Nalanda

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the ancient town and school. For other uses, see Nalanda (disambiguation).
Nalanda
नालंदा
Nalanda University India ruins.jpg
The ruins of Nalanda Mahavihara
Nalanda is located in India
Nalanda
Shown within India
Location Nalanda district, Bihar, India
Coordinates 25°08′12″N 85°26′38″E / 25.13667°N 85.44389°E / 25.13667; 85.44389Coordinates: 25°08′12″N 85°26′38″E / 25.13667°N 85.44389°E / 25.13667; 85.44389
Type Centre of learning
Length 800 ft (240 m)
Width 1,600 ft (490 m)
Area 12 ha (30 acres)
History
Founded 5th century CE
Abandoned 13th century CE
Events Ransacked by Bakhtiyar Khilji in c. 1200 CE
Site notes
Excavation dates 1915–1937, 1974–1982[1]
Archaeologists David B. Spooner, Hiranand Sastri, J.A. Page, M. Kuraishi, G.C. Chandra, N. Nazim, Amalananda Ghosh[2]:59
Public access Yes
Website Nalanda (ASI)

Nalanda (Nālandā; pronunciation: /nɑː.lən.ðɑː/; ) was an acclaimed Mahāvihāra, a large Buddhist monastery in ancient Magadha (modern-day Bihar), India. The site is located about 95 kilometres southeast of Patna near the city of Bihar Sharif, and was a centre of learning from the fifth century CE to c. 1200 CE.[4]:149 Historians often characterize Nalanda as a university.[4]:148[5]:174[6][7]:43[8]:119 Amartya Sen has called it the oldest university in the world which "had been providing higher education to thousands of students from Asian countries for more than six hundred years... by the time the first European university was established in Bologna in 1088."[9]

Nalanda flourished under the patronage of the Gupta Empire as well as emperors like Harsha and later, the rulers of the Pala Empire.[10]:329 At its peak, the school attracted scholars and students from as far away as Tibet, China, Korea, and Central Asia.[5]:169 It was very likely ransacked and destroyed by an army of the Muslim Mamluk Dynasty under Bakhtiyar Khilji in c. 1200 CE.[11]

Etymology[edit]

A number of theories exist about the etymology of the name, Nālandā. According to the Tang Dynasty Chinese pilgrim, Xuanzang, it comes from Na alam dā meaning no end in gifts or charity without intermission. Yijing, another Chinese traveller, however, derives it from Nāga Nanda referring to the name (Nanda) of a snake (naga) in the local tank.[12]:3 Hiranand Sastri, an archaeologist who headed the excavation of the ruins, attributes the name to the abundance of nālas (lotus-stalks) in the area and believes that Nalanda would then represent the giver of lotus-stalks.[13]

Early history[edit]

A statue of Gautama Buddha at Nalanda in 1895.

Nalanda was initially a prosperous village by a major trade route that ran through the nearby city of Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) which was then the capital of Magadha.[14] It is said that the Jain thirthankara, Mahavira, spent 14 rainy seasons at Nalanda. Gautama Buddha too is said to have delivered lectures in a nearby mango grove named Pavarika and one of his two chief disciples, Shariputra, was born in the area and later attained nirvana there.[4]:148[10]:328 This traditional association with Mahavira and Buddha tenuously dates the existence of the village to at least the 5th–6th century BCE.

Not much is known of Nalanda in the centuries hence. Taranatha, the 17th-century Tibetan Lama, states that the 3rd-century BCE Mauryan and Buddhist emperor, Ashoka, built a great temple at Nalanda at the site of Shariputra's chaitya. He also places 3rd-century CE luminaries such as the Mahayana philosopher, Nagarjuna, and his disciple, Aryadeva, at Nalanda with the former also heading the institution. Taranatha also mentions a contemporary of Nagarjuna named Suvishnu building 108 temples at the location. While this could imply that there was a flourishing centre for Buddhism at Nalanda before the 3rd century, no archaeological evidence has been unearthed to support the assertion. When Faxian, an early Chinese Buddhist pilgrim to India, visited Nalo, the site of Shariputra's parinirvana, at the turn of the 5th century CE, all he found worth mentioning was a stupa.[6]:37[12]:4

Nalanda in the Gupta era[edit]

Rear view of the ruins of the Baladitya Temple[verification needed] in 1872.

