Namma Metro

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Namma Metro
ನಮ್ಮ ಮೆಟ್ರೋ
Namma metro.png
Yeshwantapur Metro-Platform View1.jpg
Overview
Native name ನಮ್ಮ ಮೆಟ್ರೋ
Owner Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (BMRC)
Locale Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 2
Number of stations

30
41 (Phase I)[1]
102 (Phase II finish - December 2020)

" [2]
Daily ridership 140,000 (May, 2016) [3]
Chief executive Pradeep Singh Kharola, MD
Headquarters BMTC Complex, Shanthinagar, Bangalore
Website bmrc.co.in
Operation
Began operation 20 October 2011 (2011-10-20)
Train length 3 coaches (Extendable to 6 coaches)
Headway 8–10 minutes
Technical
System length

31.52 km (19.59 mi) (current)[4]
42.3 km (26.3 mi) (Phase I)[5]
114.39 km (71.08 mi) (Phase II)127km (78.914 miles) (phase III)

283.690km(176.194)(total length)
No. of tracks 2
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 750 V DC third rail
Average speed 34 km/h (21 mph)[6]
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)

Namma Metro (literally "Our Metro"), also known as Bangalore Metro, is a metro system serving the city of Bangalore in Karnataka, India. Namma Metro is India's second largest metro system in terms of both length and number of stations, after the Delhi Metro.[7] On the other hand, Namma Metro ranked worlds's 99th largest metro system in terms of length and 92nd largestmetro network in terms of number of operating stations. It also contains the first underground metro line in South India.[8] The metro network consists of two colour-coded lines, with a total length of 31.52 kilometres serving 30 stations. The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using standard-gauge tracks. The metro has an average daily ridership of 140,000 passengers. [9]

The Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (BMRCL), a joint venture of the Government of India and the Government of Karnataka, built and operates the Namma Metro.[10] Services operate daily between 06:00 and 22:00 running with a headway varying between 8–10 minutes. The trains are composed of three cars. The power output is supplied by 750 volt direct current through third rail.

The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC) prepared and submitted the detailed project for the first phase of the Namma Metro project to the BMRCL in May 2003. Construction work for Phase I of the project was scheduled to start in 2005 but was delayed by a February 2006 change of government in Karnataka and continued debate over whether the project was financially feasible and appropriate for the city. The project was approved by the Union Cabinet on 25 April 2006. Civil construction on the first section, Reach I, the stretch of the Purple Line between Baiyyappanahalli and Mahatma Gandhi Road, commenced on 15 April 2007. The section opened to the public on 20 October 2011. The development of network was divided into phases, Phase I containing 2 lines was is scheduled to be completed in 2016, and Phase II by 2022.

Network[edit]

Timelapse expansion of the Namma Metro network.

Namma Metro is being built in phases. Currently, a portion of Phase I has been completed and is in operation. The operational portion of the Namma Metro is listed below:-

Line Opening date Last extension Stations[11] Length[4]
(km)
Terminals
Purple Line 20 October 2011 30 April 2016 17 18.22 Baiyyappanahalli Mysore Road
Green Line 1 March 2014 August 2016 13 13.30 Sampige Road Nagasandra
Total 30 31.52

Purple Line[edit]

The first 6.7-kilometre (4.2 mi), 6-station stretch (Reach 1) of the Purple Line between Baiyappanahalli and Mahatma Gandhi Road opened on 20 October 2011,[12] and was the inaugural section of the Namma Metro.[13] The second 6.4-kilometre (4.0 mi), 6-station stretch (Reach 2) of the Purple Line between Mysore Road and Magadi Road opened on 16 November 2015.[14] The first underground section of South India, a 4.8 km stretch from Cubbon Park to Bangalore City Railway Station opened on 29 April 2016, thereby completing the entire 18.22 km Purple Line stretch of the metro network.

