Namma Metro

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Namma Metro
Namma metro.png
Yeshwantapur Metro-Platform View1.jpg
Overview
Native name ನಮ್ಮ ಮೆಟ್ರೋ
Owner Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. (BMRC)
Locale Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Transit type Metro
Number of lines 2 (operational)
2 additional lines (planned)
Number of stations 19 (operational)
41 (Phase I finish-Mar 2016)[1]
102 (Phase II finish-Dec 2019)[2]
Daily ridership 50,000 (June 2015)[3]
Chief executive Pradeep Singh Kharola, MD
Headquarters BMTC Complex, Shanthinagar, Bangalore
Website bmrc.co.in
Operation
Began operation 20 October 2011 (2011-10-20)
Train length 3 coaches
Headway 10–15 minutes
Technical
System length 19.1 km (11.9 mi) (current)[4]
42.3 km (26.3 mi) (Phase I)[1]
114.39 km (71.08 mi) (Phase II)
No. of tracks 2
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 750V DC Third rail
Average speed 34 km/h (21 mph)[5]
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)

Namma Metro (literally "Our Metro"), also known as Bangalore Metro, is a metro system for the city of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The agency responsible for its implementation is the Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (BMRCL), a joint venture of the Government of India and the Government of Karnataka.[6] The first stretch (Reach 1) of the Purple Line between Baiyyappanahalli and Mahatma Gandhi Road was inaugurated on 20 October 2011.[7][8] Reach 3 & 3A of the Green Line between Sampige Road and Peenya Industry was inaugurated on 1 March 2014;[9][10] Reach 3B of the Green Line between Peenya Industry and Nagasandra was inaugurated on 1 May 2015.[11][12]

Network[edit]

Namma Metro is being built in phases. Currently, a portion of Phase I has been completed and two lines are in operation.

Line First operational Last extension Stations Length
(km)
Terminals
Purple Line 20 October 2011 36 34.3 Whitefield Kengeri
Green Line 1 March 2014 1 May 2015 32 40.1 BIEC Anjanapura
Line 3 16 18.8 R V Road Bommasandra
Line 4 18 21.2 Gottigere Nagavara
Total 102 114.4

Purple Line[edit]

The first 6.7-kilometre (4.2 mi), 6-station stretch (Reach 1) of the Purple Line between Baiyappanahalli and Mahatma Gandhi Road opened on 20 October 2011,[7] and was the inaugural section of the Namma Metro.[8]

When complete, the Purple Line will connect Baiyappanahalli in the east to Mysore Road in the west, covering a distance of 18.1 kilometres (11.2 mi),[13] and serving 17 stations.[14] It will be partly elevated and partly underground, with one station at grade.

Green Line[edit]

The first 9.9-kilometre (6.2 mi), 10-station stretch (Reach 3/3A) of the Green Line opened 1 March 2014.[9][10] The stretch connected Sampige Road to Peenya Industry.[15] The second 2.5-kilometre (1.6 mi), 3-station stretch (Reach 3B) of the Green Line, operating between Peenya Industry and Nagasandra, opened 1 May 2015.[11][12]

The Green Line will be the second line of the Metro and when complete it will connect Nagasandra in the north to Putenhalli in the south, covering a distance of 24.2 kilometres (15.0 mi),[13] and serving 24 stations.[14] It will be partly elevated and partly underground, with one station at grade.

R.V. Road – Bommasandra line[edit]

The R.V. Road – Bommasandra line is a proposed new line of the metro to constructed in Phase 2. The 18.82 km long fully elevated line will connect R.V. Road with Bommasandra. The line traverses along the R.V. road and turns left to the Marenhalli road and traverses on the median of Marenahalli road till short of Jay adeva Hospital junction flyover. At the Jayadeva Hospital junction the alignment shifts to the left and traverses on the footpath of the at grade road. After crossing Jayadeva junctio n flyover the alignment comes back to the median and traverses on the median of the road till the Silk Board junction. At the Silk Board junction the alignment turns towards right to reach the western side of Hosur road. Then the line runs on the centre of western side se rvice lane of the Hosur road. There are 16 stations on this corridor namely, R.V. Road, Ragigudda temple, Jayadeva Hospital (interchange Station of Gottigere–IIBM Nagawara line), BTM layout, Silk Board, HSR Layout, Oxford college, Muneshwara Nagar, Chikkabegur, Basapura Road, Hosa Road, Electronic City–I, Electronic City-II, Huskur Gate, Hebbagodi and Bommasandra.[5]

Gottigere – Nagawara line[edit]

The Gottigere – Nagawara line is a proposed new line of the metro to constructed in Phase 2. The line which will connect Gottigere with Nagawara is 21.25 km long, of which 13.79 km is underground, 6.98 km elevated and 0.48 km at-grade. The line traverses along Bannerghatta Road as eleva ted line up to Swagath Road cross and then goes underground just after Sagar Hospital nea r fire station. The entire length from this point is underground. The line passes through the D iary Circle, and runs along the MICO industries and then reaches Hosur road, crossing Ri chmond Road at Vellara. After this, the line traverses below Brigade Road and crosses the M .G. Road underneath the Phase – I East – West metro line and reaches Kamaraj Road. He re the underground integrated station is planned which is 90 meters from the platform edg e of the existing elevated M.G Road Station and is connected through escalators and sta irs. After this the underground alignment crosses Cubbon road to reach Shivajinagar Bus Stand . Further, the alignment traverses below the Queens Road and reaches Cantonment Railwa y Station. From here the line traverses below Nandidurga Road, Tannery Road and r eaches Nagawara after crossing ORR.

There are 18 Stations on this corridor, 6 elevated and 12 underground. The Elevated Stations are Gottigere, Hulimavu, IIMB, J.P Nagar 4 th Phase, Jayadeva Hospital (interchange Station of R.V Road terminal to Bommas andra line) and Swagath Road Cross. The 12 Underground Stations are Dairy Circle, Mico Industries, Langford town, Vellara Jn, M.G Road (interchange Station of East west corridor of Phase – 1), Shivajinagar, Cantonment Railway Station, Pottery town, Tannery R oad, Venkateshpura, Arabic College and Nagawara.[5]

Background and planning[edit]

Background[edit]

A number of studies aimed at providing an efficient public transport system for Bangalore have been conducted, the oldest being the study carried out by the Central Road Research Institute in 1963. Although the study proposed a 26 km rail network, it generally concentrated on the road network and traffic management system. In 1982, based on data collected between 1977 and 1979 a study group nominated by the Government of Karnataka gave a report for improvement of the transport system in the city. The study recommended a metro system, but like the previous study, concentrated on road improvements and provision of grade separators. In 1983, the Metropolitan Transport Project, a team of the Southern Railway prepared a feasibility report for introducing suburban services on existing lines, a ring railway and a rapid rail transit system on two corridors. The total cost of the project at 1983 prices was Rs. 650 crores. However, the report was not followed up.[16] In 1988, a World Bank aided study and part of the Bangalore Urban Transport Project was carried out by RITES. The recommendations were for improvement of road transport system, though the provision of suburban services on the existing rail network was also recommended. The first Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS) for Bangalore was proposed in January 1993, based on the 1983 report, by an Official Committee nominated by the State Government. The work was to be carried out in two phases. The first phase would have involved the construction of a partly underground 12.9 km MRTS line from Rajajinagar to Jayanagar, and a suburban corridor on the existing rail network. The second phase would have involved the construction of a 11.2 km MRTS line from Hudson Circle to Krishnarajapuram, and a 57.9 km circular railway.[16]

In 1994, the State Government incorporated a company named the Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit Limited (BMRTL) under the Companies Act, 1956 to implement the MRTS. BMRTL in turn asked IL&FS to carry out a feasibility study for a rapid transit system on public-private partnership basis.[16][17] The study recommended the construction of an elevated LRT system on 6 routes - Yeshwantapur to Kanakpura via Rajaji Nagar and Jayanagar, Hudson junction to Indira Nagar via M G Road and Airport, Yeshwantapur to Mayo Hall via Mekhri junction, Jayanagar to Mayo Hall via Koramangala, Chord road to Kanakpura via Banashankari, and Ulsoor to Mekhri Circle and Hebbal. The system was proposed to have a capacity of 24850 phpdt, a headway varying from 5.45 mts to 30 mts on various sections, special rolling stock with 750 volt dc traction system, and a recommended fare of Rs. 0.55 per pkm (1994 prices). The study also made a traffic forecast for the system for the years 2001 and 2011. The study also recommended giving the system legal cover under the Tramways Act. The total construction period was expected to be 7.5 years from 1 April 1999. The total cost of the project was estimated to be as Rs. 2025 crores (excluding land acquisition) at 1994 prices. The IRR projected was 12.9% (up to 2030).[16]

However the project could not take off for various reasons, despite fixing a private partner for implementation of the project. While the implementation of the LRT project was delayed due to various reasons, the worsening traffic in Bangalore led to the State Government asked the DMRC to step in and propose a metro system on two busy corridors for implementation as a fast track project more or less on similar lines as the Delhi Metro.

