Names of the Ottoman Empire

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The state of the Ottomans which began as part of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate and became an independent Empire, has been known historically by different names at different periods and in various languages. This page surveys the history of these names and their usage.

Beylik phase[edit]

State phase, 1299[edit]

The first declaration of statehood happened under Osman I.

  • Āl-e Uṯmān (Arabic: آل عثمان‎‎; also transliterated as Âl-i Othman)

Empire phase, 1453[edit]

  • Medieval Latin: Turchia (Turkey) or Imperium Turcicum (Turkish Empire)[1]
  • English: Ottoman Empire, Osmanic Empire, Osmanian Empire, Turkey, Turkish Empire
  • Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانيه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye (The Sublime Ottoman State)[2]
  • Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Âliye (The Sublime State)
  • Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Ebed-Müddet (The Eternal State)
  • Ottoman Turkish: Memâlik-i Mahrûse (The Well-Protected Domains)
  • Ottoman Turkish: Memâlik-i Mahrûse-i Osmanî (The Well-Protected Domains of the Ottomans)
  • Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu (Ottoman Empire), Osmanlı Devleti (Ottoman State)
  • Azerbaijani: Osmanlı İmperiyası (Ottoman Empire), Osmanlı Dövləti (Ottoman State)
  • Albanian: Perandoria Osmane (occasionally but very seldom "Otomane")
  • Arabic: الدولةُ العليةُ العثمانيةُ Ad-Daulatu' l-ʿAliyatu' l-ʿUṯmāniyya (The Sublime Ottoman State) or الدولةُ العثمانيةُ Ad-Daulatu' l-ʿUṯmāniyya
  • Armenian: Օսմանյան Կայսրություն (Osmanyan Kaysroutyoun)
  • Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: Османско царство (Osmansko Carstvo) / Отоманско царство (Otomansko Carstvo)
  • Bulgarian: Османска империя (Osmanska Imperia)
  • Chinese: Lumi (魯迷) (originates from Rûm or Rumi.),or Rumu 如木 (originates from Rûm or Rumi.), or Du'erge 度爾格 (from Turkey), Tuliyesike 圖里耶斯科 (from Turkey), or Du'erke 都兒克 (from Turkey), or Du'erjia 都爾佳 (from Turkey), or Tuliya 圖里雅 (from Turkey), or Tu'erqi 土耳其 (from Turkey), or Hongke'er 烘克爾 (from Mongolian Khungghar), Gongka'er 供喀爾 (from Mongolian Khungghar), Hongke'er 烘克爾 (from Mongolian Khungghar), or Hongga'er 紅噶爾 (from Mongolian Khungghar), or Kongka'er 孔喀爾 (from Mongolian Khungghar), or Kongka'er 空喀爾 (from Mongolian Khungghar), or Konggu'er 空谷爾 (from Mongolian Khungghar)
  • Danish: Det Osmanske Rige (the Ottoman realm)
  • Greek: Οθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία (Othomanikí Aftokratoría), informally, Τουρκιά (Tourkiâ)
  • Georgian: ოსმალეთის იმპერია (Osmaletis Imperia)
  • German: Osmanisches Reich (or Türkisches Reich)
  • Hungarian: Oszmán Birodalom (Osman Empire)
  • Macedonian: Отоманска Империја (Otomanska Imperija) or Османлиска Империја (Osmanliska Imperija)
  • Mongolian: Khungghar (derives from Ottoman word hunkār)
  • Persian: امپراطوری عثمانی (Empraturi Osmani)‎‎
  • Swedish: Osmanska riket (the Ottoman realm)[3]

In diplomatic circles, the Ottoman government was often referred to as the "Porte" or the "Sublime Porte," a literal translation of the Ottoman Turkish Bâb-ı Âlî, which was the only gate of Topkapı Palace open to foreigners and the location where the Sultan and his viziers greeted ambassadors.

References[edit]

  1. ^ K.H. Karpat, "Historical continuity and identity change or How to be modern Muslim, Ottoman, and Turk", in: K.H. Karpat (ed.), Ottoman past and today's Turkey (2000), 1-28, esp. 20; G. Ágoston & B.A. Masters, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire (2009), 574.
  2. ^ O. Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  3. ^ http://www.ne.se/osmanska-riket

External links[edit]

Historic maps using the alternative names of the Ottoman Empire[edit]