|House Minority Leader|
January 3, 2011
|Preceded by||John Boehner|
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Dick Gephardt|
|Succeeded by||John Boehner|
|60th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives|
January 4, 2007 – January 3, 2011
|President||George W. Bush
|Preceded by||Dennis Hastert|
|Succeeded by||John Boehner|
|House Minority Whip|
January 15, 2002 – January 3, 2003
|Preceded by||David Bonior|
|Succeeded by||Steny Hoyer|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 12th district
January 3, 2013
|Preceded by||Jackie Speier|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 8th district
January 3, 1993 – January 3, 2013
|Preceded by||Ron Dellums|
|Succeeded by||Paul Cook|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 5th district
June 2, 1987 – January 3, 1993
|Preceded by||Sala Burton|
|Succeeded by||Bob Matsui|
|Born||Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro
March 26, 1940
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Paul Pelosi (1963–present)|
|Alma mater||Trinity Washington University|
Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro Pelosi (//; born March 26, 1940) is the Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives and served as the 60th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 2007 to 2011. She is the only woman to have served as the House Speaker and to date is the highest-ranking female politician in American history.
A member of the Democratic Party, Pelosi represents California's 12th congressional district, which consists of four-fifths of the city and county of San Francisco. The district was numbered as the 5th during Pelosi's first three terms in the House, and as the 8th from 1993 to 2013. She served as the House Minority Whip from 2002 to 2003, and was House Minority Leader from 2003 to 2007, holding the post during the 108th and 109th Congresses. Pelosi is the first woman, the first Californian and first Italian-American to lead a major party in Congress. After the Democrats took control of the House in 2007 and increased their majority in 2009, Pelosi was elected Speaker of the House for the 110th and 111th Congresses.
- 1 Early life, education, and early career
- 2 U.S. House of Representatives
- 3 Political positions
- 3.1 China
- 3.2 Colombia
- 3.3 Cuba
- 3.4 Iran
- 3.5 Turkey
- 3.6 Use of government aircraft
- 3.7 Abortion
- 3.8 Gun laws
- 3.9 Fiscal/monetary policy
- 3.10 Civil liberties
- 3.11 Contraception
- 3.12 Education
- 3.13 Environment
- 3.14 Health care
- 3.15 Immigration
- 3.16 Iraq War
- 3.17 Israel
- 3.18 First Gulf War
- 3.19 LGBT rights
- 3.20 Marijuana legalization
- 3.21 Military draft
- 3.22 NSA Spying/PRISM Program
- 3.23 Syria
- 3.24 Waterboarding
- 3.25 On President Bush
- 4 Electoral history
- 5 Personal background
- 6 Honors and decorations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Early life, education, and early career
Pelosi is Italian-American and was born Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro in Baltimore, Maryland, the youngest of six children of Annunciata M. "Nancy" (née Lombardi) and Thomas D'Alesandro, Jr., who was a Democratic party U.S. Congressman from Maryland and a Mayor of Baltimore. Pelosi's brother, Thomas D'Alesandro III, also a Democrat, was mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971, when he declined to run for a second term.
Pelosi was involved with politics from an early age. In her outgoing remarks as the 60th Speaker of the House, Pelosi noted that she had been present at John F. Kennedy's inaugural address as President in January 1961. She graduated from the Institute of Notre Dame, a Catholic all-girls high school in Baltimore, and from Trinity College (now Trinity Washington University) in Washington, D.C., in 1962 with a B.A. in political science. Pelosi interned for Senator Daniel Brewster (D-Maryland) alongside future House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer. She met Paul Frank Pelosi (b. April 15, 1940, in San Francisco) while she was attending Trinity College. They married in Baltimore at the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen on September 7, 1963. After the couple married, they moved to New York, and then to San Francisco in 1969, where Mr. Pelosi's brother, Ronald Pelosi, was a member of the City and County of San Francisco's Board of Supervisors.
After moving to San Francisco, Pelosi worked her way up in Democratic politics. She became a friend of one of the leaders of the California Democratic Party, 5th District Congressman Phillip Burton.
In 1976, Pelosi was elected as a Democratic National Committee member from California, a position she would hold until 1996. She was elected as party chair for Northern California on January 30, 1977, and for the California Democratic Party, which she held from 1981 until 1983.
Pelosi was appointed Finance Chair of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, the campaign arm of the U.S. Senate Democrats, in 1985. That same year, she ran to succeed Chuck Manatt as chair of the Democratic National Committee, but lost to then-DNC Treasurer Paul G. Kirk. Pelosi left her post as DSCC finance chair in 1986.
U.S. House of Representatives
Phillip Burton died in 1983 and was succeeded by his wife, Sala. In late 1986, Sala became ill with cancer and decided not to run for reelection in 1988. She picked Pelosi as her designated successor, guaranteeing her the support of the Burtons' contacts. Sala died on February 1, 1987, just a month after being sworn in for a second full term. Pelosi won the special election to succeed her, narrowly defeating San Francisco Supervisor Harry Britt on April 7, 1987, then easily defeating Republican candidate Harriet Ross on June 2, 1987; Pelosi took office a week later.
Pelosi represents one of the safest Democratic districts in the country. Democrats have held the seat since 1949 and Republicans, who currently make up only 13 percent of registered voters in the district, have not made a serious bid for the seat since the early 1960s. She won the seat in her own right in 1988 and has been reelected 10 more times with no substantive opposition, winning by an average of 80 percent of the vote. She has not participated in candidates' debates since her 1987 race against Harriet Ross. The strongest challenge Pelosi has faced was in 2008 when anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan polled 16% and Pelosi won with 72%.