Planning[edit]

During August - October 2002 the Karnataka Government began discussions with the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) for preparation of a detailed project report (DPR) for a metro system for Bangalore. The successful planning and implementation of the Delhi Metro project by the DMRC encouraged the State Government to avail their expertise for the planning, investigation and preparation of a DPR for two metro lines in Bangalore - one in the east–west direction and the other in the north–south direction. The Karnataka Government vide their D.O. letter No. UDD 144 PRJ 2002 dated 19 September 2002 conveyed their consent to DMRC to take up the DPR work and based on the instructions conveyed in this letter, the Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System Ltd. (BMRTL) placed an order on DMRC vide letter No.BMRTL/DMRC/02/372 dated 31 October 2002 for the same for taking up the assignment.[16]

DMRC began work on the DPR in October 2002, and took up the field studies and identified the two corridors which were then cleared in principle by Karnataka Government vide their letter No.UDD 144 PRJ 2002 dated 19 September 2002 and No.UDD 144 PRJ 2002 dated 19 October 2002 respectively. DMRC carried out the topographical and traffic surveys with the assistance of RITES who also assisted them in drawing up the DPR. The detailed geo-technical studies were got done through Torsteel Research Foundation in India, Bangalore (TRFI). For the environmental studies the services of the Department of Environmental Sciences of Bangalore University were availed. For carrying out the fare structure study and for arriving at the fares to be levied, the services of the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), Delhi were taken. DMRC availed the assistance of ICICI in regard to financing the project and for arriving at the financial analysis. During the preparation of the DPR there were constant interactions between the DMRC and the Karnataka Government and various State Governmental and municipal agencies. The DMRC was also assisted by the BMRTL, who had made available some of their previous studies and relevant information needed for preparing the DPR.[16] DMRC, after numerous site visits, detailed reconnaissance and study of past reports including the traffic pattern recommended two corridors - an east–west corridor and a north–south corridor - which would become the first phase of the project.[16]

The east–west corridor would begin at Baiyappanahalli and traverse through Indiranagar, CMH Road, Swamy Vivekanand Road, M G Road, Ambedkar Road, Post Office Road, K G Road, Majestic, KSRTC bus stand, Bangalore city Railway station, Magadi Road, Toll Gate junction, Chord road, Vijay Nagar and Mysore road and terminate at the Ring Road junction. The north–south corridor would begin from Yeshwantapur in the north and pass through Chord Road, Mahakavi Kuvempu Road, Swastik, Platform Road, KSRTC bus stand, Chickpete, City Market, K R road, Vanivilas Road, Lal Bagh, Southend circle and R V road and terminate at J P Nagar. The two lines cross each other at Majestic, close to the City Railway station, where a rake interchange line connecting the two corridors was also proposed. These corridors mostly cover the two priority corridors of the earlier LRT system but with provision of underground sections in the Central Business District (CBD) area which were avoided in the LRT corridors. Thus the recommended corridors were shorter in length than the LRT corridors. The two proposed lines would serve the most congested area of the city (the CBD), without which the DMRC felt that the system may not succeed. The DMRC also justified the selection of the corridors by the traffic demand forecast. The selected corridors were approved in principle by the State Government before detailed surveys were undertaken.[16]

The DMRC submitted the DPR for Phase I of the Namma Metro project to the BMRCL in May 2003. The final approval on a scheme that incorporated the expertise of DMRC and RITES Limited did not come until April 2006.[18] The DPR prepared by DMRC envisaged a 33 km (21 mi) elevated and underground rail network with 32 stations for Phase I of the project. The proposed gauge was standard gauge unlike the broad gauge on the Delhi Metro network. The rationale for the metro includes reduced journey times, cutting fuel use, accident reduction and lower pollution.[citation needed]

It is planned that Phase I of Namma Metro will ultimately cover a total of 42.30 kilometres (26.28 mi) and will be completed by the end of 2015. The planned Phase II will span a length of 72.1 kilometres (44.8 mi), and has an approximate compilation date of December 2019. The entire network after completion of phase 2 is as given below.

Phase I[edit]

Map of Phase I of the Namma Metro.

Phase I comprises two lines spanning a length of 42.30 kilometres (26.28 mi), of which about 8.82 kilometres (5.48 mi) is underground and about 33.48 kilometres (20.80 mi) is elevated.[13] There are 40 stations in Phase I, of which 7 stations are underground, 2 at grade and 31 are elevated.[5][19] Chief Minister Siddaramaiah informed the Legislative Assembly in January 2014, that the total project cost is expected to be 138.45 billion (US$2.2 billion) due to cost escalation following delays in meeting the deadlines. The delays result in a cost escalation of 34.73 billion (US$540 million).

Line[20] Elevated length (km) Underground length (km) Total length (km)  % of length on curves Stations
Purple Line 13.28 4.82 18.10 44.30 % 17
Green Line 20.20 4.00 24.20 39.70 % 24
Total 33.48 8.82 42.30 - 41
Rake interchange line 0 0.35 0.35 100% 0

Implementation of Phase I has been divided into 4 "reaches" and 2 underground sections. It will be fully opened for service from March 2016. The schedule for completion of Phase I is as follows:[citation needed]

Section Length (km)[4] Termini Opening date
Reach 1 (east) 6.7 Baiyyappanahalli Mahatma Gandhi Road 20 October 2011
Reach 2 (west) 6.4 Mysore Road Magadi Road August 2015[21][22]
Underground UG2 (east to west) 4.8 Mahatma Gandhi Road Magadi Road November 2015[23]
Reach 3 (north) 5.1 Sampige Road Yeswanthpur 1 March 2014[10]
Reach 3A (north) 4.8 Yeswanthpur Peenya Industry 1 March 2014[10]
Reach 3B (north) 2.5 Peenya Industry Nagasandra 1 May 2015[11][12]
Underground UG1 (north to south) 4.0 Sampige Road National College March 2016[24]
Reach 4 (south) 4.1 National College Rashtreeya Vidyalaya Road 2016[25]
Reach 4A (south) 3.9 Rashtreeya Vidyalaya Road Puttenahalli 2016[26]