As historian Sukumar Dutt describes it, the history of the Nalanda Mahavihara "falls into two main divisions—the first, one of growth, development and fruition from the sixth century to the ninth, when it was dominated by the liberal cultural traditions inherited from the Gupta age; the second, one of gradual decline and final dissolution from the ninth century to the thirteenth—a period during which the Tāntric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India under the Pālas …"[10]:344

Nalanda's datable history begins under the Gupta Empire[15] and a seal identifies a monarch named Shakraditya (Śakrāditya) as its founder. Both Xuanzang and a Korean pilgrim named Prajnyavarman (Prajñāvarman) too attribute the foundation of a sangharama (monastery) at the site to him.[6]:42 Shakraditya is identified with the 5th-century CE Gupta emperor, Kumaragupta I (r.c. 415 –c. 455 CE), whose coin has been discovered at Nalanda.[5]:166[10]:329 His successors, Buddhagupta, Tathagatagupta, Baladitya, and Vajra, later extended and expanded the institution by building additional monasteries and temples.[12]:5

The Guptas were traditionally a Brahmanical dynasty. Narasimhagupta (Baladitya) however, was brought up under the influence of the Mahayanist philosopher, Vasubandhu. He built a sangharama at Nalanda and also a 300 ft (91 m) high vihara with a Buddha statue within which, according to Xuanzang, resembled the "great Vihara built under the Bodhi tree". The monk also noted that Baladitya's son, Vajra, who built a sangharama too, "possessed a heart firm in faith".[6]:45[10]:330

The post-Gupta era[edit]

A long succession of kings are said to have continued building at Nalanda "using all the skill of the sculptor". At some point, a "king of central India" built a high wall along with a gate around the now numerous edifices in the complex. Another monarch (possibly of the Maukhari dynasty) named Purnavarman who is described as "the last of the race of Ashoka-raja", built an 80 ft (24 m) high copper image of Buddha to cover which he also constructed a pavilion of six stages.[6]:55

However, after the decline of the Guptas, the most notable patron of the Mahavihara was Harsha, the 7th-century emperor of Kannauj, who was a converted Buddhist and considered himself a servant of the monks of Nalanda. Harsha built a monastery of brass within the Mahavihara and remitted to it the revenues of 100 villages. He also directed 200 households in these villages to supply the institution's monks with requisite amounts of rice, butter, and milk on a daily basis. Around a thousand monks from Nalanda were present at Harsha's royal congregation at Kannuaj.[4]:151[12]:5

Much of what is known of Nalanda prior to the 8th century is based on the travelogues of the Chinese monks, Xuanzang (Si-Yu-Ki) and Yijing (A Record of the Buddhist Religion As Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago).

Xuanzang in Nalanda[edit]

8th century Dunhuang cave mural depicts Xuanzang returning from India.
A page from Xuanzang's Great Tang Records on the Western Regions or "Si-Yu-Ki".

Xuanzang (also known as Hiuen Tsang) travelled around India between the years of 630 and 643 CE,[8]:110 and visited Nalanda first in 637 and then again in 642, spending a total of around two years at the monastery.[16]:237 He was warmly received in Nalanda where he received the Indian name of Mokshadeva[12]:8 and studied under the guidance of Shilabhadra, the venerable head of the institution at the time.[6]:111 He believed that in Shilabhadra he had at last found an incomparable teacher to instruct him in Yogachara, a school of thought that had then only partially been transmitted to China, and the reason why Xuanzang had made the arduous overland journey to India in the first place. Besides Buddhist studies, the monk also attended courses in grammar, logic, and Sanskrit, and later, also lectured at the Mahavihara.[16]:124

In the detailed account of his stay at Nalanda, the pilgrim describes the view out of the window of his quarters thus,[17]

Moreover, the whole establishment is surrounded by a brick wall, which encloses the entire convent from without. One gate opens into the great college, from which are separated eight other halls standing in the middle (of the Sangharama). The richly adorned towers, and the fairy-like turrets, like pointed hill-tops are congregated together. The observatories seem to be lost in the vapours (of the morning), and the upper rooms tower above the clouds.

Xuanzang was a contemporary and an esteemed guest of Harsha and catalogued the emperor's munificence in some detail.[6]:55 He returned to China with 657 Buddhist texts (many of them Mahayanist) and 150 relics carried by 20 horses in 520 cases, and translated 74 of the texts himself.[8]:110[16]:177 In the thirty years following his return, no fewer than eleven travellers from China and Korea are known to have visited famed Nalanda.[12]:9

Yijing in Nalanda[edit]

Inspired by the journeys of Faxian and Xuanzang, the pilgrim, Yijing (also known as I-tsing), after studying Sanskrit in Srivijaya, arrived in India in 673 CE. He stayed there for fourteen years, ten of which he spent at the Nalanda Mahavihara.[4]:144 Unlike his predecessor, Xuanzang, who also describes the geography and culture of 7th-century India, Yijing's account primarily concentrates on the practice of Buddhism in the land of its origin and detailed descriptions of the customs, rules, and regulations of the monks at the monastery. When he returned to China in 695, he had with him 400 Sanskrit texts which were subsequently translated.[18]