She has the distinction of contributing the most among members of Congress to other congressional campaigns because she is in a safe district and does not need the campaign funds.
In 2002, after Gephardt resigned as minority leader to seek the Democratic nomination in the 2004 presidential election, Pelosi was elected to replace him, becoming the first woman to lead a major party in the House.
Speaker of the House
On November 16, 2006, Pelosi was unanimously chosen by her caucus as the Democratic candidate for Speaker, effectively making her Speaker-elect. While the Speaker is elected by the full House membership, in modern practice the election is a formality, since the Speaker always comes from the majority party.
Pelosi supported her longtime friend John Murtha of Pennsylvania for the position of House Majority Leader, the second-ranking post in the House Democratic caucus. His competitor was House Minority Whip Steny Hoyer of Maryland, who had been Pelosi's second-in-command since 2003. Pelosi and Hoyer had a somewhat frosty relationship dating back to 2001, when they ran against each other for minority whip. However, Hoyer was elected as House Majority Leader over Murtha by a margin of 149–86 within the caucus.
On January 3, Pelosi defeated Republican John Boehner of Ohio with 233 votes compared to his 202 votes in the election for Speaker of the House. She was nominated by Rahm Emanuel of Illinois, the incoming chairman of the House Democratic Caucus, and sworn in by her longtime friend John Dingell of Michigan as the Dean of the House of Representatives traditionally does.
With her election, Pelosi became the first woman, the first Californian, and the first Italian-American to hold the Speakership. She is also the second Speaker from a state west of the Rocky Mountains. The first was Washington's Tom Foley, the last Democrat to hold the post before Pelosi.
During her speech, she discussed the historical importance of being the first female to hold the position of Speaker:
"This is a historic moment – for the Congress, and for the women of this country. It is a moment for which we have waited more than 200 years. Never losing faith, we waited through the many years of struggle to achieve our rights. But women weren't just waiting; women were working. Never losing faith, we worked to redeem the promise of America, that all men and women are created equal. For our daughters and granddaughters, today, we have broken the marble ceiling. For our daughters and our granddaughters, the sky is the limit, anything is possible for them".
She also spoke on Iraq as the major issue facing the 110th Congress, while incorporating some Democratic Party beliefs:
"The election of 2006 was a call to change – not merely to change the control of Congress, but for a new direction for our country. Nowhere were the American people more clear about the need for a new direction than in Iraq. The American people rejected an open-ended obligation to a war without end."
As Speaker, Pelosi was still the leader of the House Democrats; the Speaker is considered to be the leader of his or her House caucus. However, by tradition, she did not normally participate in debate and almost never voted on the floor (though she had every right to as a full House member). She was also not a member of any House committees.
Pelosi was re-elected Speaker in 2009.
A CBS News poll conducted in March 2010 found that 37% of registered voters have an unfavorable opinion of the speaker, with 11% approving. According to a March 2010 Rasmussen poll, 64% of voters nationally view the speaker unfavorably, and 29% have a favorable opinion of Pelosi.
- Social Security Mandate
Shortly after winning re-election, President George W. Bush claimed a mandate for an ambitious second-term agenda and proposed reforming Social Security by allowing workers to redirect a portion of their Social Security withholding into stock and bond investments. Pelosi strongly opposed the plan, saying there was no crisis, and as minority leader she imposed intense party discipline on her caucus, leading them to near-unanimous opposition to Bush's proposal, and subsequent defeat of the proposed plan.
- Blocking of impeachment proceedings against President Bush
In the wake of President George W. Bush's reelection in 2004, several leading House Democrats believed that Democrats should pursue impeachment proceedings against the president. They asserted that Bush had misled Congress about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, and had violated the civil liberties of Americans by authorizing wiretaps without a warrant.
In May 2006, with an eye on the upcoming congressional elections–which offered the possibility of Democrats taking back control of the House for the first time since 1994–Pelosi told colleagues that, while the Democrats would conduct vigorous oversight of Bush administration policy, an impeachment investigation was "off the table". (A week earlier, she had told the Washington Post that, although Democrats would not set out to impeach the president, "you never know where" investigations might lead.)
After becoming Speaker of the House in January 2007, Pelosi held firm against impeachment, notwithstanding strong support for that course of action among constituents in her home district. In the November 2008 election, Pelosi withstood a challenge for her seat by anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan, who ran as an independent primarily because of Pelosi's refusal to pursue impeachment.
- The "Hundred Hours"
Prior to the U.S. 2006 midterm elections, Pelosi announced a plan for action: If elected, she and the newly empowered Democratic caucus would push through most of its program during the first hundred hours of the 110th Congress' term.
The origin for the name "first hundred hours" is a play on words derived from former Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt's promise for quick action on the part of government (to combat the Great Depression) during his "first hundred days" in office. Newt Gingrich, who became Speaker of the House in 1995, had a similar 100-day agenda to implement the Contract with America.
- Opposition to Iraq War troop surge of 2007
On January 5, 2007, reacting to suggestions from President Bush's confidantes that he would increase troop levels in Iraq (which he announced in a speech a few days later), Pelosi joined with Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to condemn the plan. They sent Bush a letter saying, "[T]here is no purely military solution in Iraq. There is only a political solution. Adding more combat troops will only endanger more Americans and stretch our military to the breaking point for no strategic gain. ... Rather than deploy additional forces to Iraq, we believe the way forward is to begin the phased redeployment of our forces in the next four to six months, while shifting the principal mission of our forces there from combat to training, logistics, force protection and counter-terror."