Construction work for Phase I of the project was scheduled to start in 2005 but was delayed by a February 2006 change of government in Karnataka and continued debate over whether the project was financially feasible and appropriate for the city. Finally, on 25 April 2006 the Indian Cabinet approved the project, which was then budgeted at more than 54 billion (US$840 million) (Later revised to 116.09 billion (US$1.8 billion) for Phase I).[27] In 2006, Navayuga Engineering was awarded the contract to construct Reach 1 of the East-West corridor.[28] The foundation stone for the Phase I construction was laid by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 24 June 2006,[29] and civil construction on Reach I of the line, between M.G. Road and Baiyyappanahalli, commenced on 15 April 2007.[30][31] The DPRs for a northern extension (from Yeshwanthapura to Hesaraghatta Cross) and part of the southern extension (from RV Road to Puttenahalli) was submitted in October 2007 and June 2008 respectively.[5] In 2007, the BMRCL announced that it would incorporate a northern extension (from Yeshwanthapura to Hesaraghatta Cross) and part of the southern extension (from RV Road to Puttenahalli) in Phase I, thus extending the length of Phase I network to about 42 km (26 mi), with 40 stations. The objective was to connect the metro to the Outer Ring Road at both ends, and also cover the industrial areas of Peenya in the north-west, thereby providing better connectivity and increasing ridership.[citation needed] In October 2008, the Government of Karnataka approved this extension, which would cost an additional 15.92 billion (US$250 million).[32]

Superstructure[edit]

The choice of superstructure was made keeping in view the ease of constructability and the maximum standardization of the form-work for a wide span ranges. The Precast segmental box girder using external unbonded tendons, and the Precast segmental U-Channel superstructure with internal pre-stressing were considered. Segmental construction was chosen as it was deeemed to be an efficient and economical method for a large range of span lengths and types of structures. It could accommodate structures with sharp curves and variable superelevation. Segmental construction permits reduction of construction time as segments may be manufactured while the substructure work proceeds, and assembled rapidly thereafter. Segmental construction protects the environment as only space required for foundation and sub-structure is required at site. The superstructure is manufactured at a place away from busy areas and placement of superstructure is done with the system erected from piers at heights. Segments are easy to stack in the casting yard/sticking yard in more than one layer, thereby saving in requirement of space. It is easier to transport smaller segments by road trailers on city roads. It is easy to incorporate last minute changes in span configuration if the site situation so warrants. Interference to traffic during construction is significantly reduced. Segmental construction contributes towards aesthetically pleasing structures and good finishes. The overall labour requirement is less than that for conventional methods. Better quality control is possible in the casting yard. During construction, this technique shows an exceptionally high record of safety.[33]

Of the two types of superstructures considered, the Precast segmental U-Channel superstructure with internal pre-stressing was adopted. The main advantages for this type of structural configuration of superstructure are built-in sound barrier, Built-in cable support and system function, possibility to lower the longitudinal profile by approximately 1m compared to conventional design, built-in structural elements capable of maintaining the trains on the bridge in case of derailment (a standard barrier design does not allow this), and Built-in maintenance and evacuation path on either side of the track. Although, the DMRC estimated that there may be a saving in the construction time for segmental box girder option by almost one day, it chose the other option for Namma Metro considering the advantages, particularly, considering the fact that the option has inbuilt features such as top flange of U Channel which acts as an evacuation path on either side of the tracks and also possibility to lower the longitudinal profile of the elevated viaduct.[33]

Elevated section construction[edit]

For the elevated sections, pre-cast segmental construction for super structure for the viaduct was used. For stations also the superstructure is generally of pre-cast members. The pre-cast construction reduces the construction period due to concurrent working for substructure and superstructure, minimizes inconvenience to the public utilising the road as the superstructure launching is carried out through launching girder requiring narrow width of the road, and ensures good as the pre-cast elements are cast on production line in a construction depot. For a segmental pre-cast element (of generally 3.0m length), transportation from construction depot to site is also easy and economical. The method is also environment friendly as no concreting work is carried at site for the superstructure.[33]

For viaducts segmental pre-cast construction requires a casting yard. The construction depot will have facilities for casting beds, curing and stacking areas, batching plant with storage facilities for aggregates and cement, site testing laboratories, reinforcement steel yard, fabrication yard, etc. An area of about 2.5 Hect. to 3 Hect is required for each construction depot (one per contract). For casting of segments both long line and short line method can be adopted. However the long line method is more suitable for spans curved in plan while short line method is good for straight spans. A high degree of accuracy is required for setting out the curves on long line method for which pre calculation of offsets is necessary. Match casting of segments is required in either method. The cast segments are cured on the bed as well as in stacking yard. Ends of the segments are to be made rough through sand blasting so that gluing of segments can be effective. The cast segment will be transported on trailers and launched in position through launching girders. Launching girder is specially designed for launching of segments. Initially, the launching girder is erected on pier head at one end of the work. The segments are lifted in sequence and dry matched while hanging from the launching girder. After dry matching, the segments are glued with epoxy and pre-stressed from one end. The girder is lowered on the temporary / permanent bearings after pre-stressing. The launching girder then moves over the launched span to next span and the sequences continue.[33]

Sub-structure for the elevated section consists of open foundations in rock area and pile foundations where soil is encountered or rock is more than 5 to 6 m below the ground level. Four piles of 1200 mm diameter were provided.. A pile cap of thickness of about 2 m was cast over the piles. The pile cap /open foundation top was kept about 500 mm below the road level so as to provide necessary drainage from the viaduct and leave space for crossing of utilities if necessary. Circular pier of about 1600 mm diameter was cast in single lift including pier cap to give good finish without any joint in the concrete. For protection of the pier from collision from moving vehicles on the road, a concrete guard is also provided around the pier up to a height of 1 m.[33]

Underground construction[edit]

The underground work of Phase I commenced in May 2011. Each corridor consists of two tunnels which are the first underground tunnels built for trains in South India. The tunnels, dug using tunnel boring machines (TBM), are located approximately 60 feet below ground level, have a diameter of 5.5metres and are 5metres apart.[34][35][36][37][38] [39] A total of 6 TBMs were used for work in the underground section of phase I. They were nicknamed Helen (TBM 1), Margarita (TBM 2), Kaveri (TBM 3), Krishna and Godaveri.[40]

The progress on the underground connection between Reach-1 and Reach-2 was delayed and temporarily put on hold, due to a controversy created by a statue of Dalit leader Ambedkar, as it stood above the planned metro rail line near Bangalore's Vidhan Soudha. Dalit groups had opposed shifting of the statue, while the government had sought to avoid controversy by not following court orders to temporarily shift the statue while construction continues. The controversy delayed the project by six months and caused delays to the north–south reaches which plan to use the Majestic interchange.[41][42]

Underground UG2 (east to west corridor) tunneling work on this 18.1 km was completed on 17 March 2014 after tunnel boring machine Helen (TBM 1) finished its task of tunneling 229m between Bangalore City railway station underground (UG) station and Kempegowda UG station (Majestic). Now, the twin tunnels between Cubbon Park UG station and City Railway Station UG station are ready for track laying and other related works.[43]

Detailed geo-technical investigations revealed that in the areas where underground tunnelling had been proposed, hard rock was not expected to be met except on the stretch from km 8.751 to km 9.018 on the Post Office Road where hard rock is approximately 8 m below the ground level. The ground water table for underground construction was estimated to be between 3 to 5 m. Earth pressure balanced mechanised shields with an external diameter of 5.95 m. and a finished internal diameter of 5.2 m. were employed for boring tunnels through this soil strata. The tunnels have a minimum cover of 6 m ordinarily and in exceptional areas it can be reduced to even 3.52 m. with special precautions. Cutter wheels of these shields are capable of cutting through stiff hard soil and not through rock. The shield operations will not cause any ground settlement of more than 8 to 10 mm provided the required pressure in front of the shield is maintained. DMRC took expert opinions from internationally reputed tunnel shield manufacturers like Herrenknecht of Germany and they opined that there would be no difficulty in designing and supplying the required tunnel shields for this project together with the backup ancillary equipments needed for excavating the tunnels. These manufacturers generally take about nine months time for design and supply of a tunnel shield. The Herrenknecht shields used in Delhi Metro construction performed well in soft soil giving a maximum rate of 25 m of finished tunnel progress a day and an average rate of 9 to 10 m a day. The tunnel shields were assembled in the station shaft of City Railway Station and the drive was continuous right up to the end of Cubbon Park. The shields went through the station excavations for which it was necessary to ensure that the station excavations were complete (though not the station box) before the shields reach the respective locations. After the up line tunnel is completed the shield was dismantled and brought back to the starting shaft and the down tunnel has to be driven. In regard to the North South line the starting shaft was proposed just after the ramp near the Swastik station and the two tunnels should be driven from this starting shaft. The exit shaft for dismantling and taking out the shields was proposed at the City Market Station itself.[33]