In his chronicle, Yijing notes that revenues from 200 villages (as opposed to 100 in Xuanzang's time) had been assigned toward the maintenance of Nalanda.[4]:151 He described there being eight halls with as many as 300 apartments.[5]:167

Nalanda in the Pala era[edit]

The Palas established themselves in North-eastern India in the 8th century and reigned until the 12th century. Although they were a Buddhist dynasty, Buddhism in their time was a mixture of the Mahayana practised in Nalanda and Vajrayana, a Tantra-influenced version of Mahayanist philosophy. Nalanda was a cultural legacy from the great age of the Guptas and it was prized and cherished. The Palas were prolific builders and their rule oversaw the establishment of four other Mahaviharas modelled on the Nalanda Mahavihara at Jagaddala, Odantapura, Somapura, and Vikramashila respectively. Remarkably, Odantapura was founded by Gopala, the progenitor of the royal line, only 6 miles (9.7 km) away from Nalanda.[10]:349–352

Replica of the seal of Nalanda set in terracotta on display in the Archaeological Survey of India Museum in Nalanda

Inscriptions at Nalanda suggest that Gopala's son, Dharmapala, who founded the Mahavihara at Vikramshila, also appears to have been a benefactor of the ancient monastery in some form. It is however, Dharmapala's son, the 9th century emperor and founder of the Mahavihara at Somapura, Devapala, who appears to have been Nalanda's most distinguished patron in this age. A number of metallic figures containing references to Devapala have been found in its ruins as well as two notable inscriptions. The first, a copper plate inscription unearthed at Nalanda, details an endowment by the Shailendra King, Balaputradeva of Suvarnadvipa (Sumatra in modern-day Indonesia). This Srivijayan king, "attracted by the manifold excellences of Nalanda" had built a monastery there and had requested Devapala to grant the revenue of five villages for its upkeep, a request which was granted. The Ghosrawan inscription is the other inscription from Devapala's time and it mentions that he received and patronised a learned Vedic scholar named Viradeva who was later elected the head of Nalanda.[4]:152[6]:58[19]:268

The now five different seats of Buddhist learning in eastern India formed a state-supervised network and it was common for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them. Each establishment had its own official seal with a dharmachakra flanked by a deer on either side, a motif referring to Buddha's deer park sermon at Sarnath. Below this device was the name of the institution which in Nalanda's case read, "Śrī-Nālandā-Mahāvihārīya-Ārya-Bhikṣusaḿghasya" which translates to "of the Community of Venerable Monks of the Great Monastery at Nalanda".[10]:352[12]:55

While there is ample epigraphic and literary evidence to show that the Palas continued to patronise Nalanda liberally, the Mahavihara was less singularly outstanding during this period as the other Pala establishments must have drawn away a number of learned monks from Nalanda. The Vajrayana influence on Buddhism grew strong under the Palas and this appears to have also had an effect on Nalanda. What had once been a centre of liberal scholarship with a Mahayanist focus grew more fixated with Tantric doctrines and magic rites. Taranatha's 17th-century history claims that Nalanda might have even been under the control of the head of the Vikramshila Mahavihara at some point.[10]:344–346[12]:10

The Mahāvihāra[edit]

While its excavated ruins today only occupy an area of around 1,600 feet (488 m) by 800 feet (244 m) or roughly 12 hectares, Nalanda Mahavihara occupied a far greater area in medieval times.[6]:217 It was considered an architectural masterpiece, and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks.[citation needed] Nalanda was a residential school, i.e., it had dormitories for students. In its heyday, it is claimed to have accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. Chinese pilgrims estimated the number of students to have been between 3,000 and 5,000.[20]

The subjects taught at Nalanda covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey.[21]

Xuanzang left detailed accounts of the school in the 7th century. He described how the regularly laid-out towers, forest of pavilions, harmikas and temples seemed to "soar above the mists in the sky" so that from their cells the monks "might witness the birth of the winds and clouds".[22]:158 The pilgrim states: "An azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the lovely kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango trees offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade."[22]:159

The entrance of many of the viharas in the Nalanda ruins can be seen with a bow marked floor; the bow was the royal sign of the Guptas.[citation needed]

Library[edit]

Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra manuscript from Nalanda's Pala period.