- 2008 Democratic National Convention
- Health Care Reform
Pelosi has been credited for spearheading President Obama's health care law when it seemed that it would go down in defeat. After Republican Scott Brown won Democratic Ted Kennedy's former senate seat in the January 2010 Massachusetts special election and thereby causing the Senate Democrats to lose their filibuster proof majority, Obama agreed with then chief of staff Rahm Emanuel's idea that he should do smaller initiatives that could pass easily. Pelosi, however, dismissed the president's fear and instead mocked his scaled-back ideas as "kiddie care." After convincing the president that this would be their only shot at health care because of the large Democratic majorities they currently had, she rallied her Democratic caucus as she began an "unbelievable marathon" of a two-month session to craft the health care bill, which successfully passed the House. In Obama's remarks before signing the bill into law, he specifically credited Pelosi as being "one of the best Speakers the House of Representatives has ever had."
Though Pelosi was re-elected by a comfortable margin in the 2010 midterm elections, the Democrats lost 63 seats and ceded control of the House of Representatives to the Republicans. Despite the electoral setback suffered by her party, Pelosi sought to continue leading the House Democratic Caucus in the position of Minority Leader, the office she held prior to becoming Speaker. After Pelosi's disparate intra-party opposition failed to pass a motion to delay the leadership vote, Pelosi was elected Minority Leader for the 112th Congress. On November 14, 2012, Pelosi announced she would remain on as Democratic leader.
Allegations of insider trading
In November 2011, 60 Minutes alleged that Pelosi and several other member of Congress had used information they gleaned from closed sessions to make money on the stock market. The program cited Pelosi's purchases of Visa stock while a bill that would limit credit card fees was in the House. Pelosi denied the allegations and called the report "a right-wing smear." When the Stop Trading on Congressional Knowledge Act (or STOCK Act) was introduced the next year, Pelosi voted for the bill and lauded its passing. Of Representatives Louise Slaughter and Tim Walz, who drafted the bill, Pelosi said they "shined a light on a gaping hole in our ethics laws and helped close it once and for all."
Pelosi was a founding member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus, but left in 2003 after being elected Minority Leader. Her longtime friend Jim McDermott of Washington told Newsweek that he and other left-leaning Democratic congressmen sometimes wish that "she would tilt a little more our way from time to time". As Speaker, Pelosi has tried to focus more on economic than social issues.
In San Francisco, Pelosi has experienced conflicts with anti-war activists. Nonetheless, she has never faced a serious challenger in the Democratic primary or from the Green Party, which is competitive in local elections.
On September 2, 2008, she visited Hiroshima, Japan, for a G8 summit meeting of lower house speakers and offered flowers in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park for the victims of the 1945 atomic bombing. While many world leaders have visited Hiroshima over the years, she is the highest-ever sitting U.S. official to pay her respects.
On March 21, 2008, Pelosi criticized the People's Republic of China for its handling of the unrest in Tibet and called on "freedom-loving people" worldwide to denounce China. She was quoted as saying, "The situation in Tibet is a challenge to the conscience of the world", while addressing a crowd of thousands of Tibetans in Dharamsala, India. She however did not call for a boycott of the 2008 Summer Olympics that were held in Beijing.
On October 24, 2008, Pelosi commended the European Parliament for its "bold decision" to award the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought to Chinese dissident and human rights activist Hu Jia. Pelosi's statement read, "I call on the Chinese government to immediately and unconditionally release Hu Jia from prison and to respect the fundamental freedoms of all the people in China."
Pelosi publicly scolded Colombian President Álvaro Uribe during Uribe's May 2007 state trip to America. Pelosi met with Uribe and later released a statement that she and other members of Congress had "expressed growing concerns about the serious allegations" of links between Paramilitary groups and Colombian government officials. Pelosi also came out against the Colombian free trade agreement.
In 2001, Pelosi voted in favor of keeping the travel restrictions on American citizens to Cuba, until the President has certified that Cuba has released all political prisoners, and extradited all individuals sought by the U.S. on charges of air piracy, drug trafficking and murder.
In a February 15, 2007, interview, Pelosi noted that Bush consistently said he supports a diplomatic resolution to differences with Iran "and I take him at his word". At the same time, she said, "I do believe that Congress should assert itself, though, and make it very clear that there is no previous authority for the president, any president, to go into Iran". On January 12, 2007, Congressman Walter B. Jones of North Carolina introduced a resolution requiring that – absent a national emergency created by an attack, or a demonstrably imminent attack, by Iran upon the United States or its armed forces – the President must consult with Congress and receive specific authorization prior to initiating any use of military force against Iran. This resolution was removed from a military spending bill for the war in Iraq by Pelosi on March 13, 2007.
In mid-October 2007, after the House Foreign Affairs Committee passed a resolution to label the 1915 killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks as genocide, Pelosi pledged to bring the measure to a vote. The draft resolution prompted warnings from President Bush and fierce criticism from Turkey, with Turkey's prime minister saying that approval of the resolution would endanger U.S.-Turkey relations. After House support eroded, the measure's sponsors dropped their call for a vote, and in late October Pelosi agreed to set the matter aside.