In the location where the rock level is high, on the Post Office Road the Central College Station is located, was done by cut and cover method. This station will cover a length of about 230 m. All the underground stations have been proposed as cut and cover with top-down method. The diaphragm walls for such station constructions would be 80 cm. thick and will function as a permanent side wall of the station. It is, therefore, necessary to construct the diaphragm walls absolutely watertight and with the required concrete strength as has been done in the Delhi Metro station constructions. By resorting to top-down method the surface could be restored quickly and further excavations and construction of the station will not hamper the surface activity. In some cases, it was necessary to lower the water table for such cut and cover constructions by suitable de-watering schemes which will also re-charge the water table outside the diaphragm wall periphery so that no settlement of buildings take place. The total length of tunnelling for the two lines including up and down lines would be 13.40 km. It is possible to complete this length of tunnelling with only two shields, one for the East-West line and the other for the North-South line. While for constructing of the underground stations suitable land is available, only for the Chikpet Station there is no such open land readily available. The possibility of constructing this underground station by mining method without affecting the structures above were examined in detail. The Project Director of General Consultants, A.J. Burchell, of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation who has experience in tunnelling was also consulted and after detailed site inspections and soil data study, he was of the opinion that the station could be done by mining method but opined that considering the condition of the structure above it would be more prudent to construct the station by cut and cover method itself. DMRC, therefore, recommended that the Chikpet Station, even though located in a very crowded market locality where no open space for cut and cover construction is readily available, is constructed by cut and cover method only so as to ensure no serious ground sinkages or collapses. For this purpose the agency identified the school land belonging to Central Muslim Association (CMA) Urdu School for being taken over during the construction period. The school and hostel had to be shifted for the construction. The area vacated by the school hostel and the open ground was enough for carrying out the construction at Chikpet Station by cut and cover method.[33]

The common station at Majestic will be a four level underground station where the East West line will be accommodated below the North South line. The excavation of this station to the required level well in time to allow the shields to go through is important and according to us, therefore, construction of this station is most critical from the time point of view. Taking advantage of the underground boxes to serve as foundations, a high rise building has been planned on top of these boxes, a part of which will be utilized for the headquarters of the Metro Organization where the Operation Control Centre for both the lines will be located. The podium of the building will have three floors but the central circular tower will have 8 floors. At the ground level only columns will be available keeping the entire area free for pedestrians for circulation and vehicles circulation including KSRTC buses. While the requirements of the Metro Organization can be met in two floors, the remaining floors can be commercially let out thereby ensuring a steady and handsome revenue to the Metro Authority during the operation stage. At Majestic Station there is a regular inter-change line connecting the North South and East West corridors. This is to enable rakes to be changed from one line to the another during non-operational hours for rake balancing or for taking trains to the Baiyappanahalli Depot for workshop attentions. The rake inter-change line will be a single line to be done by cut and cover method. The curvature of this line will be 150 m. and the length will be 225 m. located on the North East corner of Majestic Station and will be constructed along with the Majestic Station construction itself.[33]

Other[edit]

Construction work was carried out with design mix concrete through computerised automatic batching plants different grades of concrete for various members as per design requirement/durability considerations. Piles, Pile cap and open foundation used M-30, Piers used M-40, all precast element for viaduct and station used M-45, cantilever piers and portals used M-45 and M-60, other miscellaneous structures used M-30. For all the main structures, permeability test on concrete sample was recommended to ensure impermeable concrete. HYSD 415 or TMT steel reinforcement bars were used. For pre-stressing work, low relaxation high tensile steel strands with the configuration 12 T 13 and or 19 K 15 were used. As most of the construction was carried out on the middle of the road, two central lanes including median were required for construction activities. During piling and open foundation work, a width of about 8m was required for construction and the same was barricaded. Two lanes were provided for traffic on either side during construction by widening of roads, where required. In certain cases, one way traffic was enforced.[33]

Only a small section of Phase I is at-grade. On the Green Line, only the section near Swastik Station was on the surface, and this was combined with the construction of the station structure. The surface sections on the Purple Line were adjacent to the depot and Baiyyappanhalli terminal station. Construction of these small sections was carried out similar to any other railway embankment.[33]

Phase II[edit]

Proposed new lines and extensions to existing lines – under Phase 2

The State Government accorded approval vide Order No. UDD 127 BMR 2010 dated 4 January 2011 for preparation of the detailed project report (DPR) for Phase II by the DMRC.[5][44] The high power committee (HPC), in July 2011, gave in-principle clearance to proceed with Phase II.[45] The Karnataka government gave in-principle approval to Phase II of the Namma Metro project on 3 January 2012.[46][47] Phase II was cleared by the expenditure finance committee (EFC) in August 2013.[48] The Union cabinet announced that it has approved plans for phase II on January 30, 2014.[49] The estimated total cost for Phase II is around 264.05 billion (US$4.1 billion).[50] The project cost of 264.05 billion (US$4.1 billion) is the 2011–12 price level, which it is set to escalate at 5 per cent every year with increasing cost of inputs. The Union government will share that part of cost escalation due to increase in central levies, while the Karnataka State and BMRCL have to bear any other escalation. According to the experts, the total project cost for Phase II is estimated to reach at least 300.00 billion (US$4.7 billion) at the start of construction itself.[citation needed]

Phase II spans a length of 72.095 km – 13.79 km underground, 0.48 km at grade and 57.825 km elevated, and adds 61 stations to the network, of which 12 are underground.[51] Phase 2 includes the extension of the two Phase 1 corridors, as well as the construction of two new lines. The south-end of the Green Line will be extended from Puttenahalli to Anjanapura Township along the Kanakapura Road and the north-end from Hesarghatta Cross to Bangalore International Exhibition Center (BIEC) on Tumkur Road (NH-4). The east-end of the Purple Line will be extended from Baiyappanahalli to Whitefield and the west-end from Mysore Road to Kengeri. A new 18.82 km long fully elevated R V Road – Bommasandra line will be constructed under Phase 2. The second new line is the 21.25 km Gottigere–Nagawara line. The line is mostly underground (13.79 km), but also has a 6.98 km elevated and 0.48 km at-grade sections. There are 18 stations on the line, of which 12 are underground and 6 are elevated.[5]

Phase II consists of extensions for all four reaches of the metro and two new lines.[52][53]

Line Terminals Length New Stations Expected Work Completion date
Purple Line Mysore Road – Kengeri 6.465 km 5 December 2019
Purple Line BaiyyappanahalliWhitefield 15.50 km 14 December 2019
Green Line Puttenahalli – Anjanapura 6.29 km 5 December 2019
Green Line Hesaraghatta cross – BIEC 3.77 km 3 December 2019
Line 3 R V Road – Bommasandra 18.80 km 16 December 2019
Line 4 Gottigere – Nagavara 21.25 km 18 December 2019

Construction[edit]

Construction of the second phase will begin after completion of the first phase.[54] On 28 February 2014, the Chief Minister Siddaramaiah said the work will be completed within five years.[55] The corporation has already begun the process of identifying land required for viaducts and coordinating with the Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board (KIADB) to issue the land acquisition notifications.[citation needed]

In June 2015, BMRCL Managing Director Pradeep Singh Kharola stated, "Phase II will be completed in five years’ time. The lessons learnt during Phase I will be helpful for executing works in Phase II. We have issued notification regarding properties to be acquired and we have to start with disbursal of land compensation."[56]

Phase III[edit]

The detailed project report (DPR) for Phase III is being prepared by RITES. 133 km phase 3 of metro will connect Nagawara and Kempegowda International Airport (KIA) by a 25-km line; Sarjapur Layout (station, Carmelaram) and Yelahanka (station, Kogilu Road Cross) by a 35-km line covering Central College, Palace Guttahalli, Mekhri Circle and Hebbal; and a 17-km line from the Nice Ring Road to Toll Gate via Magadi Road.

