Nalgonda

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Nalgonda district.
Nalgonda
నల్గొండ
نلگونڈا
city
Clock Tower Nalgonda.jpg
Nickname(s): Nilagiri
Nalgonda is located in Telangana
Nalgonda
Nalgonda
Coordinates: 17°03′N 79°16′E / 17.05°N 79.27°E / 17.05; 79.27Coordinates: 17°03′N 79°16′E / 17.05°N 79.27°E / 17.05; 79.27
Country India
State Telangana
District Nalgonda
Government
 • Body Municipality
 • MLA Komati Reddy Venkat Reddy
 • MP Gutha Sukender Reddy
Elevation 421 m (1,381 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 135,163
Languages
 • Official Telugu, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 508001
Telephone code 91 8682
Vehicle registration TS–05[1]
Lok Sabha constituency Nalgonda Lok Sabha

Nalgonda (About this sound pronunciation ) is a town and a municipality in Nalgonda district in the Indian state of Telangana. Its name is derived from two Telugu words: nalla ("black") and konda ("hill").[2] Nalgonda in the past was referred to as Nilagiri. During the period of the Bahamani kingdom, it was renamed as Nallagonda.[3] Later in Nizam rule, during the later kings rule, the name was transformed into Nalgonda (for official uses). It is also the district headquarters.

Geography[edit]

Nalgonda is located at 17°03′00″N 79°16′00″E / 17.050°N 79.2667°E / 17.050; 79.2667.[4] It has an average elevation of 420 metres (1,380 ft).

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[5] Nalgonda had a population of 135,163 . Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Nalgonda has an average literacy rate of 87.08%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 92.23%, and female literacy is 81.92%. In Nalgonda, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

History[edit]

Main article: Telangana Rebellion

Nalgonda or Nilagiri is a place of residence from ancient times. In the old city center, there is an Ashoka pillar. The panagal village was the city center in Kakatiya period where exquisite and highly artful temple of emerald someswara, Chaya someswara temple, and a Venkateswara temple are found. The sculpture of emerald someswara temple is par excellence and highly skillfully carved pillars demonstrate the artisans' mastery as well as devotion. It is said that the temple is called emerald someswara temple because it was endowed with an emerald, which filled the entire temple with light reflected from it in day and night. Its structure follows trikuta architecture style with main sanctum of Shiva and sanctum of Parvati placed opposite, and sanctorum of Skanda placed on the right of main sanctum. The temple for some time was in ruins with many villagers pilfering some of the stone carvings, carting away to their huts or residences. Archaeological society of India, however, later on tried to protect the temple with a fence, and the temple stands in its glory with its pillars intact.

Similarly the Chaya someswara temple is an architectural wonder, where any time in day or night a column of shadow is seen exactly on the deity Shiva without any change throughout the year. Also, the temple's main deity always rests in water skillfully drawn from a nearby lake called panagal cheruvu. The whole construction and water circulating arrangement is as thought the deity is endowed with cool environs. The lake is also said to be very old with a silasashana giving its origin. Main interesting feature of the stone carvings is that the script on it is Brahmi script, indicating its very ancient origin.

Nilagiri is also endowed with two hills, where on one ill there is a fort, and another hill of huge rock of granite where a temple is seen. This hill on its one side has a huge rock of smooth surface embellished with rectangular indentures for help walking on it to reach the temple. Another interesting feature of this hill is there is large reservoir of water inside a hollow of the rock on another side with small opening to be seen as if water is stored by some one in a pot of giant size. At all times of the year it is filled to the brim.

The hill with the fort is called Kapurala (family residential) gutta, indicating that the families of the rulers were kept safe as this hill is very steep on all sides. This fort also has a very deep well as if to supply water for the residents for a long time.

Paleolithic Age[edit]

During this period, people fashioned tools and weapons by chipping hard stones of convenient size and shape. This feature is testified by the findings of unifacial Paleolithic implements of the Sloan type at Yellowhammer.

Neolithic Age[edit]

Traces of Neolithic culture were found at Chota Yelupu, where sling stones and other objects of interest were unearthed. The existence of Megalithic culture was revealed by the discovery of innumerable burials at various places like Tipparti, Nakrekal, Nalgonda.

