Name calling

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Name-calling)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Graham's Hierarchy of Disagreement lists name-calling as the lowest type of argument in a disagreement.

Name-calling is a form of argument in which insulting or demeaning labels are directed at an individual or group. This phenomenon is studied by a variety of academic disciplines such as anthropology, child psychology, and political science. It is also studied by rhetoricians, and a variety of other disciplines.

In politics and public opinion[edit]

Politicians sometimes resort to name-calling during political campaigns or public events with the intentions of gaining advantage over, or defending themselves from, an opponent or critic. Often such name-calling takes the form of labelling an opponent as an unreliable and untrustworthy source, such as use of the term "flip-flopper".

Common misconceptions[edit]

Gratuitous verbal abuse or "name-calling" is not on its own an example of the abusive argumentum ad hominem logical fallacy.[1][2][3][4][5] The fallacy occurs only if personal attacks are employed to devalue a speaker's argument by attacking the speaker; personal insults in the middle of an otherwise sound argument are not fallacious ad hominem attacks.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Ad Hominem Fallacy Fallacy". Plover.net. Archived from the original on 2013-08-14. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  2. ^ "Logical Fallacy: Argumentum ad Hominem". Fallacyfiles.org. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  3. ^ Ad hominem fallacy, Logical Fallacies, Formal and Informal, Independent Individualist.
  4. ^ "AdHominem". Drury.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-08-18. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  5. ^ "Logical Fallacies» Ad Hominem (Personal Attack)". Logicalfallacies.info. Retrieved 2013-07-27.