|Native to||Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria|
|(undated figure of 10 million)|
There are four major dialects of Najdi Arabic.
- Northern Najdi, spoken in Ha'il Region and Al-Qassim Region in the Najd.
- Central Najdi (Urban Najdi), spoken in the city of Riyadh and surrounding towns and farming communities.
- Southern Najdi, spoken in the city of Al-Kharj and surrounding towns, and in the Rub' al-Khali.
Here is a table of the consonant sounds of Najdi Arabic. The phonemes /p/ ⟨پ⟩ and /v/ ⟨ڤ⟩ (not used by all speakers) are not considered to be part of the phonemic inventory, as they exist only in foreign words and can be pronounced as /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker.
- The classicized [q] is an allophone for /g/ ⟨ق⟩ in few words and proper names as in القرآن [alqur'ʔaːn] ('Quran') and قانون [qaːnuːn] ('Law').
- The distinction between the classical /dˤ/ ⟨ض⟩ and /ðˤ/ ⟨ظ⟩ was completely lost in Najdi Arabic, and both are realised as /ðˤ/.
- the marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it,[incomplete citation] it contrasts with /l/ in والله /waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walːa/ ('or'), but it occurs as an allophone of /l/ in many other contexts, especially when neighboring the phonemes /g, x, sˤ, tˤ/ e.g. قَلَم "pencile" /galam/→[gaɫam].
- The phonemes /ɣ/ ⟨غ⟩ and /x/ ⟨خ⟩ can be realised as uvular fricatives [ʁ] and [χ] respectively.
- In the consonantal system of Najdi Arabic, there is an occurrence of the alveolar affricates [t͡s] and [d͡z] as allophonic variants of the velar stops /k/ and /g/, respectively.
- P.F. Abboud. 1964. "The Syntax of Najdi Arabic", University of Texas PhD dissertation.
- Al Motairi, Sarah Soror (2015). "An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Syllable Structure in Qassimi Arabic".
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