Names and titles of Muhammad

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The names and titles of Muhammad,[1] names and attributes of Muhammad[2], Names of Muhammad (Arabic: أسماء النبي‎, romanizedAsmā’u ’n-Nabiyy) are the names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and used by Muslims, where 88 of them are commonly known, but also countless names which are found mainly in the Quran and hadith literature. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God (abd).

Names[edit]

Muhammad[edit]

The name Muhammad (/mʊˈhæməd, -ˈhɑːməd/)[3] means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran.[4] The name of chapter Surah 47 of the Quran is "Muhammad".[5] The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim,[6] begins with the kunya[7] Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of.[8]

The Quran also refers to Muhammad as Ahmad "more praiseworthy" (Arabic: أحمد‎).[9][10][11][12][13] The penultimate prophet in Islam, Isa ibn Maryam also refers Muhammad as Ahmad in the Sura As-Saff 61:6.[14]

Muhammad is also referred to as Hamid, or "Praiser (of Allah)" (Arabic: حامد‎), and as Mahmud, or "Most Highly Praised" (Arabic: محمود‎).[1]

Quranic chapter Verse English translation (by Abdullah Yusuf Ali[15][16])
Al Imran 144 Muhammad is only a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.[17]
Al-Ahzab 40 Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.[18]
Muhammad 2 But those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and believe in the (Revelation) sent down to Muhammad – for it is the Truth from their Lord, – He will remove from them their ills and improve their condition.[19]
al-Fatḥ 29 Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against disbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great Reward.[20]
Aṣ-Ṣaff 6 And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: "O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you, confirming the Law (which came) before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad." But when he came to them with Clear Signs, they said, "this is evident sorcery!" [21]

Titles[edit]

Muhammad is often referenced with these titles or epithets:

  • Seal of the prophets (Arabic: خاتم النبيين‎, romanizedKhātam al-Nabiyyīn) [22][23]
  • The Prophet, (Arabic: أَلْنَّبِيّ‎, romanizedal-Nabī), also, the Prophet of Prophets.
  • Messenger of God, (Arabic: رسول الله‎, romanizedRasūl’Allāh)
  • The Beloved (Arabic: الحَبِيبُ‎, romanizedal-Ḥabīb) or The Beloved of God (Arabic: حَبِيبُ اللهِ‎, romanizedḤabīb Allāh)
  • The Chosen or The Appointed (Arabic: المُصْطَفَى‎, romanizedal-Muṣṭafā)[24]
  • The Genuine, The Trustworthy, or The Faithful (Arabic: الأَمِينُ‎, romanizedal-Amīn)[25]
  • The Honest, The Righteous, or The Truthful (Arabic: الصِّدِّيقُ‎, romanizedal-Ṣiddīq)[26]
  • Kind, Compassionate, or Affectionate (Arabic: رَءُوف‎, romanizedRaʾūf)[27]
  • Model (of Conduct, Merit, or Virtue) (Arabic: أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَة‎, romanizedUswatun Ḥasanah)[28]
  • The Perfect (Arabic: أَلْكَامِل‎, romanizedal-Kāmil)[29]
  • The Best of Mankind (Arabic: خَيْرُ البَشَرِ‎, romanizedKhayr al-Bashar)
  • Mercy to the Worlds (Arabic: الرَّحْمَةُ لِلْعَالَمِينَ‎, romanizedal-Raḥmah lil-ʿĀlamīn)[30]
  • al-Mubashir, "The Bearer of Good Tidings"[31]
  • an-Nadhir, "The Warner"[31]
  • al-Mudhakkir, "The Reminder"[32]
  • ad-Dā‘ī, "The One Who Calls (unto God)"[33]
  • al-Bashir, "The Announcer"[34]
  • an-Nūr, "The Light Personified"[35]
  • al-Misbah, "The Lamp/ Lantern" (lit. "Bringer of Light – Dawn") – i.e.: as-Siraaj al-Muneer, "The Lamp of Illuminated, Ever-glowing, Ever-Enlightening, Incandescent"[36]
  • as-Siraaj, "The Lamp/ Lantern" – i.e.: as-Siraaj al-Muneer, "The Lamp of Illuminated, Ever-glowing, Ever-Enlightening, Incandescent"[36]
  • Ni‘mat-Ullah, "The Divine Favour"[37]
  • al-Ummiyy, "The Unlettered and Illiterate", i.e.: An-Nabiyyu l-Ummiyy, "The Prophet who is Unlettered and Illiterate"[38]
  • al-'Aqib, "The Last (Prophet)"[39][40]
  • al-Mutawakkil, "The One who Puts his Trust (in God)"[41]
  • Qutham, "Of Perfect Character. Gifted With Every Merit."
  • al-Mahi, "The Remover (of Disbelief)"[42]
  • al-Hanif, "The One of Primordial Religion"
  • Nâbîyyu at-Tawbah, "The Prophet of Penitence"
  • al-Mu`azzaz, "The Strengthened One, the One Made Invulnerable"
  • al-Muwaqqar, "Held in Awe"
  • al-Fatih, "The Opener"
  • al-Hashir, "The Gatherer (First to be Resurrected) on the Day of Judgement"[40][Quran 2:119]
  • al-Shafî`, "The Intercessor"[43][44]
  • Kareem, Noble and Generous (Arabic: كريمٍ‎),[45]
  • Shahid/Shahed (Arabic: شَاهِدًا‎), A Witness[46]
  • al-Mushaffa`, The One Whose Intercession Shall be Granted[47]
  • al-Mujtaba, The Chosen (Arabic: اَلْـمُـجْـتَـبَى‎)[48]
  • ‘Abd’Allah, Servant of Allah[49]
  • Akhir, 'The Final, that is, the final prohet,[50] "Last Messenger"[51]

Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped (Al-Muzzammil) in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded (al-muddaththir) in Quran 74:1.[52]

He is also known by these epithets:

In Iran, Central Asia and South Asia, Turkey and the Balkans, he is often called Hadrat (His Presence or His Holiness) Arabic: حضرت‎, romanizedḥadhrat) or Messenger (Persian: پيغمبر‎, romanizedpeygamber).[53]

Islamic scholars strongly emphasize the need for Muslims to follow the name of Muhammad, whether spoken or written, with the honorific phrase "peace be upon him", often abbreviated to PBUH or SAW, from Arabic: صلى الله عليه وسلم‎, romanizedsallallahu alayhe wasallam or written ﷺ.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Names and Titles of Prophet Muhammad". Journey of a Seeker Of Sacred Knowledge. January 20, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  2. ^ Yeniterzi, Emine. "The Names and Attributes of Prophet Muhammad in Divine Literature". Last Prophet. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  3. ^ "Muhammad" Archived 15 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  4. ^ Jean-Louis Déclais, Names of the Prophet, Encyclopedia of the Quran
  5. ^ "Quran (Chapter 47)".
  6. ^ Muhammad Archived 9 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 15 February 2017
  7. ^ Goitein, S.D. (1967) – A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza, Volume 1 Archived 22 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine p. 357. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-22158-3 Retrieved 17 February 2017
  8. ^ Ward, K. (2008) – Islam: Religious Life and Politics in Indonesia Archived 22 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine p. 221, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ISBN 981-230-851-2 Retrieved 17 February 2017
  9. ^ Iqbal, Muzaffar, ed. (2013). Integrated Encyclopedia of the Qur'an. 1. Center for Islamic Sciences. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-926620-00-8.
  10. ^ "Critical Thinking – A World View".
  11. ^ "Muhammad in Quran".
  12. ^ "Some Selected Verses From The Holy Qur'an On OUR BELOVED PROPHET MUHAMMAD Sallallahu 'alayhi wa Sallam".
  13. ^ Quran 61:6
  14. ^ "The Quranic Arabic Corpus - Translation". corpus.quran.com. Retrieved 2021-06-22.
  15. ^ "Translations of the Qur'an". Archived from the original on 2016-08-10.
  16. ^ "English translation of Quran by Yusuf Ali".
  17. ^ "Quran Surah Aal-i-Imraan ( Verse 144 )'". Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  18. ^ "Quran Surah Al-Ahzaab ( Verse 40 )'". Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  19. ^ "Quran Surah Muhammad ( Verse 2 )'". Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  20. ^ "Quran Surah Al-Fath ( Verse 29 )'". Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  21. ^ "Quran Surah As-Saff ( Verse 6 )'". Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  22. ^ 33:40
  23. ^ Ernst (2004), p. 80
  24. ^ Quran 22:75
  25. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:237
  26. ^ Quran 33:22
  27. ^ Quran 9:128
  28. ^ Quran 68:4
  29. ^ "Ibn al-'Arabi, Muhyi al-Din (1164–1240)". Muslim Philosophy. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 4. The 'perfect man' and the Muhammadan reality
  30. ^ Quran 21:107
  31. ^ a b Quran 11:2
  32. ^ Quran 88:21
  33. ^ Quran 12:108
  34. ^ Quran 2:119
  35. ^ Quran 5:15
  36. ^ a b Quran 33:46
  37. ^ Quran 16:83
  38. ^ Quran 7:157–158
  39. ^ Sahih Muslim, 4:1859
  40. ^ a b Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:732
  41. ^ Quran 9:129
  42. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:732
  43. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:93:601
  44. ^ Quran 3:159Quran 4:64Quran 60:12
  45. ^ Quran 69:40
  46. ^ Quran 33:45
  47. ^ Quran 19:87Quran 20:109
  48. ^ "Mujtaba, A Quranic Name for Boys". quranicnames.com. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
  49. ^ Quran 25:1
  50. ^ Muhammad and Christ, Maulana Muhammad Ali – 2011
  51. ^ Muhammad The Messenger of God: M. Fethullah Gülen – 2014
  52. ^ Uri Rubin, Muhammad, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  53. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1990). Islamic Names: An Introduction (Islamic Surveys). Edinburgh University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-85224-563-7.

Further reading[edit]

Chiabotti, Francesco, Names, in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610691776