Green Line[edit]

The first 9.9-kilometre (6.2 mi), 10-station stretch (Reach 3/3A) of the Green Line opened 1 March 2014.[15][16] The stretch connected Sampige Road to Peenya Industry.[17] The second 2.5-kilometre (1.6 mi), 3-station stretch (Reach 3B) of the Green Line, operating between Peenya Industry and Nagasandra, opened 1 May 2015.[18][19]

The Green Line will be the second line of the Metro and when complete it will connect Nagasandra in the north to Putennahalli in the south, covering a distance of 24.2 kilometres (15.0 mi),[5] and serving 24 stations.[11] It will be partly elevated and partly underground, with one station at grade. With the first breakthrough achieved on 20 April 2016 between Sampige Road and Majestic, there is a possibility that a small stretch would be made operational within 3–4 months. However, the southern section of the line, beyond Majestic, will be thrown open to the public for commercial operations by December 2016.

Background and planning[edit]

The DMRC submitted the DPR for Phase I of the Namma Metro project to the BMRCL in May 2003. The final approval on a scheme that incorporated the expertise of DMRC and RITES Limited did not come until April 2006.[20] The DPR prepared by DMRC envisaged a 33 km (21 mi) elevated and underground rail network with 32 stations for Phase I of the project. The proposed gauge was standard gauge unlike the broad gauge on the Delhi Metro network. The rationale for the metro includes reduced journey times, cutting fuel use, accident reduction and lower pollution.[citation needed]

It is planned that Phase I of Namma Metro will ultimately cover a total of 42.30 kilometres (26.28 mi), with 41 stations and will be completed by the end of 2016. The planned Phase II will span a length of 72.1 kilometres (44.8 mi), and has an approximate compilation date of December 2020. The entire network after completion of phase 2 is as given below.

Phase I[edit]

Map of Phase I of the Namma Metro.

Phase I comprises two lines spanning a length of 42.30 kilometres (26.28 mi), of which about 8.82 kilometres (5.48 mi) is underground and about 33.48 kilometres (20.80 mi) is elevated.[5] There are 40 stations in Phase I, of which 8 stations are underground, 1 at grade and 32 are elevated.[6][21] Chief Minister Siddaramaiah informed the Legislative Assembly in January 2016, that the total project cost is expected to be 13,845 crore (US$2.1 billion) due to cost escalation following delays in meeting the deadlines. The delays result in a cost escalation of 4,230 crore (US$630 million).

Line Elevated length (km) Underground length (km) Total length (km)  % of length on curves Stations
Purple Line 13.10 4.80 18.22 44.30 % 17
Green Line 20.20 4.00 24.20 39.70 % 24
Total 33.48 8.82 42.30 - 41
Rake interchange line 0 0.35 0.35 100% 0

Implementation of Phase I has been divided into four reaches and two underground sections. It will be fully opened for service from December 2016. The schedule for completion of Phase I is as follows:-

Section Length (km)[4] Termini Opening date
Reach 1 (east) 6.7 Baiyyappanahalli Mahatma Gandhi Road 20 October 2011
Reach 2 (west) 6.4 Mysore Road Magadi Road 16 November 2015 [14][22]
Underground UG2 (east to west) 4.8 Mahatma Gandhi Road Magadi Road 30 April 2016
Reach 3 (north) 5.1 Sampige Road Yeswanthpur 1 March 2014 [16]
Reach 3A (north) 4.8 Yeswanthpur Peenya Industry 1 March 2014 [16]
Reach 3B (north) 2.5 Peenya Industry Nagasandra 1 May 2015 [18][19]
Underground UG1 (north to south) 4.0 Sampige Road (up to Majestic) National College August 2016 & December 2016 [22]
Reach 4 (south) 4.1 National College Rashtreeya Vidyalaya Road December 2016 [23]
Reach 4A (south) 3.9 Rashtreeya Vidyalaya Road Puttenahalli December 2016 [23]

Construction work for Phase I of the project was scheduled to start in 2005 but was delayed by a February 2006 change of government in Karnataka and continued debate over whether the project was financially feasible and appropriate for the city. Finally, on 25 April 2006 the Indian Cabinet approved the project, which was then budgeted at more than 5,400 crore (US$800 million) (Later revised to 11,609 crore (US$1.7 billion) for Phase I).[24] In 2006, Navayuga Engineering was awarded the contract to construct Reach 1 of the East-West corridor.[25] The foundation stone for the Phase I construction was laid by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 24 June 2006,[26] and civil construction on Reach I of the line, between M.G. Road and Baiyyappanahalli, commenced on 15 April 2007.[27][28] The DPRs for a northern extension (from Yeshwanthapura to Hesaraghatta Cross) and part of the southern extension (from RV Road to Puttenahalli) was submitted in October 2007 and June 2008 respectively.[6] In 2007, the BMRCL announced that it would incorporate a northern extension (from Yeshwanthapura to Hesaraghatta Cross) and part of the southern extension (from RV Road to Puttenahalli) in Phase I, thus extending the length of Phase I network to about 42.3 km (26.3 mi), with 41 stations. The objective was to connect the metro to the Outer Ring Road at both ends, and also cover the industrial areas of Peenya in the north-west, thereby providing better connectivity and increasing ridership. In October 2008, the Government of Karnataka approved this extension, which would cost an additional 1,592 crore (US$240 million).[29]