Airport high-speed rail link from CBD[edit]

There was a proposal to build a 33 km line known as Bangalore High-Speed Rail Link, from MG Road to Bengaluru International Airport (BIA), at a cost of 57.67 billion (US$900 million).[57] Previously, there was plan for an independent body, but later it was decided that BMRC will manage this project.[58]

This project has now been scrapped keeping in mind its viability and cost. An airport metro extension from Nagavara to BIAL might be considered for inclusion in Phase III.

Opening[edit]

Namma Metro was originally scheduled to begin operations in March 2010. Deadlines for completion were repeatedly missed,[59] and the metro was finally opened to the public on 20 October 2011 by Union Urban Development Minister Kamal Nath.[60] There was an overwhelming response to the metro at the commencement of operations. As per BMRCL sources within first 3 days of operations 169,019 people used this mass transit system.[61] At the end of 4th day about 200,000 passengers had already commuted in Namma Metro. Namma Metro's first 12-day cumulative revenue was 10 million (US$160,000).[62]

The State Government removed N Sivasailam as MD of Namma Metro on 10 August 2013. He was replaced by Pradeep Singh Kharola.[63][64][65] The Green Line (Reach 3, 3A & 3B) was initially scheduled to be opened for the public by the end of 2012. However, according to the BMRCL, because of the time taken by the Indian Railways to approve works at Swastik Station and Malleswaram 66-metre metro viaduct, the Green Line was expected to open only in April–May 2013. However, the timelines were delayed further.[citation needed]

The line was opened to the public at 6 am on 1 March 2014.[66] BMRCL Managing Director Pradeep Singh Kharola stated that about 25,000 passengers travelled on the line on opening day.[10] In the first month of operations, 7.62 lakh people at an average of 24,605 people daily used the line, generating a revenue of 1.5 crore (US$230,000).[67]

Finances[edit]

Funding[edit]

The Union Cabinet approved Phase I of the Namma Metro in April 2006 when it was estimated to cost 54 billion (US$840 million). The cost escalated to 116.09 billion (US$1.8 billion) as various problems delayed the completion.[68] BMRCL received 7 billion (US$110 million) from Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited (HUDCO), 250 million (US$3.9 million) from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), 23% from the Central Government, 33% from the State Government and the rest as a 49.05 billion (US$770 million) loan from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).[69][70]

On 3 January 2012, the Karnataka government approved a budget of 270 billion (US$4.2 billion) for Phase II of Namma Metro project. It was initially expected to cost around 250 billion (US$3.9 billion).[71] On 27 March 2012, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed an agreement to lend $250 million to BMRC to part-finance Phase II of the metro rail project. The loan marked the multilateral lending agency's foray into the urban transport sector in South Asia, the ADB said in a press release.[72] The loan, approved by the ADB Board in March 2011, is the first ADB loan to the urban transport sector without recourse to sovereign guarantees.[73] The State and Central Governments will bear 30% and 20% of the project cost of Phase II respectively. The remaining amount will be obtained through senior term loans.[74]

BMRCL announced plans on 13 June 2013 to issue 10-year bonds.[75] The proposed bonds received a credit rating of "IND AA" from India Ratings & Research (Ind-Ra),[76] a Chennai-based research company.[77] Namma Metro MD N. Sivasailam announced on 3 August 2013 that the issue of bonds would be postponed as the market was volatile. Sivasailam stated that the metro would "be in the market soon and when it is stable."[78]

Revenues and Profits[edit]

During the first month, since the opening of Reach I, about 1325,000 people travelled by the metro.[79] On average, 41,390 people took the train every day, while the average daily revenue was 667,262. The BMRC earned a revenue of 21 million (US$330,000) in its first month of operation.[80] In the first six months of operation, average ridership went down to 24,968. The BMRC earned a total of 66 million (US$1.0 million) during the same period.[81]

Namma Metro posted a profit of 4.1 million (US$64,000) after almost one year of operating Reach I. BMRCL estimates that nearly 8 million passengers travelled on the system, in its first year of operations.[82]

Infrastructure[edit]

Purple Line train
Interior of the Metro coach
Interior of the Metro coach on inauguration day
MG Road Station at night

Rolling stock[edit]

The specification for rolling stock is based on stainless steel-bodied three-car formations, a trailer between two motored driving units. Internal wide gangways provide ease of passenger movement and assist in load distribution. Trains are air-conditioned throughout with designated space for disability access. Although with many automated functions, trains are under driver control.

The capacity per train is approximately 1,000 through longitudinal seating, giving a high proportion of the floor area to standing passengers. The maximum attainable speed is 80 km/h (50 mph).[citation needed]

Initially the bids by Bombardier and Siemens, Alstom Projects India Ltd and consortium comprising BEML, Mitsubishi and Hyundai Rotem were shortlisted to supply the rolling stock and coaches. In February 2009, the BEML-led consortium was awarded the contract to supply 150 coaches and rolling stock for the first phase of the project. While Mitsubishi would supply the traction for the coaches, Hyundai Rotem would supply the rolling stock and BEML would supply the coaches for Phase I.[83]

The first trainset made a trial run in December 2010.[84]

Track gauge: Bangalore metro uses standard gauge unlike Delhi Metro. But, the recent studies[by whom?][citation needed] have found that broad-gauge is suited for Indian conditions as well as long term economical feasibility as India has growing population. Indian metro trains with standard gauge does not provide seating facility and favoured towards standing travel. Ahmedabad Metro has chosen driverless technology and broad gauge as it provides comfort to the passengers.[85] Bangalore metro has not migrated from standard gauge to broad gauge for new lines in the Phase-2 or Phase-3 of the project. It has however, as a reply to an RTI application, defended the decision to use Standard Gauge.[86]

All metro trains are Wi-Fi enabled (the first metro in India to have this feature), so passengers can use laptops, tablets as well as mobile internet.[87] The free Wi-Fi service was made available to commuters on 31 July 2013.[88] Passengers also have emergency voice communication with train staff through a speaker system. Passengers are provided with a call button to communicate anything to the driver or control center during an emergency.[87] Yellow textured tiles are used at all stations to guide the visually impaired through the station.[89]

Tracks[edit]

Gauge[edit]

The metro alignment had to pass through heavily built-up areas in the city for optimal passenger utilisation and this imposed severe restrictions on the selection of curves. In most of the cities in India no right of way has been reserved for metro systems, so the alignment has to follow the major arterial roads. These roads may often have sharp curves and right-angle bends. In such a situation adoption of standard gauge is advantageous since it permits adoption of sharper curves compared to Broad Gauge to minimise property acquisition along the alignments. In Standard Gauge, 1 in 7 and 1 in 9 turn-outs, which occupy lesser length, are feasible compared to 1 in 8 ½ and 1 in 12 turn-outs required for Broad Gauge. Length of cross-overs for Standard Gauge is thus lesser than for Broad Gauge. Land requirement for depots where a large number of lines connected together in the shape of ladder is also reduced. Standard Gauge is, therefore, more suited for use in city environment where land availability is scarce. For Standard Gauge, optimised state-of-the-art rolling stock designs are available off-the-shelf. This is not so for Broad Gauge where new designs for rolling stock have to be specially developed which entails extra time and cost. Because of the availability of a very large market, constant up-gradation of technology takes place for Standard Gauge coaches. Thus upgraded technology is available on a continued basis in case of Standard Gauge. This is not so in case of Broad Gauge. For the same capacity gross weight of a metro coach is lower for Standard Gauge than for Broad Gauge. Standard Gauge rolling stock thus results in recurring saving in energy consumption during operation. Once technology for Standard Gauge coaches get absorbed and a manufacturing base for them is set up in India, there will be considerable export potential for the coaches, since almost all the countries use Standard Gauge for their metros. This is not so in case of Broad Gauge. It is some time argued that adoption of Broad Gauge for metros would enable inter-running of metro trains with Indian Railways since the latter uses Broad Gauge. Inter-running is, however, technically or operationally not feasible as the two systems have different Rolling Stock characteristics, Signalling Systems, Headways, Tariffs, Moving dimensions, and Loading standards. Since inter-running is not feasible, choice of Gauge for the metro system was based solely on technical and economic considerations on which Standard Gauge was deemed to superior.[90]