Use of government aircraft
In March 2009, the New York Post wrote that the conservative watchdog group Judicial Watch obtained emails sent by Pelosi's staff that requested that the United States Air Force (USAF) provide specific aircraft—a Boeing 757—for Pelosi to use for taxpayer-funded travel. Pelosi responded that the policy was initiated by President Bush due to post-9/11 security concerns (Pelosi was third in line for presidential succession) and was initially provided for the previous Speaker, Dennis Hastert. The Sergeant at Arms requested, for security reasons, that the plane provided be capable of non-stop flight, requiring a larger aircraft. The Pentagon said "no one has rendered judgment" that Pelosi's use of aircraft "is excessive."
Pelosi voted against the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 and earlier attempts at similar bans, and voted against the criminalization of certain situations where a minor is transported across state lines for an abortion (HR 748, passed).
She has voted in favor of lifting the ban on privately funded abortions at U.S. military facilities overseas (HA 209, rejected), in favor of an amendment that would repeal a provision that forbids service women and dependents from getting an abortion in overseas military hospitals (HA 722, rejected), in favor of stripping the prohibition of funding for organizations working overseas that uses its own funds to provide abortion services or engage in advocacy related to abortion services (HA 997, rejected). She also voted in favor of the 1998 Abortion Funding Amendment, which would have allowed the use of district funds to promote abortion-related activities, but would have prohibited the use of federal funds.
In February 2009, Pelosi met with her bishop, Archbishop George Niederauer of San Francisco, and with Pope Benedict XVI as a result of comments made by Pelosi to Tom Brokaw on Meet the Press that many observers felt inaccurately portrayed Church teaching on the subject of abortion and the beginning of life.
Pelosi stands in favor of increased background checks for potential gun owners, as well as the controversial banning of assault weapons. In February 2013, she called for the "Boldest possible move" on gun control, similar to a stance made just weeks earlier by former Representative, mass shooting victim and fellow gun control advocate, Gabriel Giffords. In 2012, she was given 0% ratings by both the National Rifle Association and Gun Owners of America for her stances on gun control.
In a February, 2013, interview with Fox News, Pelosi misstated that gun ownership was protected by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. The First Amendment addresses freedom of speech and the press, and it is the Second Amendment that addresses gun ownership.
Pelosi voted against the 1995 Balanced Budget Proposed Constitutional Amendment, which was passed by the House by a 300–132 vote, but in the Senate fell two votes short of the 2/3 supermajority required (with 65 out of 100 Senators voting in favor).
As Speaker of the House, she also spearheaded the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 as part of the 100-Hour Plan. The Act raises the minimum wage in the United States and the territories of the Northern Marianas Islands and American Samoa. American Samoa was initially absent from the act, but as part of HR 2206 it was included. One Republican congressman who voted against the initial bill accused Pelosi of unethically benefiting Del Monte Foods (headquartered in her district) by the exclusion of the territory, where Del Monte's StarKist Tuna brand is a major employer. Pelosi co-sponsored legislation that omitted American Samoa from a raise in the minimum wage as early as 1999, prior to Del Monte's acquisition of StarKist Tuna in 2002. As of the 2002, 2004, and 2006 election cycles, Del Monte has not contributed to Democratic candidates.
The American Civil Liberties Union's Congressional Scorecard has given Pelosi a lifetime rating of 92% for her voting record on civil liberties. In 2001, she voted in favor of the USA Patriot Act, but voted against reauthorization of certain provisions in 2005. She voted against a Constitutional amendment banning flag-burning.
In a January 25, 2009, interview with George Stephanopoulos for ABC News, Pelosi said, "Well, the family planning services reduce cost. They reduce cost. The states are in terrible fiscal budget crises now and part of what we do for children's health, education and some of those elements are to help the states meet their financial needs. One of those – one of the initiatives you mentioned, the contraception, will reduce costs to the states and to the federal government."
In 1999, Pelosi voted against the Ten Commandments being in public buildings, including schools Pelosi voted for the No Child Left Behind Act, which instituted testing to track students' progress and authorized an increase in overall education spending.
Pelosi has supported the development of new technologies to reduce U.S. dependence upon foreign oil and remediate the adverse environmental effects of burning fossil fuels. Pelosi has widely supported conservation programs and energy research appropriations. She has also voted to remove an amendment that would allow for oil and gas exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
Speaker Pelosi was instrumental in the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Pelosi was a key figure in convincing President Barack Obama to continue pushing for health care reform after the election of Massachusetts Sen. Scott Brown in a January special election, a defeat that was seen as potentially fatal to Democratic reform efforts. After delivering 219 votes in the House for Obama's signature health care package, Pelosi was both praised and heckled as she made her way to Capitol Hill.
In 2002, Pelosi opposed the Iraq Resolution authorizing President Bush to use military force against Iraq, while stating that Iraq, like "other countries of concern", had WMDs. In explaining her opposition to the resolution, Pelosi noted that Central Intelligence Agency Director George Tenet had told Congress that the likelihood of Iraq's Saddam Hussein launching an attack on the U.S. using weapons of mass destruction was low. "This is about the Constitution", Pelosi said. "It is about this Congress asserting its right to declare war when we are fully aware what the challenges are to us. It is about respecting the United Nations and a multilateral approach, which is safer for our troops." Despite Pelosi's opposition, Congress still passed a resolution authorizing President Bush to use the Armed Forces of the United States against Iraq.