Underground construction[edit]

The underground work of Phase I commenced in May 2011. Each corridor consists of two tunnels, which are the first underground tunnels built for trains in South India. The tunnels, dug using tunnel boring machines (TBM), are located approximately 60 feet below ground level, have a diameter of 5.5 metres and are 5 metres apart.[30][31][32][33][34] [35] A total of 6 TBMs were used for work in the underground section of phase I. They were nicknamed Helen (TBM 1), Margarita (TBM 2), Kaveri (TBM 3), Krishna and Godavari.[36] The UG2 (north to south corridor), from Majestic to K.R Market is expected to finish the entire tunnelling works by August 2016, after which the Green Line would be opened for service, towards the end of the year.

Underground UG1 (east to west corridor) tunneling work was completed on 17 March 2014 after tunnel boring machine Helen (TBM 1) finished its task of tunneling 229m between Bangalore City railway station underground (UG) station and Kempegowda UG station (Majestic). Trackwork and 3rd rail electrification works are completed on the 4.8 km eastbound tunnel of Bangalore metro's Purple line between Cubbon Park and Magadi Road, and the Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (BMRCL) began end to end trials on the entire 18.1 km Purple line which stretches from Baiyappanahalli to Mysore Road on 23 Nov 2015.[37] The entire Purple Line stretch was operational on 29 April 2016.

Phase II[edit]

Proposed new lines and extensions to existing lines – under Phase 2

The State Government accorded approval vide Order No. UDD 127 BMR 2010 dated 4 January 2011 for preparation of the detailed project report (DPR) for Phase II by the DMRC.[6][38] The high power committee (HPC), in July 2011, gave in-principle clearance to proceed with Phase II.[39] The Karnataka government gave in-principle approval to Phase II of the Namma Metro project on 3 January 2012.[40][41] Phase II was cleared by the expenditure finance committee (EFC) in August 2013.[42] The Union cabinet announced that it has approved plans for phase II on 30 January 2014.[43] The estimated total cost for Phase II is around 26,405 crore (US$3.9 billion).[44] The State Government will contribute 9,000 crore (US$1.3 billion).[45] The project cost of 26,405 is the 2011–12 price level, which it is set to escalate at 5 per cent every year with increasing cost of inputs. The Union government will share that part of cost escalation due to increase in central levies, while the Karnataka State and BMRCL have to bear any other escalation. According to the experts, the total project cost for Phase II is estimated to reach at least 30,000 crore (US$4.5 billion) at the start of construction itself.

Phase II spans a length of 72.095 km – 13.79 km underground, 0.48 km at grade and 57.825 km elevated, and adds 61 stations to the network, of which 12 are underground.[46] Phase 2 includes the extension of the two Phase 1 corridors, as well as the construction of two new lines. The south-end of the Green Line will be extended from Puttenahalli to Anjanapura Township along the Kanakapura Road and the north-end from Hesarghatta Cross to Bangalore International Exhibition Center (BIEC) on Tumkur Road (NH-4). The east-end of the Purple Line will be extended from Baiyappanahalli to Whitefield and the west-end from Mysore Road to Kengeri. A new 18.82 km long fully elevated R V Road – Bommasandra line will be constructed under Phase 2. The second new line is the 21.25 km Gottigere–Nagawara line. The line is mostly underground (13.79 km), but also has a 6.98 km elevated and 0.48 km at-grade sections. There are 18 stations on the line, of which 12 are underground and 6 are elevated.[6]

Phase II consists of extensions for all four reaches of the metro and two new lines.[47][48]

