Nahj al-Balagha

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Nahj al-Balaghah
Nahj al-Balagha.jpg
AuthorAl-Sharif al-Radi
Published10th century AD
(4th century AH)

Nahj al-Balagha (Arabic: نَهْج ٱلْبَلَاغَة Nahj al-Balāghah, 'The Path of Eloquence') is the best-known collection of sermons, letters, and sayings attributed to Ali ibn Abi Talib, fourth Rashidun Caliph, first Shia Imam and the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. It was collected by al-Sharif al-Radi, a renowned Shia scholar in the tenth century AD (fourth century AH).[1] Known for its moral aphorisms and eloquent content, Nahj al-Balagha is widely studied in the Islamic world and has considerably influenced the field of Arabic literature and rhetoric.[2] Ibn Abil-Hadid, the author of an in-depth commentary on the book, believes that Nahj al-Balagha is "above the words of men and below the words of God."[3] The authenticity of Nahj al-Balagha has long been the subject of lively polemic debates, though recent scholarship suggests that most of the content can indeed be attributed to Ali.[4]


Nahj al-Balagha is a collection of more than 200 sermons, nearly 80 letters, and almost 500 sayings.[5]

The sermons and letters in Nahj al-Balagha offer a commentary on Ali's political career and have served as an ideological basis for Islamic governance.[6] Notably, Ali's letter of instructions to the governor of Egypt has been viewed as a model of just Islamic governance, "where justice and mercy is shown to human beings irrespective of class, creed and color, where poverty is neither a stigma or disqualification and where justice is not tarred with nepotism, favoritism, provincialism or religious fanaticism."[7] In particular, Nahj al-Balagha includes an in-depth discussion of social responsibilities, emphasizing that greater responsibilities result in greater rights.[8] Nahj al-Balagha also contains more sensitive material, including criticism of Ali's predecessors in its Shaqshaqiya Sermon, and disapproval of Talha and Zubayr, who took up arms against Ali in the Battle of the Camel.[9] Nahj al-Balagha remains at the heart of the ongoing clerical debate about the role and status of women in modern societies.[8]

Nahj al-Balagha also contains passages about morality and doctrine, notably about the sovereignty of God and the significance of the Quran and Muhammad.[10] The letter of life advices, addressed to Ali's eldest son, Hasan, has received considerable attention.[11]

Nahj al-Balagha has been the focus of numerous commentaries, translations, and studies by both Sunni and Shia scholars. The commentary written by the Mu'tazila scholar Ibn Abil-Hadid remains the most important.[12] With its eight volumes, this commentary has amplified the influence of Nahj al-Balagha on theological speculation, philosophical thought, and literally scope, according to Shah-Kazemi.[13]


The compilation of Nahj al-Balagha is often credited to al-Sharif al-Razi, a renowned tenth-century Shia scholar, over three hundred years after Ali.[1] In view of its sometimes sensitive content, the attribution of this book to Ali or al-Sharif has long been the subject of Sunni-Shia debates, as with the majority of the works about Shia theology.[14] Ibn Khallikan might have been the first to question the authenticity of the book in the thirteenth century and his view has been echoed by most Sunni authors to date. On the other hand, the Mu'tazila scholar Ibn Abil-Hadid, who authored a major commentary on Nahj al-Balagha, has no doubts that it is the work of Ali and compiled by al-Sharif.

Nahj al-Balagha is regarded by the Shia as authentic.[15] According to the Shia scholar Motahhari, in compiling the book, al-Sharif was primarily interested in the literary value of Ali's inheritance. As a result, Motahhari continues, al-Sharif preserved those passages which he found literary valuable and paid little attention to recording his sources.[16] After al-Sharif, other scholars took up the task of collecting the chains of transmission (isnads) for Nahj al-Balagha. For instance, Muhammad Baqir al-Mahmudi collected all of Ali's extant speeches, sermons, decrees, epistles, prayers, and sayings. Motahhari adds that this collection includes the content of Nahj al-balagha and other discourses which were not incorporated by al-Sharif or were not available to him. According to Motahhari, except for some aphorisms, the contents of Nahj al-Balaghah have over time been traced back to Ali.[16]