Pelosi reaffirms that "America and Israel share an unbreakable bond: in peace and war; and in prosperity and in hardship". Pelosi emphasized that "a strong relationship between the United States and Israel has long been supported by both Democrats and Republicans. America's commitment to the safety and security of the State of Israel is unwavering,...[h]owever, the war in Iraq has made both America and Israel less safe." Pelosi's voting record shows consistent support for Israel. Prior to 2006 elections in the Palestinian Authority, she voted for a Congressional initiative disapproving of participation in the elections by Hamas and other organizations defined as terrorist by the legislation. She agrees with the current U.S. stance in support of land-for-peace. She has applauded Israeli "hopeful signs" of offering land, while criticizing Palestinian "threats" of not demonstrating peace in turn. She states, "If the Palestinians agree to coordinate with Israel on the evacuation, establish the rule of law, and demonstrate a capacity to govern, the world may be convinced that finally there is a real partner for peace".
During the 2006 Lebanon War, Pelosi voted in favor of Resolution 921 on the count that "the seizure of Israeli soldiers by Hezbollah terrorists was an unprovoked attack and Israel has the right, and indeed the obligation, to respond". She argues that organizations and political bodies in the Mideast like Hamas and Hezbollah "have a greater interest in maintaining a state of hostility with Israel than in improving the lives of the people they claim to represent". Pelosi asserts that civilians on both sides of the border "have been put at risk by the aggression of Hamas and Hezbollah" in part for their use of "civilians as shields by concealing weapons in civilian areas".
In September 2008, Pelosi hosted a reception in Washington with Israeli Knesset speaker Dalia Itzik, along with 20 members of Congress, where they toasted the "strong friendship" between Israel and the United States. During the ceremony, Pelosi held up the replica dog tags of the three Israeli soldiers captured by Hezbollah and Hamas in 2006 and stated that she keeps them as a "symbol of the sacrifices made, sacrifices far too great by the people of the state of Israel".
First Gulf War
Pelosi received a 100% rating from the Human Rights Campaign for the 107th, 108th, and 109th sessions of Congress, indicating that she voted in agreement with HRC's slate of pro-gay legislative issues. In 1996 she voted against the Defense of Marriage Act, and in 2004 and 2006, she voted against the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment, which would amend the United States Constitution to define marriage federally as being between one man and one woman, thereby overriding states' individual rights to legalize gay marriage. When the Supreme Court of California overturned the state's ban on same-sex marriage, Pelosi released a statement welcoming the "historic decision." She voiced her opposition to Proposition 8, the successful ballot initiative, which defined marriage in California as a union between one man and one woman. Pelosi states that her Catholic faith is behind her position on LGBT rights such as same-sex marriage: "My religion compels me—and I love it for it—to be against discrimination of any kind in our country, and I consider [the ban on gay marriage] a form of discrimination. I think it’s unconstitutional on top of that."
NSA Spying/PRISM Program
Pelosi supports the Syria Accountability Act and Iran Freedom and Support Act. In a speech at the AIPAC 2005 annual conference, Pelosi said that "for too long, leaders from both parties haven't done enough" to put pressure on Russia and China who are providing Iran with technological information on nuclear issues and missiles. "If evidence of participation by other nations in Iran's nuclear program is discovered, I will insist that the Administration use, rather than ignore, the evidence in determining how the U.S. deals with that nation or nations on other issues." In April 2007, she visited Damascus and stated there "the road to Damascus is a road to peace."
According to the CIA, while Pelosi was the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, she was briefed on the ongoing use of so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques", including waterboarding authorized for a captured terrorist, Abu Zubaydah, in one hour-long briefing in 2002. After the briefing, Pelosi said she "was assured by lawyers with the CIA and the Department of Justice that the methods were legal." Two unnamed former Bush Administration officials say that the briefing was detailed and graphic, and at the time she didn't raise substantial objections. One unnamed U.S. official present during the early briefings said, "In fairness, the environment was different then because we were closer to September 11 and people were still in a panic. But there was no objecting, no hand-wringing. The attitude was, 'We don't care what you do to those guys as long as you get the information you need to protect the American people.' "
However, several top Democratic lawmakers in the House signed a letter on June 26, 2009, alleging that CIA Director Leon Panetta had asserted that the CIA misled Congress for a "number of years" spanning back to 2001, casting clouds on the controversy. Neither letter, lawmakers or the CIA provided details and the circumstances surrounding the allegations make it hard to assess the claims and counterclaims of both sides.
Officials in Congress say her ability to challenge the practices may have been hampered by strict rules of secrecy that prohibited her from being able to take notes or consult legal experts or members of her own staffs. In an April 2009 press conference, Pelosi stated, "In that or any other briefing…we were not, and I repeat, were not told that waterboarding or any of these other enhanced interrogation techniques were used. What they did tell us is that they had some legislative counsel – the Office of Legislative Counsel opinions that they could be used, but not that they would. And they further – further, the point was that if and when they would be used, they would brief Congress at that time" Pelosi's office stated that she later protested the technique and that she concurred with objections raised by Democratic colleague Jane Harman in a letter to the CIA in early 2003.
On President Bush
In mid-July 2008, two days after President George W. Bush stated that Congress was ineffective and said, "This is not a record to be proud of, and I think the American people deserve better", Pelosi responded by calling the president "a total failure, losing all credibility with the American people on the war, on the economy, on energy, you name the subject" and that Congress had been "sweeping up after his mess over and over and over again".