It is evident from the large numbers of texts that Yijing carried back with him after his 10-year residence at Nalanda, that the Mahavihara must have featured a well-equipped library. Traditional Tibetan sources mention the existence of a great library at Nalanda named Dharmaganja (Piety Mart) which comprised three large multi-storeyed buildings, the Ratnasagara (Ocean of Jewels), the Ratnodadhi (Sea of Jewels), and the Ratnaranjaka (Jewel-adorned). Ratnodadhi was nine storeys high and housed the most sacred manuscripts including the Prajnaparamita Sutra and the Guhyasamaja.[4]:159[5]:174

The exact number of volumes in the Nalanda library is not known. But it is estimated to have been in the hundreds of thousands.[23] The library not only collected religious manuscripts but also had texts on such subjects as grammar, logic, literature, astrology, astronomy, and medicine.[24] The Nalanda library must have had a classification scheme which was possibly based on a text classification scheme developed by the Sanskrit linguist, Panini.[25]:4 Buddhist texts were most likely divided into three classes based on the Tripiṭaka's three main divisions: the Vinaya, Sutra, and the Abhidhamma.[26]:37

Curriculum[edit]

Tibetan tradition holds that there were "four doxographies" (Tibetan: grub-mtha’) which were taught at Nalanda:[27]

  1. Sarvāstivāda Vaibhāṣika
  2. Sarvāstivāda Sautrāntika
  3. Mādhyamaka, the Mahāyāna philosophy of Nagarjuna
  4. Chittamatra, the Mahāyāna philosophy of Asaṅga and Vasubandhu

In the 7th century, Xuanzang records the number of teachers at Nalanda as being around 1510. Of these, approximately 1000 were able to explain 20 collections of sūtras and śāstras, 500 were able to explain 30 collections, and only 10 teachers were able to explain 50 collections. Xuanzang was among the few who were able to explain 50 collections or more. At this time, only the abbot Shilabhadra had studied all the major collections of sūtras and śāstras at Nalanda.[28]

The Chinese monk Yijing wrote that matters of discussion and administration at Nalanda would require assembly and consensus on decisions by all those at the assembly, as well as resident monks:[29]

If the monks had some business, they would assemble to discuss the matter. Then they ordered the officer, Vihārpāl, to circulate and report the matter to the resident monks one by one with folded hands. With the objection of a single monk, it would not pass. There was no use of beating or thumping to announce his case. In case a monk did something without consent of all the residents, he would be forced to leave the monastery. If there was a difference of opinion on a certain issue, they would give reason to convince (the other group). No force or coercion was used to convince.

Xuanzang also writes:[22]:159

The lives of all these virtuous men were naturally governed by habits of the most solemn and strictest kind. Thus in the seven hundred years of the monastery's existence no man has ever contravened the rules of the discipline. The king showers it with the signs of his respect and veneration and has assigned the revenue from a hundred cities to pay for the maintenance of the religious.

Influence on Buddhism[edit]

A vast amount of what came to comprise Tibetan Buddhism, both its Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions, stems from the late 9th–12th century teachers and traditions at Nalanda.[citation needed] The scholar Dharmakirti (ca. 7th century), one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic, as well as one of the primary theorists of Buddhist atomism, taught at Nalanda.[30]

Buddha Shakyamuni or the Bodhisattva Maitreya, Gilt copper alloy, Early 8th century, Nalanda

Other forms of Buddhism, such as the Mahāyāna Buddhism followed in Vietnam, China, Korea and Japan, flourished within the walls of the ancient school. A number of scholars have associated some Mahāyāna texts such as the Śūraṅgama Sūtra, an important sūtra in East Asian Buddhism, with the Buddhist tradition at Nalanda.[10]:264[31] Ron Epstein also notes that the general doctrinal position of the sūtra does indeed correspond to what is known about the Buddhist teachings at Nalanda toward the end of the Gupta period when it was translated.[32]

According to Xuanzang's biographer, Hwui-Li, Nalanda was held in contempt by some Sthaviras for its emphasis on Mahayana philosophy. They reportedly chided King Harsha for patronising Nalanda during one of his visits to Odisha, mocking the "sky-flower" philosophy taught there and suggesting that he might as well patronise a Kapalika temple.[10]:334 When this occurred, Harsha notified the chancellor of Nalanda, who sent the monks Sāgaramati, Prajñāraśmi, Siṃharaśmi, and Xuanzang to refute the views of the monks from Odisha.[33]:171

Historical figures associated with Nalanda[edit]

Nalanda was visited by both Mahavira and Buddha in sixth and fifth centuries BCE.[1] It is also the place of birth and nirvana of Shariputra, one of the famous disciples of Buddha.[4]:148 Many scholars and historical figures of note are associated with Nalanda including,

Decline and end[edit]

