Najas marina

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Najas marina
Najas marina 060628 Korea.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Hydrocharitaceae
Genus: Najas
N. marina
Binomial name
Najas marina
  • Ittnera major (All.) C.C.Gmel.
  • Ittnera najas C.C.Gmel.
  • Najas fluviatilis Poir.
  • Najas fucoides Griff.
  • Najas gracilis (Morong) Small
  • Najas laevis Lojac.
  • Najas latifolia A.Braun
  • Najas major All.
  • Najas maritima Pall.
  • Najas microcarpa (A.Braun) Bolle ex Christ
  • Najas monosperma Willd.
  • Najas muricata Thuill.
  • Najas polonica Zalewski
  • Najas tetrasperma Willd.

Najas marina is a species of aquatic plant known by the common names spiny water nymph, spiny naiad and holly-leaved naiad. It is an extremely widespread species, reported across Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, the Americas and many oceanic islands. It can be found in many types of freshwater and brackish aquatic habitat, including bodies of alkaline water.[2][3][4]

Najas marina is an annual producing a slender, branching stem up to 40 or 45 centimeters in maximum length. The evenly spaced leaves are up to 4 centimeters long, 1 to 3 millimeters wide, and edged in tiny sawlike teeth. The leaf has prickles along its midvein. Minute flowers occur in the leaf axils. The plant is dioecious, with male and female flower types occurring on separate individuals.[5][3][4][6][7]

Varieties and subspecies[edit]

A long list of varietal and subspecific names have been proposed over the years. At present, only 9 are widely accepted:[1][8]

Fossil record[edit]

One fossil seed of Najas marina has been extracted from borehole samples of the Middle Miocene fresh water deposits in Nowy Sacz Basin, West Carpathians, Poland.[9]


  1. ^ a b The Plant List
  2. ^ Stuckey, R. L. 1985. Distributional history of Najas marina (spiny naiad) in North America. Bartonia 51: 2--16.
  3. ^ a b "Najas marina in Flora of North America @". Retrieved 2017-01-31.
  4. ^ a b "Najas marina in Flora of China @". Retrieved 2017-01-31.
  5. ^ von,, Linné, Carl; Lars,, Salvius, (1753-01-01). "Caroli Linnaei ... Species plantarum". 2.
  6. ^ Tzvelev, Nikolai Nikolaievich. 1976. Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii. Moscow & Leningrad 13: 18, Najas major var. polonica
  7. ^ Triest, Ludwig J. 1988. Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. Outre-Mer, Sci. Nat. Nouv. Sér. 22(1): 54 Najas marina var. ohwii
  8. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, genus Najas
  9. ^ Łańcucka-Środoniowa M.: Macroscopic plant remains from the freshwater Miocene of the Nowy Sącz Basin (West Carpathians, Poland) [Szczątki makroskopowe roślin z miocenu słodkowodnego Kotliny Sądeckiej (Karpaty Zachodnie, Polska)]. Acta Palaeobotanica 1979 20 (1): 3-117.

External links[edit]