In support of Ali's authorship, some of the material in Nahj al-Balagha is also listed in al-Fihrist or can be found in earlier works attributed to Ali.[17] More recently, Veccia Vaglieri verified that a large portion of Nahj al-Balagha can indeed be attributed to Ali, although it was difficult to gauge the authenticity of the more apocryphal sections. Djebli has been able to identify a considerable number of passages, accompanied by chains of transmission dating back to the time of Ali, which were recounted by ancient scholars, such as al-Tabari.[18] In his book, Modarressi, an expert in Islamic law, refers to Madarek-e Nahj al-Balagha by the Shia scholar Ostadi which, in turn, links Nahj al-Balagha to Ali.[19] Another notable work was done by the Indian Sunni scholar Imtiyaz Ali Arshi, who succeeded in tracing back the early sources of 106 sermons, 37 letters and 79 dispersed sayings of Ali in his book Istinad-e Nahj al-balaghah, originally written in Urdu, subsequently translated into Arabic in 1957, then into English and Persian.[20]

Nahj al-Balagha was most likely compiled by al-Sharif, who also referred to it in his later works.[18] There is also strong circumstantial evidence that al-Sharif was compiling pieces from earlier sources as he came across them rather than composing them himself.[21] It has been noted that al-Sharif's writing style is different from that of Ali. In particular, Ibn Abil-Hadid reports the following exchange between his teacher, al-Wasiti, and al-Wasiti's teacher, Ibn Khashab:[22]

When I [al-Wasiti] asked him [Ibn Khashab] if the above sermon had been fabricated, he replied, 'No, by God I know that it is from Imam Ali as clearly as I see you before me now.' I then said that many people claim that the sermon is by al-Sharif. He answered by saying that neither al-Sharif nor anyone else was capable of producing such an eloquent sermon. He continued, "We have studied al-Sharif’s writings and are familiar with his style. There is no similarity between the two works." He also said: "By God, I found this sermon in books written two hundred years before al-Sharif was born.

Computational Verification

Sarwar and Mohamed (2021)[23] used computational methods, mainly stylometric analysis and machine learning, to examine the authenticity of Nahj Al-Balagha. They compared the texts in the book against those by Sharif Radhi and Sharif Murtadha and concluded that the book is internally consistent, which indicates that it can be attributed to a single author, the book was not authored by Sharif Radhi, and the book was not authored by Sharif Myrtadha. These conclusions indicate that the book content was most probably produced by Imam Ali.


The English translation of Nahj al Balagha by Ali Reza includes more than 200 sermons attributed to Ali, listed below after minor edits.