Pelosi's only close race so far has been the special election to succeed Sala Burton's seat after her death in February 1987. In the special election's Democratic primary, Pelosi narrowly defeated San Francisco Supervisor Harry Britt, considered the more "progressive" candidate, with 36 percent of the vote to his 32 percent. In the runoff against Republican candidate Harriet Ross, Pelosi received more than a 2-to-1 majority of votes cast in a turnout that comprised about 24% of eligible voters. Since then, Pelosi has enjoyed overwhelming support in her political career, collecting 76 and 77 percent of the vote in California's 5th congressional district for the 1988 and 1990 Race for U.S. House of Representatives. In 1992, after the redistricting from the 1990 Census, Pelosi ran in California's 8th congressional district, which now covered the San Francisco area. She has continued to post landslide victories since, dropping beneath 80 percent of the vote only twice.
Her husband, since 1963, is Paul Pelosi. They have five children: Nancy Corinne, Christine, Jacqueline, Paul, and Alexandra, as well as eight grandchildren. Alexandra, a journalist, covered the Republican presidential campaigns in 2000 and made a film about the experience, Journeys with George. In 2007, Christine published a book, Campaign Boot Camp: Basic Training for Future Leaders.
Pelosi lives in the Pacific Heights neighborhood of San Francisco.
Nancy Pelosi is among the richest members of Congress, with an estimated net worth of approximately $58 million, the 12th highest estimated net worth in Congress, according to the nonpartisan Center for Responsive Politics.
While members of Congress are not required to disclose their exact net worth, organizations such as the Center for Responsive Politics prepare estimated ranges based on public disclosures. The CRP's midpoint estimate of the Pelosis' net worth is $58,436,537 as of 2009, the most recent year for which figures are available, with a possible range from $7 million to $124 million.
Involvement in Italian-American community
Pelosi is a board member of the National Organization of Italian American Women. Additionally, Pelosi served for 13 years as a board member of the National Italian American Foundation (NIAF). In 2007, she received the NIAF Special Achievement Award for Public Advocacy and continues to be involved in the Foundation today.
Honors and decorations
- Italy Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic on June 2, 2007
- She has been listed numerous times on Forbes list of the world's 100 most powerful women. As of 2014, Pelosi was ranked 26th.
- Japan Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun on April 29, 2015
- "Nancy Pelosi," Click on Read more. WhoRunsGov.com . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "[dead link]," Associated Press. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
- Puzzanghera, Jim (November 14, 2002). "Pelosi's aim for center may steer pundits wrong". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
- Baltimore City History of Mayors - THOMAS J. D'ALESANDRO III
- Jonathan Weisman and Lois Romano (November 16, 2006). "Pelosi Splits Democrats With Push For Murtha". Washington Post. Retrieved November 16, 2006.
- Date of birth found on the California Birth Index 1905–1995, under Pelosi, Paul Frank, on April 15, 1940, in San Francisco.
- "Pelosi: Remarks at Georgetown University School of Foreign Commencement". House.gov. May 18, 2002. Archived from the original on August 4, 2008. Retrieved June 14, 2010.[dead link]
- McManus, Margaret (February 4, 1995). "Baltimore-bred lawmaker lives, breathes politics". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- "Board of Supervisors: Past Supervisors". City and County of San Francisco. Retrieved November 19, 2008.[dead link]
- Chris McGreal in Washington (March 26, 2010). "Chris McGreal, Nancy Pelosi: is this the most powerful woman in US history?, The Guardian, March 26, 2010". The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- "Friday Trivia Fun, The Hotline (National Journal), April 30, 2010". Hotlineoncall.nationaljournal.com. Retrieved June 14, 2010.[dead link]
- "Is this the new face of the Democratic Party?," The Nation. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Associated Press (June 3, 1987). "Democrat Elected in San Francisco". New York Times.
- "It began in Baltimore: The life and times of Nancy Pelosi". San Francisco Chronicle. January 2, 2007.[dead link]
- Epstein, Edward (October 20, 2006). "CAMPAIGN 2006: Eighth Congressional District / 3 challengers fight for Pelosi seat". San Francisco Chronicle. p. B-1. Retrieved October 29, 2006.
- Suellentrop, Chris (November 13, 2002). "Nancy Pelosi: The leader the House Democrats deserve.". Slate (magazine) (The Slate Group, a Division of the Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 3, 2010 (re-accessed October 6, 2013). Check date values in:
- Stone, Andrea (November 9, 2006). "Pelosi to lead Congress". USA Today. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
- Speaker Nancy Pelosi, U.S. House of Representatives Official Web Page . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Molly Hooper (November 16, 2006). "Hoyer Wins House Majority Leader Race, Giving Pelosi First Setback". Fox News. Retrieved November 8, 2006.[dead link]
- "Democrats defy Pelosi, elect Hoyer House leader". Reuters. November 16, 2006. Retrieved November 16, 2006.[dead link]
- Deirdre Walsh (January 4, 2007). "Pelosi becomes first woman House speaker". CNN. Archived from the original on January 6, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2007.
- Bush, George W. (January 23, 2007). "President Bush Delivers State of the Union Address". The White House. Retrieved August 26, 2007.
- SFGate.com (2006). Text of Nancy Pelosi's speech. Retrieved January 6, 2007.