Standard Gauge was considered to be cost-effective and at the same time enable the metro to remain technically up-dated in the future. Standard Gauge will also enable setting up a manufacturing base for coaches required for metros in other cities of the country as well create an export potential for such coaches. Adoption of Standard Gauge was, therefore, recommended. A wider gauge was not justified as coach width is small and axle loads are as low as 15 ton. Track gauge, for any metro rail system in India is not a technical parameter, but a planning parameter. This issue was examined in January 2000 by the Ministry of Law and Justice who had opined that the choice of gauge is a matter which lies within the jurisdiction of the metro rail organisation entrusted with the responsibility of implementing and operating the metro systems.[90]

Track structure[edit]

Tracks on the system are subjected to intensive usage with very little time for day-to-day maintenance. Thus it is imperative that the track structure is long lasting and require minimum or no maintenance and at the same time, ensure highest level of safety, reliability and comfort, with minimum noise and vibrations. Two types of track structures were used for the metro. The normal ballasted track was used for At-Grade (surface) portion of Main Lines and in Depot (except inside the Workshops, inspection lines and washing plant lines). The ballastless track was used on Viaducts and inside tunnels, as the regular cleaning and replacement of ballast at such location will not be possible. From considerations of maintainability, riding comfort and also to contain vibrations and noise levels, the complete track is jointless and for this purpose even the turnouts were incorporated in LWR/CWR. The track was be laid with 1 in 20 canted rails and the wheel profile of Rolling Stock is compatible with the rail cant and rail profile. UIC-54 (54 kg. /m) rail section was adopted. Since on main lines, sharp curves and steep gradients would be present, the grade of rail on main lines should be 1080 Head Hardened as per IRS-T- 12-96. As these rails are not manufactured in India at present, these are to be imported. For the Depot lines, the grade of rails should be 880 which can be easily manufactured indigenously.[90]

On the viaducts, the plinth type ballastless track structure with RCC derailment guards integrated with the plinths was adopted. In tunnels, slab type track structure was adopted. The Vossloh-336 Fastenings System was adopted on both types of ballastless track structures, with a base-plate to base-plate spacing of 65 cm. on viaducts and 70 cm. in tunnels. Most of the components of Vossloh-336 fastening system were available indigenously. A ballast cushion of 300 mm was installed below the PSC sleepers on main lines whereas on Depot lines, the same was 250 mm. The sleeper density is 1540 Nos. per km. (sleeper spacing being 65 cm) both on main lines and Depot lines. The fastenings system on ballasted track is the same as prevalent on Indian Railways, i.e. ERC Mark III clips with GR Sole plates and GFN liners. Transition slab of 6 to 8 m length was provided at the junction of Viaduct and earth formation. The transition from Ballastless track to Ballasted track was made smooth over this length. The ballastless track in the Depot is discretely supported on concrete/steel pedestal for inspection lines, Embedded rail type inside the Workshop, and Plinth type for Washing Plant line.[90]

From considerations of maintainability and riding comfort, the turnouts were also laid with 1 in 20 cant. On main lines, 1 in 9 type turnout with a lead radius of 300 metres and permissible speed on divergent track as 40 km/h was adopted. On Depot lines, 1 in 7 type turnout with a lead radius of 140 metres and permissible speed on divergent track as 25 km/h was adopted. The Scissors cross-overs on Main Lines (1 in 9 type) have a minimum track centre of 4.5 m. The turnouts have fan-shaped layout throughout the turnout so as to have same sleepers/base-plates and slide chairs for both LH and RH turnouts. The switches and crossings are interchangeable between ballasted and ballastless turnouts. The switch rail has thick web sections, with a forged end near heel of switch for easy connection with lead rails, behind the heel of switch. The switches have anti creep device at heel of switch for minimising the additional LWR forces transmitted from tongue rail to stock rail. The crossings are made of cast manganese steel and with welded leg extensions. These crossings are explosive hardened type for main lines and without surface hardening for Depot lines. The check rails have UIC-33 rail section without being directly connected to the running rails.[90]

On main lines and Depot lines, friction buffer stops with mechanical impact absorption (non-hydraulic type) is provided. On elevated section the spans on which friction buffer stops are installed are designed for an additional longitudinal force of 85 T, which is likely to be transmitted in case of Rolling Stock impacting the friction Buffer Stops. For continuing the LWR/CWR on Viaducts, the elevated structures are adequately designed for the additional longitudinal forces likely to be transmitted as a result of Rail-Structure interaction. A rail structure interaction study was carried out to determine the need and locations of Rail Expansion Joints (REJ). REJ in ballasted track is for a maximum gap of 120 mm, whereas on ballastless track is for a maximum gap of 180 mm. Flash Butt Welding Technique is to be used for welding of rails. Alumino-Thermic Welding was done only for those joints which could not be welded by Flash Butt Welding Technique, such as joints at destressing locations and approach welds of switches & crossings. For minimising the population of Thermit welds, mobile (rail-cum-road or portable) Flash Butt Welding Plant were deployed.[90]

Power supply[edit]

The power for the system is 750 V DC bottom contact third rail supply. In December 2009, the ABB Group was awarded the contract to provide power solutions for the first phase of the planned metro network. ABB will design, supply, install and commission four substations that receive and distribute electricity, each rated at 66/33 kV, as well as the auxiliary and traction substations. ABB will also provide an integrated network management, or SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), system to monitor and control the installations.[91]

Signaling[edit]

In September 2009, the consortium led by Alstom Project India Limited were awarded a contract worth 5634 million (US$87.9 million) to supply control and signalling system for the first phase of the project. The consortium is led by Alstom and composed of Alstom Transport SA, Thales Group Portugal S A and Sumitomo Corporation. Alstom will provide the design, manufacture, supply, installing, testing and commissioning of the train control and signalling system and Thales will provide the design, installing, testing and commissioning of the telecommunication system for Phase I of the metro system. It includes the Urbalis 200 Automatic Train Control system which will ensure optimal safety, flexible operations and heightened passenger comfort.[92][93]

Most of the cables used in the signalling system are steel armoured. UPS provided at at stations as well as for OCC ensures uninterrupted power for signaling and communication. Points are operated with 110V D.C. point machines and 380 volts 3 phase, 50 Hz. AC point machines. Audio frequency track circuits are installed on the running section, test track and in depot. Signalling along the line is done through ATC with line side signal as fall back. All data transmission is carried out on telecom cables/OFC/Radio, and all signalling and telecom cables are separated from power cables to make the system immune to external interference. The signalling system of the Namme Metro complies with SIL4 level safety.[94]

Line Side Signalling and Train protection

Line Side Signalling and Train protection is the primary function of the train control systems. This sub-system is intended to be inherently capable of achieving the following objectives in a fail-safe manner:

  • Prevent rear-end or side collision resulting from one train trying to over-take the other.
  • Prevent trains being routed on the conflicting routes.
  • Prevent the possibility of points / switches moving just ahead of or under train.
  • Not hindering the vehicles attaining maximum permissible speed.

