering school, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Toyota Technological Institute; these universities receive support and grants from companies such as Toyota.

The old Nagoya Court of Appeals building, today the city archive

Other colleges and universities include: Aichi Prefectural College of Nursing & Health, Aichi Shukutoku Junior College, Aichi Toho University, Chukyo University, Daido University, Doho University, Kinjo Gakuin University, Kinjo Gakuin University Junior College, Meijo University, Nagoya City University, Nagoya College of Music, Nagoya Future Culture College, Nagoya Gakuin University, Nagoya Management Junior College, Nagoya Women's University, St. Mary's College, Nagoya, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Sugiyama Jogakuen University Junior College, Tokai Gakuen Women's College. Various universities from outside Nagoya have set up satellite campuses, such as Tokyo University of Social Welfare.

The Hōsa Library dates to the 17th century and houses 110,000 items, including books of classic literature that are an heirloom of the Owari Tokugawa and were bequeathed to the city. The Nagoya City Archives store a large collection of documents and books. Tsuruma Central Library is a public library and Nagoya International Center has a collection of foreign-language books.

Culture[edit]

Nagoya was a major trading city and political seat of the Owari lords, the most important house of the Tokugawa clan. They encouraged trade and the arts under their patronage, especially Tokugawa Muneharu, the 7th lord, who took a keen interest in drama and plays and lived lavishly. Under his rule, actors and actresses began to visit Nagoya. Arts and culture was further supported by the city's wealthy merchants. Culture flourished after the feudal Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji era. During World War II many old buildings and artefacts were destroyed. The region's economic and financial power in the post-war years rekindled the artistic and cultural scene.

Museums[edit]

The Tokugawa Art Museum, which houses some of the finest art treasures of Japan

Nagoya has multiple museums, including traditional and modern art, handicrafts to industrial high-tech, natural and scientific museums.

Nagoya Castle's collection is from the Owari Tokugawa era. The main tower is a museum that details the history of the castle and the city. The Honmaru Palace, destroyed in World War II, is slated for reconstruction by 2016 and will again be a prime example of the Shoin-zukuri architecture of the feudal era. Tokugawa Art Museum is a private museum belonging to the Owari Tokugawa, who lived in Nagoya castle for 16 generations. Among other things, it contains 10 designated national Treasures of Japan, including some of the oldest scrolls of The Tale of Genji.[14] The Nagoya Noh Theatre houses various precious objects of Noh theatre. The Nagoya City Museum showcases the history of the town.

Paintings and sculpture are exhibited at the Nagoya City Art Museum. Modern art is displayed at the Aichi Arts Center. The Aichi Arts Center also is the venue of rotating exhibitions. The city is also home to the Nagoya/Boston Museum of Fine Arts, a sister museum to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, which was founded to bring aspects of the MFA's collection to Japan.

Textile Machinery Pavilion in the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology

The art of porcelain and ceramics can be seen at the Noritake Garden. Toyota has two museums in the city, the Toyota Automobile Museum which shows vintage cars, and the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology, which showcases company history, including its start as a textile mill.

The Nagoya City Tram & Subway Museum has trams and subway cars, as well as the Nagoya City Science Museum. The SCMaglev and Railway Park opened in March 2011 with various trains from the Central Japan Railway Company.

Other art museums in Aichi prefecture are the Aichi Prefectural Ceramic Museum and the Toyota Municipal Museum of Art. Meiji Mura is an open-air museum with salvaged buildings from the Meiji, Taisho and Showa eras.

Other museums in the city include the International Design Centre Nagoya, the Japan Spinning Top Museum and the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Money Museum.

Theatres[edit]

Aichi Arts Center in Sakae

Noh theatre and Kyōgen date back to the feudal times of the Owari Tokugawa. The Nagoya Noh Theater at Nagoya Castle continues that tradition and is a prominent feature in the cultural life of the city, with monthly performances.

One of Japan's Kabuki grand stages is Misono-za, which also hosts various other Japanese entertainment such as concerts.

In 1992, the large, modern Aichi Arts Center was opened in Sakae. It is the main venue for performing arts, featuring a main hall that can be used for opera and theatre and a concert hall. The Nagoya Philharmonic Orchestra performs there, as well as many visiting guest orchestras.

Cultural path[edit]

The civic authorities promote tourism and have taken steps to safeguard architectural heritage by earmarking them as cultural assets. Apart from the castle, temples, shrines and museums in the city, a "Cultural Path" was instituted in the 1980s, located between the Tokugawa Art Museum and Nagoya Castle. This residential area has historic buildings such as the Nagoya City Archives, the Nagoya City Hall main building, the Aichi Prefectural Office main building, the Futaba Museum, the former residence of Sasuke Toyoda, the former residence of Tetsujiro Haruta and the Chikaramachi Catholic Church. Most buildings date from the Meiji and Taisho era and are protected.