The decline of Nalanda is concomitant with the disappearance of Buddhism in India. When Xuanzang travelled the length and breadth of India in the 7th century, he observed that his religion was in slow decay and even had ominous premonitions of Nalanda's forthcoming demise.[16]:145 Buddhism had steadily lost popularity with the laity and thrived, thanks to royal patronage, only in the monasteries of Bihar and Bengal. By the time of the Palas, the traditional Mahayana and Hinayana forms of Buddhism were imbued with Tantric practices involving secret rituals and magic. The rise of Hindu philosophies in the subcontinent and the waning of the Buddhist Pala dynasty after the 11th century meant that Buddhism was hemmed in on multiple fronts, political, philosophical, and moral. The final blow was delivered when its still-flourishing monasteries, the last visible symbols of its existence in India, were overrun during the Muslim invasion that swept across Northern India at the turn of the 13th century.[6]:208[12]:13[19]:333[35]

In around 1200 CE, Bakhtiyar Khilji, a Turkic chieftain out to make a name for himself, was in the service of a commander in Awadh. The Persian historian, Minhaj-i-Siraj in his Tabaqat-i Nasiri, recorded his deeds a few decades later. Khilji was assigned two villages on the border of Bihar which had become a political no-man's land. Sensing an opportunity, he began a series of plundering raids into Bihar and was recognised and rewarded for his efforts by his superiors. Emboldened, Khilji decided to attack a fort in Bihar and was able to successfully capture it, looting it of a great booty.[11] Minhaj-i-Siraj wrote of this attack:[36]

Muhammad-i-Bakht-yar, by the force of his intrepidity, threw himself into the postern of the gateway of the place, and they captured the fortress, and acquired great booty. The greater number of the inhabitants of that place were Brahmans, and the whole of those Brahmans had their heads shaven; and they were all slain. There were a great number of books there; and, when all these books came under the observation of the Musalmans, they summoned a number of Hindus that they might give them information respecting the import of those books; but the whole of the Hindus had been killed. On becoming acquainted [with the contents of those books], it was found that the whole of that fortress and city was a college, and in the Hindui tongue, they call a college [مدرسه] Bihar.

This passage refers to an attack on a Buddhist monastery (the "Bihar" or Vihara) and its monks (the shaved Brahmans). The exact date of this event is not known with scholarly estimates ranging from 1197 to 1206. While many historians believe that this monastery which was mistaken for a fort was Odantapura, some are of the opinion that it was Nalanda itself.[11] However, considering that these two Mahaviharas were only a few kilometres apart, both very likely befell a similar fate.[6]:212[12]:14 The other great Mahaviharas of the age such as Vikramshila and later, Jagaddala, also met their ends at the hands of the Turks at around the same time.[10]:157,379

Another important account of the times is the biography of the Tibetan monk-pilgrim, Dharmasvamin, who journeyed to India between 1234 and 1236. When he visited Nalanda in 1235, he found it still surviving, but a ghost of its past existence. Most of the buildings had been damaged by the Muslims and had since fallen into disrepair. But two viharas, which he named Dhanaba and Ghunaba, were still in serviceable condition with a 90-year-old teacher named Rahula Shribhadra instructing a class of about 70 students on the premises.[4]:150 Dharmasvamin believed that the Mahavihara had not been completely destroyed for superstitious reasons as one of the soldiers who had participated in the desecration of a Jnananatha temple in the complex had immediately fallen ill.[37]

While he stayed there for six months under the tutelage of Rahula Shribhadra, Dharmasvamin makes no mention of the legendary library of Nalanda which possibly did not survive the initial wave of Turkic attacks. He, however, provides an eyewitness account of an attack on the derelict Mahavihara by the Muslim soldiers stationed at nearby Odantapura (now Bihar Sharif) which had been turned into a military headquarters. Only the Tibetan and his nonagenarian instructor stayed behind and hid themselves while the rest of the monks fled Nalanda.[10]:347[37] Contemporary sources end at this point. But traditional Tibetan works which were written much later suggest that Nalanda's story might have managed to endure for a while longer even if the institution was only a pale shadow of its former glory. The Lama, Taranatha, noted that a king of Bengal named Chagalaraja and his queen patronised Nalanda in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, although no major work was done there".[4]:151

An 18th-century work named Pag sam jon zang recounts another Tibetan legend which states that chaityas and viharas at Nalanda were repaired once again by a Buddhist sage named Mudita Bhadra and that Kukutasiddha, a minister of the reigning king, erected a temple there. The story goes that when the structure was being inaugurated, two indignant (Brahmanical) Tirthika mendicants who had appeared there were treated with disdain by some young novice monks who threw washing water at them. In retaliation, the mendicants performed a 12-year penance propitiating the sun, at the end of which they performed a fire-sacrifice and threw "living embers" from the sacrificial pit into the Buddhist temples. The resulting conflagration is said to have hit Nalanda's library. Fortunately, a miraculous stream of water gushed forth from holy manuscripts in the ninth storey of Ratnodadhi which enabled many manuscripts to be saved. The heretics perished in the very fire that they had kindled.[6]:208[10]:343[12]:15 While it is unknown when this event was supposed to have occurred, archaeological evidence does suggest that a large fire did consume a number of structures in the complex at some point.[6]:214