  1. Creation of Universe
  2. Age of Ignorance, Household of Muhammad, hypocrites
  3. Shaqshaqiya (literally, "roar of the camel"), in which Alī lays out his claim to the caliphate and his superiority over his predecessors[24]
  4. His far-sightedness and his steadfastness in Islam
  5. When Abbas and Abu Sufyan offered to pay allegiance to him for the caliphate after Muhammad's death
  6. On being advised not to chase Talha and Zubayr for fighting
  7. The hypocrites
  8. About Zubayr at a time for which it was appropriate
  9. Cowardice of his enemies in the Battle of the Camel
  10. Talha and Zubayr
  11. When he gave the standard of the Battle of the Camel to his son Mohammad
  12. When, after his victory in the Battle of the Camel, one of his comrades said, "I wish my brother had been present and he too would have seen what success and victory God had given you"
  13. Condemning the people of Basra
  14. Also in condemnation of the people of Basra
  15. After resuming the land grants made by Uthman
  16. Delivered when the people of Madina swore allegiance to him
  17. About those who sit for dispensation of justice among people but are not fit for it
  18. In disparagement of contradictory views among Muslim jurists
  19. Treachery and hypocrisy of al-Ashath al-Kindi
  20. Death and taking lessons from it
  21. Advice to keep light in this world
  22. About those who accused him of killing Uthman
  23. Keeping aloof from envy, and good behavior towards kin
  24. Exhorting people for jihad
  25. When his men were overpowered by Muawiya's men
  26. People after Muhammad's death, the settlement between Muawiya and Amr ibn al-As
  27. Exhorting people for jihad
  28. The transient nature of this world and importance of the next world
  29. About those who found pretexts at the time of jihad
  30. In connection with Uthman's killing
  31. Before the Battle of the Camel, he sent Ibn Abbas to Zubayr to advise him back to obedience
  32. Disparagement of the world and categories of people
  33. At the time of setting for the Battle of the Camel
  34. Exhorting people to fight against the people of Syria
  35. After arbitration
  36. Warning the people of Nahrawan of their fate
  37. His steadfastness and precedence in Islam
  38. In disparagement of those in doubt
  39. In disparagement of those who shrink from fighting
  40. In response to the slogan of Kharijites: "Judgment belongs to God alone"
  41. In condemnation of treason
  42. Heart's desires and hopes
  43. In response to a suggestion of war
  44. When Masqala defected to Syria
  45. The greatness of God and the lowliness of this world
  46. When he decided to march towards Syria
  47. Calamities befalling Kufa
  48. At the time of marching towards Syria
  49. God's greatness and sublimity
  50. Admixture of right and wrong
  51. When his men were prevented from taking water from the River Euphrates
  52. Reward and punishment in the next world
  53. On the swear of allegiance
  54. When his men showed impatience on his delay in giving them permission to fight in Siffin
  55. Steadiness on the battlefield
  56. Muawiya swallows whatever he gets and craves for what he does not get
  57. Addressing the Kharijites
  58. When he was told that the Kharijites had crossed the bridge of Nahrawan
  59. When he was told that the Kharijites had been totally annihilated
  60. Do not fight the Kharijites after me!
  61. When he was warned of being killed by deceit
  62. Transience of this world
  63. Decline and destruction of this world
  64. Attributes of God
  65. Ways of fighting
  66. On hearing the account of what took place in Saqifah of Bani-Sa'ida
  67. When Mohammad ibn Abi Bakr, governor of Egypt, was overpowered and killed
  68. Admonishing his companions for careless behavior
  69. In the morning of the day he was fatally struck with a sword
  70. In condemnation of the people of Iraq
  71. Praise for Muhammad
  72. When Hasan and Husayn interceded on behalf of Marwan
  73. When the elective committee (or shura) decided to swear allegiance to Uthman
  74. When he learned that the Umayyads blamed him for killing Uthman
  75. Preaching and counseling
  76. Banu Umayyad
  77. One of his supplications
  78. Prophecy of astrologers
  79. Shortcomings of women
  80. Way of preaching and counseling
  81. World and its people
  1. Al-Gharra (literally, "the brilliant"), in which Ali enjoined people to piety
  2. Amr ibn al-As
  3. Perfection of God and counseling
  4. Preparing for the hereafter by following God's commandments
  5. Faithful and unfaithful believers
  6. Factions of community
  7. Holpy prophet
  8. God's attributes and some advice
  9. Al-Ashbaah (literally, "the skeletons"), in which Ali talked about the creation of the universe
  10. When people decided to swear allegiance to him after the murder of Uthman
  11. Annihilation of the Kharijites, mischief mongering of the Umayyads, vastness of his own knowledge
  12. God's praise and eulogy of the prophets
  13. Age of Ignorance and Muhammad's efforts to disseminate God's message
  14. In eulogy of Muhammad
  15. Admonishing his companions
  16. Oppression of the Umayyads
  17. Abstinence of the world and vicissitudes of time
  18. Muhammad and his descendants
  19. Vicissitudes of time
  20. Day of Judgement
  21. Abstemiousness and fear of God, attributes of the enlightened
  22. Age of Ignorance, Muhammad's efforts to spread God's message
  23. In eulogy of Muhammad, the Umayyads, importance of Imam
  24. Islam: most bright of all paths
  25. Describing the days of Siffin
  26. Vicissitudes of time, blaming Muslims
  27. Might of God, Day of Judgement, Muhammad and his descendants
  28. Pinnacles of Islam
  29. Caution about this world
  30. Angel of Death and the departure of spirit
  31. World and people
  32. Abstemiousness, fear of God, importance of preparing for the hereafter
  33. Seeking rain
  34. Troubles which would arise, Day of Judgment
  35. Rebuking misers
  36. In praise of his faithful companions
  37. When he exhorted people to jihad but was met with silence
  38. Household of Muhammad, the laws of Islam
  39. Reasons for objecting to arbitration at first and allowing it later
  40. Addressing the Kharijites at their camp when they persisted in their rejection of the arbitration
  41. Supporting the weak and the low-spirited on the battlefield of Siffin
  42. Exhorting his followers to fight