The basic sub-system includes the following modules - Train detection, Train Protection, Solid State Interlocking, Signal and speed enforcement, Brake assurance, and Interface with electrical sub-systems of the vehicle like brake control. Track circuits/balise are used for vehicle detection. Sub-system/components conform to international standards such as BS, IS, IEC, ITU-T etc. The cab borne signalling equipment are of modular sub-assemblies for each function for easy maintenance and replacement. The Automatic Train Protection (ATP) assemblers are fitted in the vehicle integrated with other equipment of the rolling stock.[94]

Solid State Interlocking

At all stations with points and crossings, Solid State Interlocking (SSI) is provided for operation of points and crossings and setting of routes. Six SSIs are provided on Purple Line and five on the Green Line. This sub-system is used for controlling vehicle movements into or out of stations automatically from a work station. All stations having points and crossings will be provided with workstations for local control. Track occupancy, point position, etc. will be clearly indicated on the workstation. The setting of the route and clearing of the signals is also done by the work station. It is possible to operate the workstation locally, if the central control hands over the operation to the local station. The system design will be on the basis of fail- safe principle. The equipment will withstand tough environmental conditions encountered in a Mass Transit System. Control functions in external circuits will be proved both in the positive and negative wires. Suitable IS, IRS, BS standards or equivalent international standards will be followed in case wiring, installation, earthing, cabling, power supply and for material used in track circuits, relays, point operating machines, power supply etc. The depot for Purple Line is situated at Baiyyappanahalli and that for Green Line at Yeshwanthpur. Each depot / workshop yard except the lines mainly used for shunting is interlocked. A work station is provided in the Depot Control Centre for electrical operation of the points and signals of the depot yard.[94]

Automatic Train Protection

To ensure safety in train operation and to provide optimum train services on the section, the train control on the metro is provided with Automatic Train Control system. For this the transmission from track to train will be continuous through coded audio frequency track circuit. The ATC system provides on-board display of maximum safe speed, current speed and target speed / distance as deduced from ATP systems, signaling interlocks systems and based on track profile and brake characteristics. Facilities for automatic enforcement of temporary / permanent speed restrictions were also built in to enhance safety during maintenance work. At all stations, electronic passenger information display boards are provided. The PIS is train actuated along with facility to be automatically inputted from the local station.[94]

Train describer system

A train describer system will be installed to facilitate the monitoring of train operation and also remote control of the stations. The train describer will log each train movement and display it on the workstations with each Traffic Controller at the OCC and on one workstation placed in the Station Control room (SCR) with each Station Controller. The system will be installed in the Operation control center and at the stations with point and crossings and will have a panoramic view of the sectional jurisdiction showing the status of tracks, points and the vehicles operating in the relevant section/ whole system. The system shall provide train information in real time and in hard copy for later analysis. It shall be possible to set route of trains at terminals, mid-terminals and runback stations, etc. both locally and remotely. It shall have audio-visual alarms for deficiencies / malfunctioning.[94]

Communications[edit]

The telecommunication facilities are intended to supplement the signalling system for efficient train operation, exchange managerial information, for crisis management during emergencies and facilitate the passenger information system.[94]

The main bearer of the bulk of the telecommunication network is an optical fiber cable system. Considering the channel requirement and keeping in view the future expansion requirements optical fiber cable was laid in ring configuration with path diversity. Apart from meeting required optical characteristics, it will be low smoke/ low halogen type optical fibre cable. SDH STM-1 155 Mb based system were adopted with SDH nodes at every station, OCC and depot. Access 2MB multiplexing system was adopted for the lower level at each node, equipped for channel cards depending on the requirement of channels in the network. Further small routers and switches were provided for LAN network at station. Three EPABX of 512 ports were provided at three locations - one at the OCC, one at an intermediate station and other at the depot - to serve as telephone exchanges. The Telephone Exchanges serve the subscribers at all the stations, OCC and depot. The exchanges are interconnected at multiple 2 MB level through optical fibre cable. The Exchanges are software partitioned for EPABX and Direct Line Communication from which the phones are extended to the stations.[94]

Mobile Radio communication system having 8 channels is used for on-line emergency communication between Motorman (Front end and Rear end) of moving train and the Central Control. The system is based on Digital Trunked Radio Technology to TETRA International standard. All the stations and Car Depot are provided with fixed radio sets. Mobile communication facility for maintenance parties and Security Personnel is provided with handheld sets. These persons are able to communicate with each other as well as with central control. To provide adequate coverage, based on the RF site survey, base stations for the system are located at a site conveniently selected after the detailed survey. Radio Base stations, interlinked to the Central Radio Equipment at the OCC through channels on the optical fibre system are provided. The frequency band for operation of the system were that for TETRA in 400/800 MHz band depending upon availability of frequency. Instant mobile radio communication between the motorman of the moving cars from any place and the Central Control can be established. The motorman can also contact any station in the network through the central control, besides intimating the approaching trains about any emergency like accident, fire, line locked etc., thus improving safety performance.[94]

The Passenger Announcement System can make announcements from the local station as well as from OCC. Announcements from OCC have over-riding priority in all announcements. The Centralized Clock System ensures an accurate display of time through a synchronization system of slave clocks driven from a Master Clock at the operation control center. The Master Clock signal is also required for synchronization of SDH and Exchanges. The system ensures identical display of time at all locations. Clocks are provided at platforms, concourse, Station Master's Room and other service establishments. LED based boards with adequate visibility located at convenient locations at all stations to provide bilingual visual indication of the status of the running trains and will typically indicate information such as destination, platform numbers, arrival/departure time, and also special messages in emergencies. The boards are provided at all platforms and concourses of terminal and junction stations.[94]

For efficient and cost effective maintenance of the entire communication network, a network management systems (NMS) was provided. The NMS helps in diagnosing the faults immediately from a central location and attending the same with least possible delay, thus increasing the operational efficiency and reduction in manpower requirement for maintenance. The NMS system covers radio communication, Optical Fiber Transmission system and Telephone Exchange.[94]

The integrated control centre at Byappanahalli has direct communication with trains and stations are CCTV fitted with visual and audio service information.[87] Passengers have emergency voice communication with train staff.

Stations[edit]

The basic planning for stations developed for the Delhi Metro, was used to plan Namma Metro stations. However, the size of Namma Metro stations is smaller than that of Delhi. Stations have been designed to fit in the existing road width as far as possible. There are 36 stations of the Purple Line of which 4 are underground and 1 is on the surface. The Green Line has 24 stations of which 3 are underground and 1 is at grade. The remaining stations on both the corridors are elevated. Stations located on the middle of the road have been designed with elevated concourse with access from both sides of the road. All the elevated stations are provided with side platforms while the underground stations are provided with island platforms. This was done to facilitate continuous construction of the elevated section carrying two tracks, and to avoid reverse curves on the approaches of the stations. For the underground sections, Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs) work effectively with tunnel centers equivalent to two times the tunnel diameter thus providing sufficient space for platform in between. All the underground stations were constructed by the cut and cover method. Majestic station located in the KSRTC bus stand area is common to both lines and serves as an interchange station. A link line between the two corridors is also provided at this station for transfer of rakes. The average inter-station distance along the corridors is 1 km, with minimum distance being 0.676 km, and maximum being 2.04 km.[16]

Stations have been divided into two distinct areas, namely public and non-public (technical areas). The public area is further sub divided into unpaid and paid areas. Provisions for escalators are made at all stations in the paid area. However, at a few important stations escalators are provided from the beginning itself. Lifts for disabled passengers are provided at all stations except at Baiyappanahalli where ramps are provided. Road traffic integration facilities are provided at 5 stations on the Purple Line - Mysore Road, Hoshalli, Bangalore City metro station, Majestic and Ulsoor. On the Green Line integration facilities are provided at Yeshwantapur, Swastik, Majestic, City Market and R V Road terminal. Integration facilities at metro stations include approach roads to the stations, circulation facilities, pedestrian ways and adequate parking areas for various modes likely to come to important stations including feeder buses/mini buses. Provisions were also made for peak hour demand.[16]