The last throne-holder of Nalanda, Shakyashribhadra, fled to Tibet in 1204 at the invitation of the Tibetan translator Tropu Lotsawa (Khro-phu Lo-tsa-ba Byams-pa dpal). In Tibet, he started an ordination lineage of the Mulasarvastivada lineage to complement the two existing ones.[citation needed]

The remains[edit]

Excavated ruins of the monasteries of Nalanda.
A map of Nalanda and its environs from Alexander Cunningham's 1861–62 ASI report

After its decline, Nalanda was largely forgotten until Francis Buchanan-Hamilton surveyed the site in 1811–1812 after locals in the vicinity drew his attention to a vast complex of ruins in the area. He, however, did not associate the mounds of earth and debris with famed Nalanda. That link was established by Major Markham Kittoe in 1847. Alexander Cunningham and the newly formed Archaeological Survey of India conducted an official survey in 1861–1862.[2]:59 Systematic excavation of the ruins by the ASI did not begin until 1915 and ended in 1937. A second round of excavation and restoration took place between 1974 and 1982.[1]

The remains of Nalanda today extend some 1,600 feet (488 m) north to south and around 800 feet (244 m) east to west. Excavations have revealed eleven monasteries and six major brick temples arranged in an ordered layout. A 100 ft (30 m) wide passage runs from north to south with the temples to its west and the monasteries to its east.[1][6]:217 Most structures show evidence of multiple periods of construction with new buildings being raised atop the ruins of old ones. Many of the buildings also display signs of damage by fire on at least one occasion.[12]:27

All the monasteries at Nalanda are very similar in layout and general appearance. Their plan involves a rectangular form with a central quadrangular court which is surrounded by a verandah which, in turn, is bounded by an outer row of cells for the monks. The central cell facing the entrance leading into the court is a shrine chamber. Its strategic position means that it would have been the first thing that drew the eye when entering the edifice. With the exception of those designated 1A and 1B, the monasteries all face west with drains emptying out in the east and staircases positioned in the south-west corner of the buildings.[6]:219[12]:28 Monastery 1 is considered the oldest and the most important of the monastery group and shows as many as nine levels of construction. Its lower monastery is believed to be the one sponsored by Balaputradeva, the Srivijayan king, during the reign of Devapala in the 9th century. The building was originally at least 2 storeys high and contained a colossal statue of a seated Buddha.[12]:19

A map of the excavated remains of Nalanda.

The most iconic of Nalanda's structures is Temple no. 3 with its multiple flights of stairs that lead all the way to the top. The temple was originally a small structure which was built upon and enlarged by later constructions. Archaeological evidence shows that the final structure was a result of at least seven successive such accumulations of construction. The fifth of these layered temples is the most interesting and the best preserved with four corner towers of which three have been exposed. The towers as well as the sides of the stairs are decorated with exquisite panels of Gupta-era art depicting a variety of stucco figures including Buddha and the Bodhisattvas, scenes from the Jataka tales, Brahmanical deities such as Shiva, Parvati, Kartikeya, and Gajalakshmi, Kinnaras playing musical instruments, various representations of Makaras, as well as human couples in amorous postures. The temple is surrounded by numerous votive stupas some of which have been built with bricks inscribed with passages from sacred Buddhist texts. The apex of Temple no. 3 features a shrine chamber which now only contains the pedestal upon which an immense statue of Buddha must have once rested.[6]:222[12]:17

Numerous sculptures, murals, copper plates, inscriptions, seals, coins, plaques, potteries and works in stone, bronze, stucco and terracotta have been unearthed within the ruins of Nalanda. The Buddhist sculptures discovered notably include those of the Buddha in different postures, Avalokiteshvara, Jambhala, Manjushri, Marichi, and Tara. Brahmanical idols of Vishnu, Shiva-Parvathi, Ganesha, Mahishasura Mardini, and Surya have also been found in the ruins.[1]

A number of other ruined structures survive. Nearby is the Surya Mandir, a Hindu temple.[citation needed] The known and excavated ruins extend over an area of about 150,000 square metres, although if Xuanzang's account of Nalanda's extent is correlated with present excavations, almost 90% of it remains unexcavated.[citation needed] Nalanda is no longer inhabited. Today the nearest habitation is a village called Bargaon.

