Names of Macau
The Macau Special Administrative Region (Chinese: 澳門特別行政區; pinyin: Àomén Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū; in Mandarin (help·info), ; Portuguese: Região Administrativa Especial de Macau ; abbreviated RAEM), commonly known as Macao or Macau ( simplified Chinese: 澳门; traditional Chinese: 澳門; pinyin: Àomén, or informally as 馬交 maa-gau) is one of the two special administrative regions (SARs) of the China (PRC), along with Hong Kong. With effect from 1st January 2016, "Macao" is the only acceptable spelling in English.
The name Macau (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈkaw]) is thought to be derived from the Templo de A-Má (Temple of A-Ma or Ma Kok Temple) (媽閣廟, Cantonese Jyutping: Maa1 Gok3 Miu6, local pronunciation: Maa5 Gok3 Miu6 or Maa5 Gok3 Miu2), a still-existing landmark built in 1448 dedicated to the goddess Matsu - the goddess of seafarers and fishermen.
In keeping with saga, a fisher-boat sailing across the sea one day found itself in an unexpected rainstorm. Every one on board was about to give up all hope of surviving this natural disaster. An attractive young lady, who had boarded the boat at the eleventh hour, stood up and ordered the tempest to calm down. The gale ceased and the sea became calm. The fisher-boat, without further event, arrived safely at the port of Hoi Keang. The young lady walked ashore to the top of the Barra Hill where, in a glowing aura of light and fragrance; she ascended into heaven immediately. On the specific locale where she set foot on, a temple was built.
The Chinese name Aomen 澳門 (pinyin: Àomén, Cantonese: Ou3 Mun4*2 [ʔōu mǔːn]) means "Inlet Gates". The "gates" refer to two erect gate-like mountains of Nantai (Chinese: 南台; pinyin: Nántái) and Beitai (Chinese: 北台; pinyin: Běitái). Alternately, Ao may derive from Macau's previous name Heong San Ou, as it is geographically situated at "Cross' Door".
Macao is also known as:
- Hou Keng Ou (壕鏡澳 Oyster-mirror Inlet)
- Heong San Ou (香山澳 Xiangshan Ao; Fragrant-mountain Inlet)
- Lin Tou (蓮島 Liandao; Lotus Island)
- Soda Port (梳打埠)
While Ou3 Mun2 is the traditional Cantonese name of the place, it is common among the Cantonese-speaking population to use the source of the Portuguese name, 馬交 Maa5 Gaau1 [ma̬ː káːu]. The form "Macao" was the original Portuguese spelling, and has been retained in some European languages. In modern Portuguese, the correct spelling is "Macau".
Duality in English
"Macao" is the traditional Portuguese spelling. However, since the transfer of sovereignty over Macau in 1999, the government of Macau considers both "Macau" and "Macao" to be acceptable English spellings of the name, whereas in Portuguese "Macao" has long been abandoned and just "Macau" remains the official spelling.
This English language dualism is visible in many government publications and documents, sometimes even within the same paragraph. For example, the spelling "Macao" appears on the local government's English language emblem as seen at its web portal, but the Macanese Government Tourist Office uses the "Macau" spelling, as is also reflected in its website. With effect from 1st January 2016, the Macau Government Tourist Office is now known as Macanese Government Tourism Office. Similarly, "Macao" is used on the Macau Special Administrative Region passport, but the government's official explanatory note on the passport spells it as "Macau".
"Macao" is also the origin of Macauy's designated Internet country code top-level domain .mo.
Official and diplomatic status
In comparison, the central government of the China consistently spells its name as "Macao". Less commonly used is the pinyin transcription of Aomen, but its usage is not used officially. The decision not to adopt pinyin names after the handover to China appears to be consistent with the usual PRC policy of respecting the local linguistic traditions in the romanized version of names, as in other non-pinyin names like Lhasa, Ürümqi or Hohhot, for example. Phonetically the spelling "Macao" produces a pinyin pronunciation similar to Macau.
According to the Unofficial English Translation of the Basic Law of Macau,
Article 136: The Macau Special Administrative Region may, on its own, using the name "Macao, China", maintain and develop relations and conclude and implement agreements with foreign states and regions and relevant international organisations in the appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural, science and technology, and sports fields.
Article 137: Representatives of the Government of the Macau Special Administrative Region may, as members of delegations of the People's Republic of China, participate in international organizations or conferences in appropriate fields limited to states and affecting the Region, or may attend in such other capacity as may be permitted by the Central People's Government and the international organisations or conference Concerneds and may express their views, using the name "Macao, China". The Macau Special Administrative Region may, using the name "Macao, China", participate in international organizations and conferences not limited to states.
Notwithstanding the official Basic Law of Macau requirement to use "Macao, China", Macau participates in international organisations and international sport events like World Trade Organization and International Monetary Fund meetings and East Asian Games as "Macau, China".
Alternative names for Macau
|Language||Short Name||Formal Name|
|Arabic||ماكاو||المنطقة الإدارية الخاصة لماكاو|
|Catalan||Macau||Regió Administrativa Especial de Macau|
|Chinese||Aòmén (澳門) or Aòmén tèqū (澳門特區)||Aòmén tèbié xíngzhèngqū (澳門特別行政區)|
|Czech||Macao||Zvláštní administrativní oblast Macao|
|Dutch||Macau||Speciale Bestuurlijke Regio Macau|
|English||Macau||Macao Special Administrative Region|
|French||Macao||Région Administrative Spéciale de Macao|
|Hebrew||מקאו||אזור מנהלי מיוחד של מקאו|
|Hiligáynon||Makáw||Bináhin nga may Pinasahî nga Pagpamalákad sang Makáw / Rehiyón nga Espesyál nga Adminitratíbo sang Makáw|
|Indonesian||Makau||Daerah Administratif Khusus Makao|
|Italian||Macao||Regione Amministrazione Speciale di Macao|
|Kapampangan||Makau / Macau||Rehiyung Administratibung Espesyal ning Makau|
|Korean||Makao (마카오) / Aomeon (아오먼)||Makao Teukbyeol Haengjanggu (마카오 특별 행정구)|
|Malay||Makau||Wilayah Pentadbiran Khas Makau|
|Persian||Macao /ماکائو||Bakhshe Vizheye Edariye Macao / بخش ویژه اداری ماکائو|
|Polish||Makau||Specjalny Region Administracyjny Makau|
|Portuguese||Macau||Região Administrativa Especial de Macau|
|Russian||Makao (Мака́о) / Aomyn' (Аомы́нь)||Специальный Административный район Мака́о|
|Spanish||Macao||Región Administrativa Especial de Macao|
|Tagalog||Makaw / Makao||Rehiyong Administratibong Espesyal ng Makaw|
|Turkish||Makao||Makao özel yönetim bölgesi|
|Vietnamese||Ma Cao||Đặc khu hành chính Ma Cao|
- "Alternate Names or Name Variants for Macau Special Administrative Region". geonames.org. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
- "Home > Mazu Culture > Mom Zusheng Ping >". Mazu.org. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
- "Hakka and Macau" (in Chinese). Retrieved 2008-01-02.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20060829085928/http://www.gov.mo/egi/Portal/index.jsp. Archived from the original on August 29, 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2006. Missing or empty
- "Macau Government Tourist Office". Macautourism.gov.mo. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
- http://www.dsi.gov.mo/documents/sar_pss_e.html Archived February 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Alternate Names for Macau Special Administrative Region". Geonames.org. Retrieved 2013-09-16.