Festivals[edit]

Daidō-chōnin Matsuri in Ōsu

Apart from the main national festivals and holidays, other festivals are unique to the city/region.

Major events include the June Atsuta Festival, the July Port Festival, the August Nagoya Castle Summer Festival Castle and the October Nagoya Festival. Wards and areas host local festivals such as the Daidō-chōnin Matsuri (大須大道町人祭 Street Performer's Festival?) in Ōsu.

Dialect[edit]

The Nagoya dialect (名古屋弁 Nagoya-ben?) is spoken in the western half of Aichi Prefecture, centering on Nagoya. It is also called Owari dialect (尾張弁 Owari-ben?). The Nagoya dialect is relatively close to standard Japanese and to the Kansai dialect, differing in pronunciation and vocabulary.

Handicrafts[edit]

The industry of Japanese handicrafts in the city is centuries old.

  • Arimatsu and Narumi dye: during the construction of Nagoya Castle in the 17th century, the lords of Owari called in skilled craftsmen from Bungo Province in Kyushu, known for their tie-dyed fabrics. These craftsmen and their families were treated generously by the Owari and settled in the Arimatsu und Narumi neighbourhoods. Only the base fabric is dyed, leaving parts that were knotted as white spots. This highly specialised process requires 6–12 months to complete.
  • Geta clog straps: wooden clogs called geta were the shoes of the feudal era. The Owari devised a unique pattern for the cotton straps of the clogs and ordered them to be made by local weavers. The technique has developed over the generations. The straps became stronger and more resilient but more comfortable for the feet with the discovery of cotton velvet.
  • Shippo: the technique for enamelware called shippo arrived from the Netherlands towards the end of the Edo period. The patterns appear almost transparent and are often used on pottery.
  • Candles: wax is taken from a wax tree and painted around a rope made of grass and Japanese paper (washi) over and over again into layers. When cut in half, the candle looks as if it grew like a tree with rings. Japanese candles produce less smoke and are harder to blow out, since the wick tends to be larger. Artists paint the candles in coloured patterns.
  • Yuzen: the art of silk dyeing was introduced by craftsmen from Kyoto during the rule of Owari Togukawa. The initial designs were extravagant and brightly coloured, but over time became more muted and light-coloured.
  • Sekku Ningyo: festival dolls were introduced by markets during the Meiji era. Nagoya craftsmen rank among the top producers.

Cuisine[edit]

Nagoya is known for unique local cuisine Nagoya meshi. Nagoya foods include:

  • Tebasaki: chicken wings marinated in a sweet sauce with sesame seeds, basically a type of yakitori.
  • Kishimen: flat udon noodles with a slippery texture, dipped in a light soy sauce soup and a sliced leek or other flavouring added. It can be eaten cold or hot.
  • Red miso dishes: various dishes that use red miso, such as miso katsu (pork cutlet with sweet miso sauce), miso nikomi udon (hard udon stewed in miso soup), miso oden (miso taste oden, a type of stew), and dote nabe (miso nabemono with meat and vegetables).
  • Nagoya kōchin: a special breed of free-range chicken that has been cross-bred between a Nagoya chicken and a cochin. The time until maturity is 2.5 times that of broiler chicken and its meat is juicy and tender, without a strong scent.
    • Toriwasa: Sashimi made of Nagoya kōchin, from the flesh, liver, heart and gizzard.
  • Uirō: rice dumpling made by mixing rice flour with sugar and then steaming the mixture. The name is said to have come from a Chinese medicine that resembled it in colour. It is assumed that the medicine was brought by Chinese medicine vendors to Japan before the 15th century.
  • Tenmusu: rice ball wrapped in laver with tempura at the centre. This dish originated in Tsu and became popular in Nagoya.
  • Moriguchi pickles: pickles made of Moriguchi daikon. The radish, about two metres long and two centimetres in diameter is pickled in barrels of sake and other seasoning. The radish is so long that you have to pack them along the inner wall of the barrel, one on top of the other.
  • Hitsumabushi: rice dish with unagi in a lidded wooden container. This dish is enjoyed three ways; as unadon, with spice and as chazuke.

Sports[edit]

Nagoya is home to several professional sports teams:

Club Sport League Venue Established
Chunichi Dragons Baseball Central League Nagoya Dome 1936
Nagoya Grampus Football J. League Mizuho Athletic Stadium,
Toyota Stadium
1993
Nagoya Oceans Futsal F. League Taiyo Yakuhin Arena 2006

In 2007, the Chunichi Dragons won the Japan Series baseball championship. In 2010, Nagoya Grampus won the J. League championship, their first in team history.