Line Terminals Length New Stations Expected Work Completion date
Purple Line Mysore Road – Kengeri 6.465 km 5 December 2020
Purple Line BaiyyappanahalliWhitefield 15.50 km 13 December 2020
Green Line Puttenahalli – Anjanapura 6.29 km 5 December 2020
Green Line Hesaraghatta Cross – BIEC 3.77 km 3 December 2020
Line 3 R V Road – Bommasandra 18.80 km 16 December 2020
Line 4 Gottigere – Nagawara 21.25 km 18 December 2020

Construction[edit]

Construction of the second phase will begin after completion of the first phase.[49] On 28 February 2015, the Chief Minister Siddaramaiah said the work will be completed within five years.[50] An estimated 313 heritage trees are planned to be cut down to build Phase II.[51] The corporation has already begun the process of identifying land required for viaducts and coordinating with the Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board (KIADB) to issue the land acquisition notifications.

The Indian Institute of Science prepared the design for the extension of Reach 1. The BMRCL spent 107 crore (US$16 million) to acquire 57 properties for the extension of Reach 2.[52]

Phase II is expected to be completed in 2020.[51]

Phase III[edit]

RITES began preparing the feasibility study for Phase III in 2014.[53][54]

Phase III is proposed to have a total length of 127 km. The Phase will include two lines that cover the Outer Ring Road (ORR) on the eastern and western side, and additional lines to connect the lines constructed in the previous two phases. A 33 km line is proposed to cover the eastern portion of the ORR from Silk Board to Hebbal, while a 31.37 km line will cover the western portion of the road. A 21.31 km line linking Hosakerehalli to ORR at Marathahalli passing through Old Airport Road is also proposed to serve the areas of Domlur, Konena Agrahara and HAL. Other proposed lines include a 33-km line from Sarjapur Layout to Yelahanka, passing through Central College, Palace Guttahalli, Mehkri Circle and Hebbal; and an 8.89 km line from Nice Road to Toll Gate (Magadi Road).[55]

High-speed rail link to airport[edit]

There was a proposal to build a 33 km line known as Bangalore High-Speed Rail Link, from MG Road to Bengaluru International Airport (BIA), at a cost of 5,767 crore (US$860 million).[56] Previously, there was plan for an independent body, but later it was decided that BMRC will manage this project.[57] This project has now been scrapped keeping in mind its viability and cost. A 23.37 line from Nagavara to BIAL is being considered under a proposed Phase 2A. This would be achieved by extending the proposed Gottigere to Nagawara line in Phase II.[55]

Opening[edit]

Namma Metro was originally scheduled to begin operations in March 2010. Deadlines for completion were repeatedly missed,[58] and the metro was finally opened to the public on 20 October 2011 by Union Urban Development Minister Kamal Nath.[59] There was an overwhelming response to the metro at the commencement of operations. As per BMRCL sources within first 3 days of operations 169,019 people used this mass transit system.[60] At the end of 4th day about 200,000 passengers had already commuted in Namma Metro. Namma Metro's first 12-day cumulative revenue was 1 crore (US$150,000).[61]

The State Government removed N Sivasailam as MD of Namma Metro on 10 August 2013. He was replaced by Pradeep Singh Kharola.[62][63][64] The Green Line (Reach 3, 3A & 3B) was initially scheduled to be opened for the public by the end of 2012. However, according to the BMRCL, because of the time taken by the Indian Railways to approve works at Swastik Station and Malleswaram 66-metre metro viaduct, the Green Line was expected to open only in April–May 2013. However, the timelines were delayed further.[citation needed]

The line was opened to the public at 6 am on 1 March 2014.[65] BMRCL Managing Director Pradeep Singh Kharola stated that about 25,000 passengers travelled on the line on opening day.[16] In the first month of operations, 7.62 lakh people at an average of 24,605 people daily used the line, generating a revenue of 1.5 crore (US$220,000). The first underground portion of the East-West Corridor (UG2) commenced operations on 30 April 2016, completing the entire Purple Line stretch.[66]

Finances[edit]

Funding[edit]