- Montopoli, Brian (March 22, 2010). "Poll: Low Favorability Ratings For Pelosi, Reid – Political Hotsheet". CBS News. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- "Congressional Favorability Ratings – Rasmussen Reports". Rasmussenreports.com. May 23, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- Sandalow, Marc. "Bush claims mandate, sets 2nd-term goals," San Francisco Chronicle, November 5, 2004 . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Don't Mess With Pelosi, TIME Magazine, August 27, 2006, . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "Don't Mess With Pelosi," TIME Magazine, August 27, 2006 . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Babington, Charles. "Democrats Won't Try To Impeach President", Washington Post, May 12, 2006 . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "Sheehan considers challenge to Pelosi", by Angela K. Brown, Associated Press, July 8, 2007.
- Espo, David (October 6, 2006). "Pelosi Says She Would Drain GOP 'Swamp'". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company (now Nash Holdings LLC). Retrieved 6 October 2013.
[...] As in the first 100 hours the House meets after Democrats _ in her fondest wish _ win control in the Nov. 7 midterm elections and Pelosi takes the gavel as the first Madam Speaker in history. [...]
- Nancy Pelosi (November 7, 2006). "One Hundred Hours". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) (01/05/2007). "Congressional Leaders Call on President to Reject Flawed Iraq Troop Surge". Check date values in:
|date=(help) Retrieved on January 24, 2007
- Democrats Announce 2008 Convention Chairs, DemConvention.com . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Andrea Seabrook (29 March 2010). "Health Care Overhaul Boosts Pelosi's Clout". NPR.
- Sheryl Gay Strolberg, Jeff Zenley and Carl Hulse (20 March 2010). "Health Vote Caps a Journey Back From the Brink". New York Times.
- Carrie Budoff Brown and Glenn Thrush (20 March 2010). "Nancy Pelosi steeled White House for health push". Politico.
- Bowman, Quinn. "Pelosi Staves off Leadership Challenge, Elected Minority Leader, Boehner to Be House Speaker". The Rundown. PBS. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- Henneberger, Melinda (November 14, 2012). "The millions of reasons Nancy Pelosi decided to stay". She The People. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- msnbc.com and NBC News (with contributions by NBC News' Luke Russert and Frank Thorp) (November 14, 2011). "Pelosi fires back at report on 'insider trading'". MSN Canada - News. MSN. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- CNN Wire Staff (with contributions by CNN's Deirdre Walsh) (November 14, 2011). "Pelosi fires back at '60 Minutes' report on 'soft corruption'". CNN. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Lochhead, Carolyn (November 15, 2011). "Pelosi aide calls '60 Minutes' report a 'smear'". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "Pelosi Statement on Senate Passage of STOCK Act". Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi. February 2, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "Pelosi Statement on Senate Passage of the STOCK Act". Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi. March 22, 2012. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Zakaria, Fareed (May 22, 2010). "Newsweek". MSNBC. Retrieved June 14, 2010.[dead link]
- McCormick, E. (January 15, 2006). "SAN FRANCISCO / Anti-war activists take Pelosi to task / Minority leader negotiates with lawmakers to her right". SFGate. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Bill Steigerwald: "FrontPage magazine.com: Meet Speaker Pelosi's Constituents", FrontPage Magazine, November 30, 2006. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- Johnson, Eric. "G8 speakers' summit upstaged", The Japan Times, September 3, 2008 . Retrieved September 9, 2008.
- "U.S. House speaker critical of China over Tibet". CNN. March 20, 2008. Retrieved March 20, 2008.[dead link]
- Ramesh, Randeep (March 22, 2008). "Pelosi urges world to condemn China over crackdown". The Guardian (London). Retrieved March 23, 2008.
- Pelosi, Nancy (October 24, 2008). "Pelosi Statement on Chinese Human Rights Activist Hu Jia Receiving Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Ukman, Jason (May 5, 2007). "Colombian President Defends His Government". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 4, 2007.
- "Pelosi, Hoyer, Rangel, and Levin Statement on Trade". Retrieved September 26, 2007.
- Nancy Pelosi on Foreign Policy, OnTheIssues.org . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "House Passes Resolution Opposing Bush's Plan to Send More Troops to Iraq". Fox News. February 16, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- "Pelosi Says Bush Has No Authority to Invade Iran". NewsMax.com, February 16, 2007.
- "Bill Text – 110th Congress (2007–2008) – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- "Jones Introduces Resolution Requiring Congressional Approval Prior to Use of Military Force Against Iran[dead link]," Congressman Walter B. Jones Release . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "US House Speaker: Armenian Genocide Measure Will Go Forward". Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "Turkey's PM says U.S. relations in danger". Reuters. October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
- Walsh, Diedre (October 25, 2007). "Vote on Armenian 'genocide' resolution put off". CNN. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- Gertz, Bill (March 19, 2009). "Inside the Ring". The Washington Times. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
- Earle, Geoff (March 11, 2009). "Revealed: pelosi's 'air rage'". New York Post. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- Farooq, Sajid (March 12, 2009). "Nancy Pelosi Doesn't Fly Coach". WRC-TV. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Miklaszewski, Jim (March 11, 2009). "Pentagon mum on Pelosi flights". MSNBC. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "Representative Pelosi on Abortion Issues", Vote-Smart.org . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "Archbishop: Pelosi comments on abortion are false," The Hill, August 25, 2008.
- Kathleen Gilbert (February 18, 2009). "Following Meeting with Pope, News of Secret Meeting between Pelosi and her Bishop on Abortion". LifeSiteNews.com.
