Name of Australia

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1570 map by Abraham Ortelius depicting Terra Australis Nondum Cognita as a large continent on the bottom of the map and also an Arctic continent
The name "Austrialia" was used for the first time by Quiros – in May 1606.[1][2][3]
Austrialia was altered or 'corrected' to Australia over time (one example shown).[4]
The name Australia was specifically applied to the continent for the first time in 1794.[5]

The name Australia (pronounced [əˈstɹæɪljə, -liə] in Australian English,[6]) is derived from the Latin australis[citation needed], meaning "southern", from the hypothetical Terra Australis postulated in pre-modern geography.

The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders from 1804, and it has been in official use since 1817.

History[edit]

A Terra Australis "land of the south" appeared on world maps from the 15th century, although it was not based on any actual surveying of such a landmass but rather on the hypothesis that continents in the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the south.[7] This theory of balancing land is on record as early as the 5th century on maps by Macrobius.[8]

The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name "Austrialia del Espiritu Santo" (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit)[9] [10] [11] for an island in Vanuatu.[12] The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south.[13] Australia was later used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny, under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur.[14] Referring to the entire South Pacific region, Alexander Dalrymple used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1771. By the end of the 18th century, the name was being used to refer specifically to Australia, with the botanists George Shaw and Sir James Smith writing of "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or New Holland" in their 1793 Zoology and Botany of New Holland,[15] and James Wilson including it on a 1799 chart.[16]

The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who pushed for it to be formally adopted as early as 1804.[17] When preparing his manuscript and charts for his 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis, he was persuaded by his patron, Sir Joseph Banks, to use the term Terra Australis as this was the name most familiar to the public. Flinders did so, and published the following rationale:

There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will ever be found in a more southern latitude; the name Terra Australis will, therefore, remain descriptive of the geographical importance of this country, and of its situation on the globe: it has antiquity to recommend it; and, having no reference to either of the two claiming nations, appears to be less objectionable than any other which could have been selected.[18]

In the footnote to this Flinders wrote:

Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would have been to convert it to AUSTRALIA; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth.[19]

This is the only occurrence of the word Australia in that text; but in Appendix III, Robert Brown's General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis, Brown makes use of the adjectival form Australian throughout,[20]—the first known use of that form.[21] Despite popular conception, the book was not instrumental in the adoption of the name: the name came gradually to be accepted over the following ten years.[22]

The first time that the name Australia appears to have been officially used was in a despatch to Lord Bathurst of 4 April 1817 in which Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledges the receipt of Capt. Flinders' charts of Australia.[23] On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted.[24] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia.[25]

Oz[edit]

The country has been referred to colloquially as Oz since the early 20th century.

The Oxford English Dictionary records a first occurrence in 1908, in the form Oss. Oz is often taken as an oblique reference to the fictional Land of Oz in the film The Wizard of Oz (1939), based on L. Frank Baum's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900).[26] Australians' "image of Australia as a 'Land of Oz' is not new, and dedication to it runs deep".[27] The spelling Oz is likely to have been influenced by the 1939 film, though the pronunciation was probably always with a /z/, as it is also for Aussie, sometimes spelt Ozzie.[28] The Baz Luhrmann film Australia (2008) makes repeated reference to The Wizard of Oz, which appeared just before the wartime action of Australia. Some critics have even speculated that Baum was inspired by Australia, in naming the Land of Oz: "In Ozma of Oz (1907), Dorothy gets back to Oz as the result of a storm at sea while she and Uncle Henry are travelling by ship to Australia. So, like Australia, Oz is somewhere to the west of California. Like Australia, Oz is an island continent. Like Australia, Oz has inhabited regions bordering on a great desert. One might almost imagine that Baum intended Oz to be Australia, or perhaps a magical land in the center of the great Australian desert."[29]

Aussie[edit]