  43. Kharijites and arbitration
  44. In response to the objections to the equal distribution of shares from the treasury
  45. Clarifying confusion for Kharijites
  46. Foretelling the capture of Basra and the Mongol conquest
  47. Measures and weights
  48. When Abu Dharr was exiled to al-Rabathah
  49. Grounds for accepting the caliphate and the qualities of a ruler
  50. Death and counseling
  51. On the glory of God, on the Quran and Muhammad
  52. When Umar consulted him about taking part in the march towards the Roman Empire
  53. Addressing al-Mogheera when he wanted to speak in support of Uthman
  54. Take revenge for the oppressed from the oppressor
  55. Talha and Zubayr
  56. Foretelling events
  57. On the occasion of the elective committee after Umar's death
  58. Backbiting and speaking ill of others "Those who do not commit sins and have been gifted with safety (from sins) should take pity on sinners. Gratefulness should be their indulgence and it should prevent them from (finding faults with) others."
  59. Against reliance on heresy
  60. Misplaced generosity
  61. Praying for rain
  62. Past prophets, Household of Muhammad
  63. This world, on innovation (bidʻah)
  64. When Omar consulted him about taking part in the Battle of Persia
  65. Divine mission of Muhammad and what happens when people go against the Quran
  66. Talha and Zubayr and the people of Basra
  67. His last will
  68. Coming events and hypocrites' activities
  69. Advice against disorder, oppression, and unlawful earning
  70. God and His vicegerents
  71. The negligent, beasts, and carnivores
  72. The Household of Muhammad and their enemies
  73. Wonderful creation of the bat
  74. Malice borne by Aisha and warning the people of Basra
  75. Urging people towards piety
  76. Muhammad and the Quran
  77. Good behavior and ignoring people's faults
  78. Following the examples of Muhammad and the past prophets
  79. Divine mission of Muhammad and lessons from this world
  80. Usurpation of the caliphate from him
  81. Attributes of God
  82. Dialogue with Uthman
  83. Magnificence of the Creator in birds
  1. Observing courtesy and kindness, the autocracy of the Umayyads
  2. Fulfilment of obligations, advice to fear God in all matters "Fear God in the matter of His creatures and His cities because you will be questioned even about lands and beasts."
  3. In response to the demand for avenging Uthman
  4. When the people of Jamal set off for Basra
  5. In response to a Kolayb al-Jarmi who came from Basra to enquire about his position vis-a-vis the people of Jamal
  6. When he decided to fight the enemy face to face at Siffin
  7. Elective committee after Umar, and people of Jamal
  8. On eligibility for the caliphate, the need for sagacity in fighting against Muslims
  9. When he received the news that Talha and Zubayr had left for Basra to fight against him
  10. Warning to neglectful people
  11. Greatness of the Quran, following the Sunnah and refraining from innovation
  12. The two arbiters after the Battle of Siffin
  13. Transience of this world and causes of decline in God's blessings
  14. In reply to a question about seeing God
  15. Condemning his disobedient men
  16. The group who decided to join the Kharijites
  17. Learning from history, al-Mahdi
  18. About the importance of the Quran
  19. On hearing a Kharijite raising the slogan, "judgment belongs to God alone"
  20. Creation of universe
  21. Oneness of God
  22. Vicissitudes of time
  23. Transience of this world
  24. Steadfast and transient belief, the challenge: "Ask me before you miss me"
  25. Fear of God and love for the Household of Muhammad
  26. World and its people
  27. al-Qaaseeaa: Warning about Satan, caution against vanity and other vices, his precedence in Islam
  28. Qualities of the God-fearing
  29. Age of Ignorance, the animosity of Arab tribes, the position of hypocrites
  30. Fear of God and details about the Day of Judgement
  31. Age of Ignorance, the transience of this world and the state of its inhabitants
  32. His attachment to Muhammad and the performance of his funeral rites
  33. Fear of God, praise for Islam, Muhammad, and the Quran
  34. Prayer, Zakat, and fulfillment of obligations
  35. Treachery of Muawiya
  36. One should not be afraid of the scarcity of those who tread on the right path
  37. On the occasion of the burial of his wife, Fatimah
  38. Transience of this world, and the importance of preparation for the hereafter
  39. Warning about the dangers of the Day of Judgement
  40. In response to Talha and Zubayr's complaint for not consulting them in the affairs
  41. One hearing some of his men verbally abusing the Syrians during the Battle of Siffin
  42. About Hasan when Ali saw him proceeding rapidly to fight in the Battle of Siffin
  43. When his army was on the verge of mutiny in connection with the arbitration
  44. When he noticed the vastness of his companion's house
  45. Causes of difference in the traditions and categories of narrators
  46. Greatness of the universe
  47. Those who give up supporting the righteous cause
  48. Sublimity of God and eulogy of Muhammad
  49. Muhammad's nobility of descent, the characteristics of the virtuous
  50. Prayer he often recited
  51. Mutual rights of the ruler and the ruled
  52. Excesses of the Quraysh, on rebels
  53. On passing by the corpses of Talha and another rebel, who were killed in the Battle of the Camel
  54. Qualities of the pious
  55. Exegesis of verse 102:1-2 of the Quran
  56. Exegesis of verse 24:36-37
  57. Exegesis of verse 82:6
  58. Keeping aloof from oppression, on the poverty of his brother, Aqil
  59. A supplication
  60. Transience of the world and the helplessness of those in graves
  61. A supplication
  62. About a companion who passed away before the occurrence of troubles
  63. Allegiance to him as the caliph
  64. An account of those who remain apprehensive of death
  65. About Muhammad
  66. When Abd al-Allah ibn Zamaa asked him for money from the treasury
  67. When his nephew was unable to deliver a sermon
  68. Causes for differences in the features and traits of people
  69. Funeral rites of Muhammad
  70. His immigration to Medina, following Muhammad's
  71. Preparing for the hereafter
  72. The two arbitrators after the Battle of Siffin
  73. The Household of Muhammad
  74. When Uthman sent word that Ali should leave for Yanboo
  75. Exhorting his men to Jihad