Nagoya is home of the Shonai FC amateur football club and Nagoya Barbarians semi-pro rugby football club. Since 1984 the city has hosted the Nagoya Marathon; an annual women's race.

A honbasho or sumo tournament is held every July at the Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium. See also The Crowns golf tournament.

International relations[edit]

The Nagoya International Center promotes international exchange in the local community.

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Nagoya is twinned with five cities around the world:[15]

  • United States Los Angeles, United States (affiliated Apr. 1, 1959)
  • Mexico Mexico City, Mexico (affiliated Feb. 16, 1978)
  • China Nanjing, China (suspended as of February 2012)
  • Australia Sydney, Australia (affiliated Sept. 16, 1980)
  • Italy Turin, Italy (affiliated May 27, 2005)[16]

The sister city relationship with Nanjing in China was suspended in February 21, 2012,[17] following public comments by Nagoya mayor Takashi Kawamura denying the Nanking Massacre.[18]

Notable people from Nagoya[edit]

Historical figures[edit]

The three samurais who unified Japan in the 16th century all have strong links to Nagoya.

Other samurai

Inventors and industrialists[edit]

Executive officers[edit]

Writers[edit]

Musicians and composers[edit]

Actors[edit]

Sports stars[edit]

Manga artists[edit]

Nagoya in films[edit]

Nagoya, especially Nagoya Castle, has been featured in three Godzilla movies: King Kong vs. Godzilla, Mothra vs. Godzilla, and Godzilla vs. Mothra. The city is also featured in Gamera vs. Gyaos and is the main setting of 2003 film Gozu. 1995 film The Hunted starred Christopher Lambert and the 1992 film Mr. Baseball starred Tom Selleck. Nagoya was the setting for the 2007 movie Ashita e no yuigon (translated as Best Wishes for Tomorrow), in which a Japanese war criminal sets out to take responsibility for the execution of U.S. airmen.[19]

Sightseeing[edit]

Nagoya's two most famous sightseeing spots are Atsuta Shrine and Nagoya Castle.[20]

  • Atsuta Shrine is the second-most venerable shrine in Japan, after Ise Grand Shrine. It is said to hold the Kusanagi sword, one of the three imperial regalia of Japan, but it is not on public display. It holds around 70 festivals per year. The shrine hosts over 4,400 national treasures that span its 2,000 year history.
  • Nagoya Castle was built in 1612. Although a large part of it burned down during World War II, the castle was restored in 1959, adding amenities such as elevators. The castle is famous for two magnificent Golden tiger-headed carp (金の鯱 Kin no Shachihoko?) on the roof, often used as the symbol of Nagoya.

Other attractions include:

Nagoya is a starting point for visits to the surrounding area, such as Inuyama, Little World Museum of Man, Meiji Mura, Kasadera Kannon, Toyohashi and Arimatsu. Reachable with at most a two-hour journey are Gifu, Gujo Hachiman, Gifu, Ise Shrine, Takayama, Gifu, Gero Onsen and the hill stations in the Kiso Valley Magome and Tsumago.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nagoya's official English Name
  2. ^ 平成23年6月1日現在の世帯数と人口(全市・区別) (in Japanese). Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  3. ^ "Population of Japan". Japanese Statistics Bureau. 2000. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  4. ^ "Kiyosu Castle". Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  5. ^ The First Heroes by Craig Nelson
  6. ^ 21st Bomber Command, Tactical Mission Report NO. 44, ocr.pdf, March 20, 1945.
  7. ^ Preston John Hubbard (1990). Apocalypse Undone. Vanderbilt University Press. p. 199. 
  8. ^ "気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. 
  9. ^ "観測史上1~10位の値( 年間を通じての値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. 
  10. ^ 平成22年12月1日現在の世帯数と人口(全市・区別) [Population and Number of Households as of 1 December, Heisei 22] (in Japanese). Nagoya City. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011. 
  11. ^ "Report of Chubu Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry METI (in Japanese)" (PDF). 
  12. ^ "Greater Nagoya Initiative, Industry, Innovation". 
  13. ^ "GREATER NAGOYA INITIATIVE, Industry, Growth Sectors". 
  14. ^ "Yamasa.org's Tokugawa Art Museum page". 
  15. ^ "Nagoya's Sister Cities". Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  16. ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  17. ^ Wang, Chuhan (22 February 2012). "Nanjing suspends official contact with Nagoya". CNTV. 
  18. ^ Fackler, Martin (22 February 2012). "Chinese City Severs Ties After Japanese Mayor Denies Massacre". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 26 February 2012. 
  19. ^ Nagoya at the Internet Movie Database
  20. ^ "Nagoya Sightseeing". JapanVisitor. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  21. ^ "Midland Square". December 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  22. ^ "The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Money Museum". Nagoya International Center. 

External links[edit]