The Union Cabinet approved Phase I of the Namma Metro in April 2006 when it was estimated to cost 5,400 crore (US$800 million). The cost escalated to 13,845 crore (US$2.1 billion) as various problems delayed the completion of the project.[52][67] Land acquisition for Phase I of the project cost 2,500 crore (US$370 million).[52] BMRCL secured 6,500 crore (US$970 million) through long-term loans and 300 crore (US$45 million) by selling bonds, while the remaining project cost was funded by Central Government and the State Government. BMRCL secured loans from several agencies - 3,000 crore (US$450 million) from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), 600 crore (US$89 million) from the Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited (HUDCO), 25 crore (US$3.7 million) from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the rest from a French lending agency. Approximately 10% of the 6500 crore must be paid as interest by the BMRCL every year. The Federation of Karnataka Chambers of Commerce and Industry estimated that this amounted to an interest payment of 2 crore (US$300,000), however the BMRCL refuted the claims that the interest was that high, while confirming that it was "definitely more than 1 crore (US$150,000) per day."[52]

On 3 January 2012, the Karnataka government approved a budget of 27,000 crore (US$4.0 billion) for Phase II of Namma Metro project.[68] Phase II is estimated to cost 26,405 crore (US$3.9 billion). Land acquisition is expected to cost 5,000 crore (US$740 million).[52] On 27 March 2012, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed an agreement to lend $250 million to BMRC to part-finance Phase II of the metro rail project. The loan marked the multilateral lending agency's foray into the urban transport sector in South Asia, the ADB said in a press release. The loan, approved by the ADB Board in March 2011, is the first ADB loan to the urban transport sector without recourse to sovereign guarantees.[69] The State and Central Governments will bear 30% and 20% of the project cost of Phase II respectively. The remaining amount will be obtained through senior term loans.[70]

BMRCL announced plans on 13 June 2013 to issue 10-year bonds.[71] The proposed bonds received a credit rating of "IND AA" from India Ratings & Research (Ind-Ra),[72] a Chennai-based research company.[73] Namma Metro MD N. Sivasailam announced on 3 August 2013 that the issue of bonds would be postponed as the market was volatile. Sivasailam stated that the metro would "be in the market soon and when it is stable."[74]

Revenues and Profits[edit]

During the first month, since the opening of Reach I, about 1325,000 people travelled by the metro.[75] On average, 41,390 people took the train every day, while the average daily revenue was 667,262. The BMRC earned a revenue of 2.1 crore (US$310,000) in its first month of operation.[76] In the first six months of operation, average ridership went down to 24,968. The BMRC earned a total of 6.6 crore (US$980,000) during the same period.[77]

Namma Metro posted a profit of 41 lakh (US$61,000) after almost one year of operating Reach I. BMRCL estimates that nearly 80 lakh passengers travelled on the system, in its first year of operations.[78]

Infrastructure[edit]

Purple Line train
Interior of the Metro coach
Interior of the Metro coach on inauguration day
MG Road Station at night

Rolling stock[edit]

The specification for rolling stock is based on stainless steel-bodied three-car formations, a trailer between two motored driving units. Internal wide gangways provide ease of passenger movement and assist in load distribution. Trains are air-conditioned throughout with designated space for disability access. Although with many automated functions, trains are under driver control.

The capacity per train is approximately 1,000 through longitudinal seating, giving a high proportion of the floor area to standing passengers. The maximum attainable speed is 80 km/h (50 mph).[citation needed]

Initially the bids by Bombardier and Siemens, Alstom Projects India Ltd and consortium comprising BEML, Mitsubishi and Hyundai Rotem were shortlisted to supply the rolling stock and coaches. In February 2009, the BEML-led consortium was awarded the contract to supply 150 coaches and rolling stock for the first phase of the project. While Mitsubishi would supply the traction for the coaches, Hyundai Rotem would supply the rolling stock and BEML would supply the coaches for Phase I.[79]

The first trainset made a trial run in December 2010.[80]

Track gauge: Bangalore metro uses standard gauge. But, the recent studies[by whom?][citation needed] have found that broad-gauge is suited for Indian conditions as well as long term economical feasibility as India has growing population. Indian metro trains with standard gauge does not provide seating facility and favoured towards standing travel. Ahmedabad Metro has chosen driverless technology and broad gauge as it provides comfort to the passengers.[81] Bangalore metro has not migrated from standard gauge to broad gauge for new lines in the Phase-2 or Phase-3 of the project. It has however, as a reply to an RTI application, defended the decision to use Standard Gauge.[82]