The English translation of Nahj al Balagha by Ali Reza includes nearly 80 letters authored by Ali, listed below after minor edits.

  1. To the people of Kufa at the time of his march from Medina to Basra
  2. To the people of Kufa after the victory of Basra
  3. To his judge in Kufa
  4. To one of his army officers
  5. To the governor of Azerbaijan in Iran
  6. To Muawiya
  7. To Muawiya
  8. To his messenger to Muawiya when his return was delayed
  9. To Muawiya
  10. To Muawiya "You have called me to war. Better to leave the people on one side, come out to me and spare both parties from fighting so that it may be known who of us has a rusted heart and covered eyes."
  11. To the commander of a vanguard contingent dispatched to Syria
  12. To a contingent dispatched to engage the enemy
  13. To two of his army officers
  14. To the army before the Battle of Siffin
  15. Invocation when he faced the enemy
  16. Instructions for warriors "By Him who broke open the seed and created living beings, they [the enemy] had not accepted Islam but secured safety (by only verbally professing it) and had hidden their disbelief. When they found helpers for their disbelief, they disclosed it."
  17. In response to a letter from Muawiya
  18. To his governor in Basra
  19. To one of his officers
  20. To the deputy governor of Basra "If I come to know that you have misappropriated the funds of Muslims, small or big, I shall inflict upon you such punishment which will leave you empty-handed, heavy-backed, and humiliated."
  21. To the deputy governor of Basra
  1. To his governor in Basra "Do not be much pleased on what you secure from this world, nor get extremely grieved over what you miss out of it. Your worry should be about what is to come after death."
  2. His will shortly before his death "By God, this sudden death is not an event that I dislike, nor it is an incident that I hate. I am just like a night traveler who reaches the spring or like a seeker who secures. And whatever with God is better for the righteous ones."
  3. His will upon his return from Siffin
  4. Instructions for tax collectors
  5. Instructions for an officer sent to collect tax
  6. Instructions to Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, upon appointment as the governor of Egypt
  7. In response to Muawiya
  8. To the people of Basra
  9. To Muawiya
  10. Instructions for Hasan, when returning from Siffin
  11. To Muawiya
  12. To the governor of Mecca
  13. To Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr after learning that he had taken over the position of Malik al-Ashtar as the governor of Egypt after the latter died
  14. To Ibn Abbas after Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was killed
  15. To his brother Aqil
  16. To Muawiya
  17. To Egyptians after the appointment of Malik al-Ashtar as their governor
  18. To Amr ibn al-As
  19. To one of his officers
  20. To one of his officers
  1. To the governor of Bahrain, whom he later removed
  2. To the governor of Ardasheer Khorra in Iran
  3. To Ziyad ibn Abeen, when Ali learned that Muawiya had approached him "You should be on your guard against him [Muawiya] because he is (like) the Satan who approaches a believer from the front and from the back, from the right and from the left."
  4. To the governor of Basra upon learning that he had accepted an invitation to a lavish banquet
  5. To one of his officers "Bend your wings (in humbleness) before the subjects."
  6. Last will for Hasan and Husayn "Fear God and keep God in view in the matter of orphans."
  7. To Muawiya
  8. To Muawiya
  9. To the officers of his army
  10. To tax collectors "For the collection of tax from the people, do not sell their winter or summer clothes, nor cattle which they work with, nor slaves. Do not whip anyone for the sake of one Dirham. Do not touch the property of anyone, be it a Muslim or a protected non-believer."
  11. To various governors concerning prayers
  12. Instructions for Malik al-Ashtar upon his appointment as the governor of Egypt
  13. To Talha and Zubayr
  14. To Muawiya
  15. Instructions to the commander of a vanguard contingent dispatched to Syria
  16. To the people of Kufa when he marched from Medina to Basra
  17. An announcement about what took place in Siffin
  18. To the governor of Holwaan "All the people should be equal in right before you; injustice cannot be a substitute for justice."
  1. To the officers through whose jurisdiction the army passed
  2. Expressing his displeasure to Kumayl, the governor of Heet, who was unable to prevent enemy raids
  3. To Egyptians through Malik al-Ashtar, upon his appointment as their governor
  4. To Abu Musa Ashaari, the governor of Kufa, when Ali learned that he discouraged jihad
  5. In response to Muawiya
  6. To Muawiya
  7. To Ibn Abbas (a different version)
  8. To the governor of Mecca
  9. To Salman the Persian, before his caliphate
  10. To al-Haarith al-Hamdani
  11. To the governor of Medina about those who had defected to Syria "Do not feel sorry for their numbers, so lost from you, or their help, of which you are deprived. It suffices that they have walked into misguidance and you have been relieved of them."
  12. To an administrator accused of misappropriation
  13. To Ibn Abbas
  14. To Muawiya
  15. Protocol of an agreement between the tribes of Rabeea and the people of Yemen
  16. To Muawiya
  17. Instructions to Ibn Abbas upon his appointment as the governor of Basra
  18. Instructions to Ibn Abbas before talks with the Kharijites
  19. In response to Abu Musa Ashari's letter about the two arbitrators
  20. To the army officers when he was elected as the caliph "Now, what ruined those before you was that they denied people their rights and then they had to purchase them (by bribes)."