Mauryas and Satavahanas (230 BC – 218 BC)[edit]

The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas. Mauryas, during the reign of Ashoka the Great, held their sway over this region. Later the region came under the overlordship of the Satavahanas, who ruled between 230 BC and 218 BC. It was during this period that the region established trade contacts with the Roman empire.

Ikshvakus (227–306)[edit]

The Ikshvakus attained control over the region. During this period, Sakas and tled in the region. Buddhism flourished during this period. Iksvakus are one of the greatest dynasties ever ruled.

Pallavas[edit]

After the Ikshvakus, Pallavas and Yadavas fought for supremacy over the region. Luck favoured the Ikshvakus in the form of Samudragupta's invasion of the South. Rashtrakutas

A major portion of the district appears to have passed from the Chalukyas of Badami to the Rashtrakutas. Rashtrakutas fell in 973 and gave room to the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The sway of the Chalukyas continued until the end of the 12th century.

Medieval period[edit]

The district passed under the control of the Kakatiyas from the western Chalukyas. During Prataparudra II's time, the kingdom was annexed to the Tughluq empire in 1323. During Muhammad bin Tughluq's period, Musunuri chief Kapayanayaka ceded a part of Nalgonda to Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah. During Ahmad Shah I's period the region was annexed to Bahmani kingdom. Jalal Khan in 1455 declared himself king at Nalgonda, but it was a short-lived affair. The region was brought back to the Bahmani kingdom.

Qutubshahi

During the time of the Bahmani Sultan Shihabud-din Mahmun Sultan Quli was appointed as tarafdar of Telangana region of present-day Telangana state. From him the region was taken by his son Jamshid. Later the district remained under the control of Qutub Shahis until 1687.

Modern period: Mughals and Asaf Jahis[edit]

Nizam-ul-Mulk (Asaf Jah I) defeated Mubasiz Khan at Shaker Khere in Berar and ruled the Deccan in an autonomous capacity. This district, like the other districts of Telangana, passed under the Asaf Jahis and remained under them for a period of nearly two hundred and twenty-five years.

Economy[edit]

Nalgonda district is a major producer of cement in Telangana due to the availability of lime stone across the borders of Nalgonda district and neighboring Guntur district. there are large number of cement industries.

Transport[edit]

Lateef Ullah Shah Quadri Darga, Nalgonda

Nalgonda railway station is a major railway station on the Guntur-Secunderabad line. It falls under the Guntur division of South Central Railway. Many buses operate between the town and Hyderabad daily run by state govt. National Highway 65 passes through Nalgonda dist from Hyderabad to Vijayawada via Choutuppal, Chityal, Narketpally, Nakrekal, Suryapet and Kodad.

Places of interest[edit]

Nagarjunsagar dam
View from Udaya Sagaram Tank

Some of the religious tourist destinations such as Lateef Saheb Dargah, Jain Shrine of Kolanupaka Temple, are located in in Nalgonda.

Nagarjuna Sagar: World's largest masonry dam This is famous Dam in south India with 26 gates and a Hydroelectric plant. The place also hosts waterfalls called 'Ethipothala' and Gowthama Buddha Museum. Bhuvanangiri Fort: Bhuvanangiri Fort was built by Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI on an isolated rock. The Bala Hisar or citadel on the top of the hill gives a bird's eye view of the neighbouring area. The fort is associated with the herioc queen Rudramadevi and her grandson Prataparudra's rule.

Education[edit]

As being district headquarters Nalgonda serves as a hub for primary and secondary education for surrounding villages . Nalgonda has many primary and upper primary schools which offers in Telugu Urdu and English as medium of instruction. Nalgonda district has Engineering and Medical colleges and vocational colleges.

Mahatma Gandhi University is the only university in Nalgonda. There are also professional colleges for engineering, pharmacy and science providing education in different fields.

Engineering and Pharmacy colleges

Kamineni Medical college and hospital.

There are many schools and colleges in the city which has state government operated education institutions nearly

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Codes". Government of Telangana Transport Department. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  2. ^ [1][dead link]
  3. ^ "Hyderabad State - Ghulam Yazdani - Google Books". Books.google.co.in. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. 1923. Retrieved 2014-07-30. 
  4. ^ "Nalgonda". fallingrain.com. Fallingrain. Retrieved 2014-07-30. 
  5. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 

External links[edit]