Aussie is a common colloquial term for "Australian". In neighbouring New Zealand, and less commonly in Australia itself, the noun "Aussie" is also used to refer to the nation, as distinct from its residents.[30][31][32] The sporting anthem C'mon Aussie C'mon is an example of the use of Aussie as a synonym for Australia.[31][33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "He named it Austrialia del Espiritu Santo and claimed it for Spain" The Spanish quest for Terra Australis | State Library of New South Wales Page 1.
  2. ^ "before reaching the New Hebrides or what he called Austrialis del Espiritu Santo on 3 May 1606" Quiros, Pedro Fernandez de (1563–1615) Para 4 | Australian Dictionary of Biography.
  3. ^ Cartouche of La Gran Baya de S. Philippe y S. Santiago, Prado y Tovar ca.1606-1614 (España. Ministerio de Cultura. Archivo General de Simancas).
  4. ^ "A note on 'Austrialia' or 'Australia' Rupert Gerritsen - Journal of The Australian and New Zealand Map Society Inc.- The Globe, Number 72, 2013 " Posesion en nombre de Su Magestad (Archivo del Museo Naval, Madrid, MS 951) Page 3.
  5. ^ http://archive.org/details/ZoologyNewHolla1Shaw "First Instance of the Word Australia being applied specifically to the Continent - in 1794"] Zoology of New Holland - Shaw, George,1751-1813; Sowerby, James,1757-1822 Page 2.
  6. ^ Australian pronunciations: Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2005). Melbourne, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-876429-14-3
  7. ^ John Noble Wilford: The Mapmakers, the Story of the Great Pioneers in Cartography from Antiquity to Space Age, p. 139, Vintage Books, Random House 1982, ISBN 0-394-75303-8
  8. ^ Ambrosius Aurelius Theodosius Macrobius, Zonenkarte. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  9. ^ "He named it Austrialia del Espiritu Santo and claimed it for Spain" The Spanish quest for Terra Australis | State Library of New South Wales Page 1.
  10. ^ "before reaching the New Hebrides or what he called Austrialis del Espiritu Santo on 3 May 1606" Quiros, Pedro Fernandez de (1563–1615) Para 4 | Australian Dictionary of Biography.
  11. ^ "THE ILLUSTRATED SYDNEY NEWS". Illustrated Sydney News (National Library of Australia). 26 January 1888. p. 2. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  12. ^ Purchas, vol. iv, pp. 1422–32, 1625. This appears to be variation of the original Spanish "Austrialia" [sic].[1] A copy at the Library of Congress can be read online [2].
  13. ^ Scott, Ernest (2004) [1914]. The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders. Kessinger Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-4191-6948-9. 
  14. ^ Baker, Sidney J. (1966) The Australian Language, 2nd ed.
  15. ^ Ferguson, John Alexander (1975). Bibliography of Australia: 1784–1830 1 (reprint ed.). National Library of Australia. p. 77. ISBN 0-642-99044-1. 
  16. ^ Estensen, Miriam (2002). The Life of Matthew Flinders. Allen & Unwin. p. 354. ISBN 1-74114-152-4. 
  17. ^ Flinders, Matthew. "Letter from Matthew Flinders originally enclosing a chart of 'New Holland' (Australia)". http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk. Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  18. ^ Matthew Flinders, A voyage to Terra Australis (Introduction). Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  19. ^ Flinders, Matthew (1814). A Voyage to Terra Australis. G. and W. Nicol. 
  20. ^ Bennett, J. J., ed. (1866–68). "General remarks, geographical and systematical, on the botany of Terra Australis". The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S. 2. pp. 1–89. 
  21. ^ Mabberley, David (1985). Jupiter botanicus: Robert Brown of the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History). ISBN 3-7682-1408-7. 
  22. ^ Estensen, p. 450
  23. ^ "WHO NAMED AUSTRALIA?". The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 – 1954) (Adelaide: National Library of Australia). 11 February 1928. p. 16. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  24. ^ Weekend Australian, 30–31 December 2000, p. 16
  25. ^ Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2007). Life in Australia (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-921446-30-6. Retrieved 30 March 2010. 
  26. ^ Jacobson, H. (1988) In the Land of Oz, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-010966-8.
  27. ^ The Americana Annual: 1988, Americana Corporation, vol. 13, 1989, p. 66, ISBN 0-7172-0220-8.
  28. ^ Partridge, Eric, et al., The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, Taylor & Francis, 2006, ISBN 0-415-25938-X, entries "Oz" and "Ozzie", p. 1431.
  29. ^ Algeo, J., "Australia as the Land of Oz", American Speech, Vol. 65, No. 1, 1990, pp. 86–89.
  30. ^ Macquarie Dictionary (5th ed.). Macmillan Publishers Australia. 2010. ISBN 9781876429669. 
  31. ^ a b Kennett, Jeff (11 November 2011). "C'mon Aussie, let's grow up". Herald Sun. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  32. ^ Claire Harvey, Aussie farewell to life in "Kiwi". Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  33. ^ Lee, Julian (27 November 2009). "C'mon Aussie: cricket anthem reprised to get bums on seats". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 22 February 2014.