Folio from an old Nahj al-Balagha

The English translation of Nahj al Balagha by Ali Reza includes almost 500 sayings attributed to Ali, a few of which are summarized below.

I love the opinion of an old man more than the determination of a young man.

— Saying 86

You will not find an ignorant person but at one extreme or the other.

— Saying 70

A man enquired from Ali: "Was our going to fight against the Syrians destined by God?" Ali replied: "Woe to you! You take it as a final and unavoidable destiny. If it were so, there would have been no question of reward or chastisement and there would have been no sense in God's promises or warnings..."

— Part of Saying 78


Nahj al-Balagha has been translated from Arabic to many languages. A few of these translations are listed below:

  • Nahjul Balagha - Veltalenhedens Sti (in Danish). Translated by Maanaki, Haydar. Imam al-Mahdi Bogfond. 2013.
  • Imaam Ali Bin Abi-Taalib's Sermons, Letters & Sayings as Compiled by Sayyid Shareef Ar-Razi in Nahjol-Balaagha, Peak of Eloquence (PDF). Translated by Reza, Sayed Ali. World Ognanization for Islamic Services. 1987.
  • The Style of Eloquence. Translated by Pazargadi, Alaeddin. Rahnama. 2000.
  • La Voie de l'éloquence (in French). Translated by Obeid, A. Dar al-Biruni. 2004.
  • La Voie de l'éloquence (in French). Translated by Abul Naga, Sayyid ‘Attia. Ansariyan. 1989.
  • Nahdsch-ul-Balagha - Pfad der Eloquenz (in German). Translated by Özoguz, Fatima. m-haditec GmbH & Co. KG. 2007.
  • Nahdż al-Balagha (in Polish). Translated by Miernik, Arkadiusz. Instytut al-Mahdi. 2012.
  • Nahj al-Balagha - Calea Vorbirii Alese (in Romanian). Translated by Grigore, George. Kriterion. 2008.
  • Путь красноречия (in Russian). Translated by Черниенко, Тараса. Казань. 2010.
  • La Cumbre de la Elocuencia (in Spanish). Translated by Morales, Muhammad Ali Anzaldua; Arce, Abdul Jabir. Biblioteca Islámica Ahlul Bait. 2010.
  • نھج البلاغه‎ (in Persian). Translated by دشتی, محمد. مشهور.
  • نھج البلاغہ (in Urdu). Translated by جوادی, علامہ ذیشان حیدر. محفوظ بک ایجنسی.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Shah-Kazemi (2006). Thomas (2008)
  2. ^ Shah-Kazemi (2006). Nasr & Afsaruddin (2021). Thomas (2008)
  3. ^ ابن ابي الحديد. شرح نهج البلاغة. Vol. 1. مکتبة آیة الله العظمی المرعشي النجفي. p. 24.
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