All metro trains are Wi-Fi enabled (the first metro in India to have this feature), so passengers can use laptops, tablets as well as mobile internet.[83] The free Wi-Fi service was made available to commuters on 31 July 2013.[84] Passengers also have emergency voice communication with train staff through a speaker system. Passengers are provided with a call button to communicate anything to the driver or control center during an emergency.[83] Yellow textured tiles are used at all stations to guide the visually impaired through the station.[85]

Power supply[edit]

Namma Metro was the first rail transport system in India to use 750 V DC third rail traction.[51] In December 2009, the ABB Group was awarded the contract to provide power solutions for the first phase of the planned metro network. ABB will design, supply, install and commission four substations that receive and distribute electricity, each rated at 66/33 kV, as well as the auxiliary and traction substations. ABB will also provide an integrated network management, or SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), system to monitor and control the installations.[86]

Signaling[edit]

In September 2009, the consortium led by Alstom Project India Limited were awarded a contract worth 563.4 crore (US$83.7 million) to supply control and signalling system for the first phase of the project. The consortium is led by Alstom and composed of Alstom Transport SA, Thales Group Portugal S A and Sumitomo Corporation. Alstom will provide the design, manufacture, supply, installing, testing and commissioning of the train control and signalling system and Thales will provide the design, installing, testing and commissioning of the telecommunication system for Phase I of the metro system. It includes the Urbalis 200 Automatic Train Control system which will ensure optimal safety, flexible operations and heightened passenger comfort.[87][88]

The integrated control centre at Byappanahalli has direct communication with trains and stations are CCTV fitted with visual and audio service information.[83] Passengers have emergency voice communication with train staff.

Stations[edit]

Initially, there were no toilets at Namma Metro stations, despite demand from commuters. BMRCL countered the demand by arguing that constructing toilets was not part of the metro construction plan, and that building toilets in the city was the responsibility of the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP). They also justified the decision by saying that commuters spent "hardly five minutes" at stations, so restrooms were not required, and also that none of the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) bus stops in the city had toilets for passengers. However, BMRCL eventually heeded public demand, and the metro's first toilets were opened at Baiyappanahalli and Indiranagar stations on 21 June 2013.[89]

Mobile and Wi-Fi connectivity[edit]

Namma Metro was the first metro system in India to introduce Wi-Fi onboard trains. All trains had Wi-Fi enabled onboard since the opening of the metro.[90] On 24 April 2016, the BMRCL floated tenders to install infrastructure for mobile and Wi-Fi connectivity across all 41 stations in Phase I. Phase I of the Purple Line, including the underground section, is expected to receive coverage by August 2016.[91]

Safety[edit]

As of February 2014, BMRCL has two road-cum-rail rescue vehicles that can be used to perform evacuations or re-load derailed trains back onto the track.[92]

The trains are equipped with derailment prevention equipment, and the tracks are equipped with concrete barriers to prevent trains from leaving the viaduct. The support pillars are earthquake proof and are designed to have a lifespan of at least 100 years. Trains are equipped with sensors to detect impending collisions, and have automatic braking systems to prevent speed limits from being exceeded.[93]

Rainwater harvesting[edit]

BMRCL, in a public-private partnership, harvests rainwater from the viaducts on the rail system. The private partner, Karnataka Rural Infrastructure Development (KRIDL), collects the water at multiple points, treats it, and sells it in bulk as potable water.[94] Around 8 crore litres of water are expected to be collected annually.[95]

BMRCL also plans to harvest rainwater from the 140 acre depot facility at Peenya. Water will be collected from the 190,000 sq foot roof and stored in two tanks with a capacity of 50,000 litres each. Rainwater harvesting is also planned in the existing and under-construction stations. The water harvested will be supplied to places where needed, and any excess will be used for groundwater recharge.[95]

BMRC has installed a water harvesting system along Reach 1 and will be doing the same for Reaches 3 & 4. Installation of flower beds was delayed due to garbage being dumped on the median by garbage collectors, BMRC will also set up flower beds on Reach 1 with assistance from the horticulture department. However, the work related to this has slowed down due to garbage contractors dumping garbage along the median, due to the lack of a waste management plan in the city.[96] BMRC will rejuvenate Kengeri and Veerasandra lakes using water collected from a nearby corridor.[97][98]