Surviving Nalanda manuscripts[edit]

Fleeing monks took some of the Nalanda manuscripts. A few of them have survived and are preserved in collections such as those at:

Revival efforts[edit]

In 1951, the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara (New Nalanda Mahavihara), a modern centre for Pali and Buddhism in the spirit of the ancient institution, was founded by the Government of Bihar near Nalanda's ruins.[41] It was deemed to be a university in 2006.[42]

September 1, 2014, saw the commencement of the first academic year of a modern Nalanda University, with 15 students, in nearby Rajgir.[43] It has been established in a bid to revive the ancient seat of learning. The university has acquired 455 acres of land for its campus and has been allotted ₹2727 crores (around $454M) by the Indian government.[44] It is also being funded by the governments of China, Singapore, Australia, Thailand, and others.[45]

Tourism[edit]

Nalanda is a popular tourist destination in the state attracting a number of Indian and overseas visitors.[46] It is also an important stop on the Buddhist tourism circuit.[45]

Nalanda Archaeological Museum[edit]

The Archaeological Survey of India maintains a museum near the ruins for the benefit of visitors. The museum exhibits the antiquities that have been unearthed at Nalanda as well as from nearby Rajgir. Out of 13,463 items, only 349 are on display in four galleries.[47]

Xuanzang Memorial Hall[edit]

The Xuanzang Memorial Hall at Nalanda

The Xuanzang Memorial Hall is an Indo-Chinese undertaking to honour the famed Buddhist monk and traveller. A relic, comprising a skull bone of the Chinese monk, is on display in the memorial hall.[48]

Nalanda Multimedia Museum[edit]

Another museum adjoining the excavated site is the privately run Nalanda Multimedia Museum.[49] It showcases the history of Nalanda through 3-D animation and other multimedia presentations.

Gallery[edit]