Initially, there were no toilets at Namma Metro stations, despite demand from commuters. BMRCL countered the demand by arguing that constructing toilets was not part of the metro construction plan, and that building toilets in the city was the responsibility of the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP). They also justified the decision by saying that commuters spent "hardly five minutes" at stations, so restrooms were not required, and also that none of the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) bus stops in the city had toilets for passengers. However, BMRCL eventually heeded public demand, and the metro's first toilets were opened at Baiyappanahalli and Indiranagar stations on 21 June 2013.[95]

Safety[edit]

As of February 2014, BMRCL has two road-cum-rail rescue vehicles that can be used to perform evacuations or re-load derailed trains back onto the track.[96]

The trains are equipped with derailment prevention equipment, and the tracks are equipped with concrete barriers to prevent trains from leaving the viaduct. The support pillars are earthquake proof and are designed to have a lifespan of at least 100 years. Trains are equipped with sensors to detect impending collisions, and have automatic braking systems to prevent speed limits from being exceeded.[97]

Depots[edit]

As the Purple and Green Lines are interlinked, rakes can move from one corridor to another for Intermediate Overhaul (IOH) and Periodical Overhaul (POH). This facilitated the construction of one mother workshop for the two corridors at Baiyappanahalli. An inspection shed, which has the stabling facilities at Baiyappanahalli and one inspection shed having stabling facilities at Yeshwantapur on the Green Line were constructed. Adequate facilities for the stabling are provided at the terminal stations as well as at the depots. All the minor maintenance schedules would be independently taken over in each corridor thus saving the idle run of trains for the minor maintenance. For the IOH and POH the rakes would be taken to the mother workshop.[98]

Rainwater harvesting[edit]

BMRCL, in a public-private partnership, harvests rainwater from the viaducts on the rail system. The private partner, Karnataka Rural Infrastructure Development (KRIDL), collects the water at multiple points, treats it, and sells it in bulk as potable water.[99] Around 80 million litres of water are expected to be collected annually.[100]

BMRCL also plans to harvest rainwater from the 140 acre depot facility at Peenya. Water will be collected from the 190,000 sq foot roof and stored in two tanks with a capacity of 50,000 litres each. Rainwater harvesting is also planned in the existing and under-construction stations. The water harvested will be supplied to places where needed, and any excess will be used for groundwater recharge.[100]

BMRC has installed a water harvesting system along Reach 1 and will be doing the same for Reaches 3 & 4. Installation of flower beds was delayed due to garbage being dumped on the median by garbage collectors, BMRC will also set up flower beds on Reach 1 with assistance from the horticulture department. However, the work related to this has slowed down due to garbage contractors dumping garbage along the median, due to the lack of a waste management plan in the city.[101] BMRC will rejuvenate Kengeri and Veerasandra lakes using water collected from a nearby corridor.[102][103]

Operations[edit]

Fare collection[edit]

The obverse of an entry token issued
Bangalore Metro Ticket(Token)-Kempegowda Tower Symbol view

MIFARE DESFire platform, developed by NXP Semiconductors, was selected to manage the Automated Fare Collection (AFC) in Namma Metro.[104] There are three types of computer controlled automatic gates on the metro system - entry gates, exit gates and reversible gates (can be set to entry or exit). There are also disabled gates which are wide reversible gates for the disabled). All the fare collection equipments are connected in a local area network with a station server controlling the activities of all the machines. These station servers are linked to the central computer situated in the operational control centre through the optic fibre communication channels. The centralized control of the system provides real time data of earnings, passenger flow analysis, blacklisting of specified cards etc.[105]

Namma Metro uses contactless smart tokens and contactless smart card.[106] Tokens are available only for single journey. They have a stored value amount for a particular journey, and are captured at the exit gate.[105] A person can buy up to 6 tokens for additional five passengers and himself.[citation needed] Smart cards can be used for multiple journeys.[105] There are 4 types of smart cards available on the metro – Varshik, Sanchar, Saral and Saraag.[107]

  • Varshik is priced at 100. It is valid for a year, and provides a 15% discount on fares. The card can be recharged.
  • Sanchar is available in denominations of 10, 40, 50 and 100.
  • Saral costs 70. It permits one day's travel on BMTC non-air-conditioned buses and on the metro.
  • Saraag costs 110. It permits one day's travel on BMTC air-conditioned buses and on the metro.[108]

BMRCL began selling tokens through automatic ticket vending machines (ATVMs) on 4 December 2012 at MG Road, Indiranagar and Baiyyappanahalli stations. The service will eventually be expanded to all metro stations. The touchscreen enabled ATVMs are available in 3 languages – English, Kannada and Hindi. Commuters can purchase a single journey token by selecting the destination station or the amount in the ATVM. They can also add value or add trips to the tickets in the contactless smart card. Commuters can purchase up to 8 tickets at a time and can get the receipt print for card recharge. ATVMs accept coins of 5 and 10 denominations and 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 denominations of currency notes. However, the ATVM cannot differentiate between 1 and 2 coins.[109][110]

Approximately, 68% of passengers on the metro use smart tokens and 32% use smart cards.[82]

Frequency[edit]

The metro service runs between 0600 and 2200 hours. There are trains every 15 minutes between 0600 and 0800, 10 minutes between 0800 and 2000, and 15 minutes between 2000 and 2200.[111] The frequency is slated to increase to once every three minutes by 2021. The travel time from end to end on the Purple Line will be 33 minutes, and on the Green Line will be 44 minutes.

Metro services have occasionally operated beyond 2200 hours. Services are usually extended on festival days or when a major cricket match is held in Bangalore.[112][113]

Speed[edit]

The system is designed for a maximum train speed of 80 km/h. However, the Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO) fixed the speed at which trains are allowed commercially operate at 67.50 km/h on straight sections, 35 km/h on curves, and 45 km/h in stations.[114]

Ridership[edit]

Reach 1
The average daily ridership of Reach 1 of Namma Metro is 24,968. The Metro’s highest recorded ridership was 85,004, on 23 October 2011, the Sunday following the service’s inauguration.[81]

Reach 1, 3 and 3a
Now, the average daily ridership of Reaches 1, 3 and 3a of Namma Metro is 110,000.

Laws[edit]

The Bangalore Metro Rail (Carriage and Ticket) Rules 2011 limit the weight of personal baggage to 15 kg. Rule 3 says: “No person shall, while travelling in metro railway, carry with him any goods other than a small baggage containing personal belongings not exceeding 60cm x 45cm x 25cm in size and 15kg in weight, except with the prior approval of the metro railway administration.” The rules also prohibit carrying explosive, inflammable, and poisonous substances.[115]

The Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002, imposes fines and in some cases jail sentences for offences committed on the metro. Anyone indulging in sabotaging the train or maliciously hurting or attempting to hurt other passengers while travelling in the metro can face imprisonment up to 10 years. Pasting posters or drawing graffiti on the walls of stations or trains is punishable by a fine of 1,000 or imprisonment for up to 6 months. Travelling in an inebriated state or creating nuisance in the train is punishable by a 500 fine.[116] Passengers are monitored at security checkpoints and those that are causing trouble, heavily drunk, or carrying forbidden items are not permitted to board.[117] Spitting on the metro premises is punishable by a fine of 100.[118]

Security[edit]

Currently baggage is manually searched by security guards hired by BMRCL. Bangalore City Police are in charge of external security of metro installations. Plans are underway to install three baggage scanners each at Baiyappanahalli, Swami Vivekananda Road and Indiranagar stations and two each at M.G. Road, Trinity and Halasuru stations. There are attendants and multiple security guards on each platform, and photography is strictly prohibited.[119]

Mobile app[edit]

The BMRC launched a Namma Metro app for Android devices in 2013. However, it had limited features. The agency intends to launch a new app once Phase I is complete.[120]

Fatalities[edit]

On 5 March 2012 at 8:35 pm, a 16-year-old boy threw himself under a train at the Mahatma Gandhi Road station. The boy was identified as S Vishnu Sharan, a first-year student of St. Joseph's PU College and a resident of Jayanagar. This was the first death to occur after Namma Metro operations began.[121]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]