Operations[edit]

Fare collection[edit]

The obverse of an entry token issued
Bangalore Metro Ticket (Token)-Kempegowda Tower Symbol view

MIFARE DESFire platform, developed by NXP Semiconductors, was selected to manage the Automated Fare Collection (AFC) in Namma Metro.[99]

The system uses contactless smart tokens and contactless smart card.[100] Tokens are available only for a single journey.[6] Smart cards can be used for multiple journeys.[6] There are 4 types of smart cards available on the metro – Varshik, Sanchar, Saral and Saraag.[101]

  • Varshik is priced at 100. It is valid for a year, and provides a 15% discount on fares. The card can be recharged.
  • Sanchar is available in denominations of 10, 40, 50 and 100.
  • Saral costs 70. It permits one day's travel on BMTC non-air-conditioned buses and on the metro.
  • Saraag costs 110. It permits one day's travel on BMTC air-conditioned buses and on the metro.[102]

BMRCL began selling tokens through automatic ticket vending machines (ATVMs) on 4 December 2012 at the MG Road, Indiranagar and Baiyyappanahalli stations. The service will eventually be expanded to all metro stations. The touchscreen enabled ATVMs are available in 3 languages – English, Kannada and Hindi. Commuters can purchase a single journey token by selecting the destination station or the amount in the ATVM. They can also add value or add trips to the contactless smart card. Commuters can purchase up to 8 tickets at a time and can get the receipt print for card recharge. ATVMs accept coins of 5 and 10 denominations and 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 denominations of currency notes. However, the ATVM cannot differentiate between 1 and 2 coins.[103][104]

Approximately 68% of passengers on the metro use smart tokens and 32% use smart cards.[78]

Frequency[edit]

The metro service runs between 06:00 and 23:00 hours. There are trains every 8 minutes between 08:00 and 20:00, and every 10 minutes at other times.[105] The frequency is slated to increase to once in every three minutes by 2021. The end-to-end travel time on the Purple Line will be 33 minutes, and on the Green Line will be 44 minutes.

Metro services have occasionally operated beyond 2200 hours. Services are usually extended on festival days or when a major cricket match is held in Bangalore.[106][107]

Speed[edit]

The system is designed for a maximum train speed of 80 km/h. However, the Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO) fixed the speed at which trains are allowed commercially operate at 67.50 km/h on straight sections, 35 km/h on curves, and 45 km/h in stations.[108]

Laws[edit]

The Bangalore Metro Rail (Carriage and Ticket) Rules 2011 limit the weight of personal baggage to 15 kg. Rule 3 says: "No person shall, while travelling in metro railway, carry with him any goods other than a small baggage containing personal belongings not exceeding 60cm x 45cm x 25cm in size and 15kg in weight, except with the prior approval of the metro railway administration." The rules also prohibit carrying explosive, inflammable, and poisonous substances.[109]

The Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002, imposes fines and in some cases jail sentences for offences committed on the metro. Anyone indulging in sabotaging the train or maliciously hurting or attempting to hurt other passengers while travelling in the metro can face imprisonment up to 10 years. Pasting posters or drawing graffiti on the walls of stations or trains is punishable by a fine of 1,000 or imprisonment for up to 6 months. Travelling in an inebriated state or creating nuisance in the train is punishable by a 500 fine.[110] Passengers are monitored at security checkpoints and those that are causing trouble, heavily drunk, or carrying forbidden items are not permitted to board.[111] Spitting on the metro premises is punishable by a fine of 100.[112]

Security[edit]

Currently baggage is manually searched by security guards hired by BMRCL. Bangalore City Police are in charge of external security of metro installations. Plans are underway to install three baggage scanners each at Baiyappanahalli, Swami Vivekananda Road and Indiranagar stations and two each at M.G. Road, Trinity and Halasuru stations. There are attendants and multiple security guards on each platform.[113]

Mobile app[edit]

The BMRC launched a Namma Metro app for Android devices in 2013. However, it had limited features. The agency intends to launch a new app once Phase I is complete.[114]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]