A sign detailing the history of Nalanda.
A sign detailing the history of Nalanda. 
Bronze found at Nalanda
Bronze found at Nalanda 
Rear view of stupa no. 3.
Rear view of stupa no. 3 
A teaching platform in the ruins
A teaching platform in the ruins of Nalanda 
Sculpted stucco panels on a tower
Sculpted stucco panels on a tower 
A statue of Avalokisteshvara found at Nalanda.
A statue of Avalokiteshvara found at Nalanda. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Nalanda". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Le, Huu Phuoc (2010). Buddhist Architecture. Grafikol. pp. 58–66. ISBN 0984404309. 
  3. ^ "Alphabetical List of Monuments – Bihar". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Scharfe, Hartmut (2002). Education in Ancient India. Handbook of Oriental Studies 16. Brill. ISBN 9789004125568. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Monroe, Paul (2000). Paul Monroe's encyclopaedia of history of education, Volume 1. Genesis Publishing. ISBN 8177550918. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Sankalia, Hasmukhlal Dhirajlal (1934). The University of Nālandā. B. G. Paul & co. 
  7. ^ a b c Wayman, Alex (1984). Buddhist Insight: Essays. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120806751. 
  8. ^ a b c Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004). A History of India (Fourth ed.). Routledge. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  9. ^ Sen, Amartya. "India: The Stormy Revival of an International University". The New York Review of Books (August 13, 2015 Issue). Retrieved 11 July 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Sukumar Dutt (1988) [First published in 1962]. Buddhist Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London. ISBN 81-208-0498-8. 
  11. ^ a b c Chandra, Satish (2004). Volume 1 of Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals. Har-Anand Publications. p. 41. ISBN 8124110646. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ghosh, Amalananda (1965). A Guide to Nalanda (5 ed.). New Delhi: The Archaeological Survey of India. 
  13. ^ Sastri, Hiranand (1986) [First published in 1942]. Nalanda and its Epigraphic Material. New Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications. pp. 3–4. ISBN 8170300134. Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  14. ^ Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta (1988). Age of the Nandas and Mauryas. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 268. ISBN 812080466X. 
  15. ^ Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1965). Education in Ancient India. Nand Kishore. ISBN 8182054923. 
  16. ^ a b c d Wriggins, Sally Hovey (1996). Xuanzang : a Buddhist pilgrim on the Silk Road. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2801-2. Retrieved 9 December 2014 – via Questia. (subscription required (help)). 
  17. ^ Beal, Samuel (2000) [First published in 1911]. The life of Hiuen-Tsiang. Trubner's Oriental Series 1 (New ed.). London: Routledge. p. 111. ISBN 9781136376290. Retrieved 9 December 2014. 
  18. ^ Buswell Jr., Robert E.; Lopez Jr., Donald S. (2013). Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3. 
  19. ^ a b Wink, André (2002). Al-Hind : the making of the Indo-Islamic world, Volume 1 ([3rd ed.]. ed.). Boston, MA: Brill. ISBN 0-391-04173-8. Retrieved 15 December 2014 – via Questia. (subscription required (help)). 
  20. ^ Sharma, Suresh Kant (2005). Encyclopaedia of Higher Education: Historical survey-pre-independence period. Mittal Publications. p. 29. ISBN 8183240178. 
  21. ^ Garten, Jeffrey E. (9 December 2006). "Really Old School". 
  22. ^ a b c Rene Grousset (1971) [First published in French in 1929]. In the Footsteps of the Buddha. Translated from French by JA Underwood. Orion Press. ISBN 0-7661-9347-0. 
  23. ^ Khurshid, Anis (January 1972). "Growth of libraries in India". International Library Review 4 (1): 21–65. doi:10.1016/0020-7837(72)90048-9. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  24. ^ Bhatt, Rakesh Kumar (1995). History and Development of Libraries in India. Mittal Publications. ISBN 8170995825. 
  25. ^ Patel, Jashu, Kumar, Krishan (2001). Libraries and Librarianship in India. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313294232. 
  26. ^ Taher, Mohamed, Davis, Donald Gordon (1994). Librarianship and library science in India : an outline of historical perspectives. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 37. ISBN 8170225248. 
  27. ^ Berzin, Alexander (2002). "The Four Indian Buddhist Tenet Systems Regarding Illusion: A Practical Approach". Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  28. ^ Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1998) [First published in 1951]. Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist (2 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass Publications. p. 565. ISBN 8120804236. 
  29. ^ Walser, Joseph (2005). Nāgārjuna in Context: Mahāyāna Buddhism and Early Indian Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 102. ISBN 023113164X. 
  30. ^ a b Collins, Randall (2000). The sociology of philosophies: a global theory of intellectual change. Volume 30, Issue 2 of Philosophy of the social sciences. Harvard University Press. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-674-00187-9. 
  31. ^ Humphreys, Christmas (1987). The Wisdom of Buddhism. Psychology Press. p. 111. ISBN 0700701974. 
  32. ^ "The Shurangama Sutra (T. 945): A Reappraisal of its Authenticity". 
  33. ^ a b Joshi, Lal Mani (1977). Studies in the Buddhistic Culture of India During the Seventh and Eighth Centuries A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 8120802810. 
  34. ^ Jarzombek, Mark M.; Prakash, Vikramaditya; Ching, Francis D.K. (2011). A Global History of Architecture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 312. ISBN 0470902450. 
  35. ^ Basham, A. L. (1954). The wonder that was India: a survey of the history and culture of the Indian sub-continent before the coming of the Muslims. London: Picador. p. 266. ISBN 978-0330439091. 
  36. ^ Minhaj-ud-Din, Maulana (1881). Tabakat-i-Nasiri – A General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of Asia Including Hindustan. Translated by Major H. G. Raverty. p. 552. Retrieved 22 December 2014. 
  37. ^ a b Chos-dar, Upasaka. Biography of Dharmasvamin (Chag Lo Tsa-ba Chos-rje-dpal), a Tibetan Monk Pilgrim. Translated by George Roerich, Introduction by A.S. Altekar. p. xix. Retrieved 24 December 2014.  The account was narrated by Dharmasvamin to his student, Chos-dar.
  38. ^ Kim, Jinah (2013). Receptacle of the Sacred: Illustrated Manuscripts and the Buddhist Book Cult in South Asia. University of California Press. p. 52. ISBN 0520273869. 
  39. ^ "Five of the Leaves from an Ashtasahasrika Prajnaparamita Manuscript". Asia Society. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  40. ^ "Astasahahasrika Prajnaparamita Sanskrit palm-leaf manuscript". Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  41. ^ "Getting to Nava Nalanda Mahavihara (NNM), Nalanda". Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  42. ^ "Welcome to Nava Nalanda Mahavihara (NNM)". Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  43. ^ Singh, Santosh (September 1, 2014). "Nalanda University starts today with 15 students, 11 faculty members". The Indian Express. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  44. ^ "Sushma Swaraj inaugurates Nalanda University". Economic Times. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014. 
  45. ^ a b "Nalanda University reopens". Times of India. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  46. ^ Chatterjee, Chandan (1 September 2014). "Nalanda route to prosperity — Varsity will boost trade, feel residents". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  47. ^ "The Archaeological Museum, Nalanda". Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  48. ^ Chaudhary, Pranava K (Dec 27, 2006). "Nalanda gets set for relic". Times of India. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  49. ^ "Nalanda Multimedia Museum". Prachin Bharat. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 

External links[edit]

Books
Misc