- Memoli, Michael A. (February 7, 2013). "Pelosi calls for 'boldest possible' gun legislation". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "Nancy Pelosi". Project Vote Smart. Vote Smart.
- Hunter, Melanie (February 11, 2013). "Nancy Pelosi: 'We Avow the First Amendment…People Have a Right to Have a Gun'". CBS News. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Odom, Eric (February 11, 2013). "Does Nancy Really Know?". Liberty News. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- Spiering, Charlie (February 11, 2013). "Pelosi claims First Amendment protects right to bear arms". Washington Examiner. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "Balanced Budget Proposed Constitutional Amendment". Key Vote. Project Vote Smart. 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- Shadegg Finds House Wage Hike A Bit Fishy. Retrieved on January 14, 2007.
- Fair Minimum Wage Act of 1999. Retrieved on February 7, 2007.
- OpenSecrets.org . Retrieved January 1, 2007.
- "Left-Handed Compliment," OpinionJournal.com . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "ACLU Congressional Scorecard: Nancy Pelosi". ACLU. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
- "Pelosi: Reauthorization of Patriot Act a Massive Invasion of Privacy" (Press release). Office of Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi. December 14, 2005. Retrieved July 31, 2007.[dead link]
- "Clerk.House.gov". Clerk.House.gov. June 22, 2005. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- 'This Week' Transcript: Nancy Pelosi, ABC News, January 25, 2009
- "Education". Key Vote. Project Vote Smart. 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- "Energy Issues". Key Vote. Project Vote Smart. 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- "Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Drilling Amendment". Key Vote. Project Vote Smart. 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- "Pelosi blocks offshore drilling vote GOP wants," San Francisco Chronicle, August 1, 2008.
- "Nancy Pelosi Heckled – Sarah Palin Promises November Vote". National Ledger. Mar 22, 2010. Retrieved Mar 24, 2010.
- "Health Issues". Key Vote. Project Vote Smart. 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- "Key Votes by Nancy Pelosi," Washington Post . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "Final vote results for roll call 455". Office of the Clerk. October 10, 2002. Retrieved November 12, 2006.
- Pelosi, Nancy (October 10, 2002). "Pelosi: Unilateral Use of Force Will Be Harmful to the War on Terrorism" (Press release). House of Representatives. Archived from the original on November 2, 2006. Retrieved November 12, 2006.[dead link]
- "Congress Passes Iraq Use of Force Resolution". about.com. October 11, 2002. Retrieved October 11, 2002.
- "Archive.org version of a Pelosi Press Release". Archive.org. 2005. Archived from the original on February 2, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2007.
- "Pelosi Floor Statement on House Resolution Reaffirming Support for Israel". News West 9. July 19, 2006. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- "Two speakers toast to U.S.-Israel friendship". JTA. September 18, 2008. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- Hidden Casualties: Environmental, Health and Political Consequences of the Persian Gulf War by Nancy Pelosi, Saul Bloom, et al., North Atlantic Books, 1994. ISBN 978-1-55643-163-0.
- Measuring Support for Equality in Congress, Human Rights Campaign . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Final Vote Results for Roll Call, U.S. House of Representatives voting records . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Nancy Pelosi on Civil Rights, OnTheIssues.org . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "Top state Dems criticize S.F. mayor," San Francisco Chronicle, February 2, 2004.
- "Pelosi Statement on California State Supreme Court Ruling on Gay Marriage". House.gov. May 15, 2008. Archived from the original on August 2, 2008. Retrieved June 14, 2010.[dead link]
- "Nancy Pelosi: My Catholic faith ‘compels me’ to support gay marriage". Washington Post: On Faith. May 11, 2012.
- "Speaker Pelosi, we've been "in touch" about marijuana will you do something now," The NormlStash Blog . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Pelosi talks medical marijuana, Current.com . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Pelosi says no to draft legislation, CNN Politics, November 21, 2006
- Nancy Pelosi Booed, Heckled Over Edward Snowden, NSA Comments At Netroots Nation 2013
- "Nancy Pelosi: Israel, don't fear Dems in Congress". ynetnews.com. 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2007.
- Cheney, Liz (April 15, 2007). "Liz Cheney: Conducting diplomacy in Syria is shameful". Deseret News. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
- Mazzetti, Mark. C.I.A. Official in Inquiry Called a 'Hero', New York Times, December 10, 2007.
- Torture battle escalating, Pelosi vs. Boehner, San Francisco Chronicle, April 23, 2009
- Hill Briefed on Waterboarding in 2002, The Washington Post, December 9, 2007
- Kane, Paul. "Pelosi briefed in 2002 on interrogation tactics," San Francisco Chronicle, May 8, 2009.
- "Pelosi: I Was Told Interrogation Methods Were Lawful". FoxNews.com. Fox News Channel. May 8, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
House Speaker Nancy Pelosi insisted Friday that she was briefed only once about the 'enhanced' interrogation techniques being used on terrorism suspects and that she was assured by lawyers with the CIA and the Department of Justice that the methods were legal.
- Warrick, Joby; Dan Eggen (December 9, 2007). "Hill Briefed on Waterboarding in 2002". Washington Post. Retrieved December 10, 2007.
- Warrick, Joby; Eggen, Dan (December 9, 2007). "Hill Briefed on Waterboarding in 2002". The Washington Post. (formerly The Washington Post Company, now Nash Holdings LLC). Retrieved 6 October 2013.
In fairness, the environment was different then because we were closer to Sept. 11 and people were still in a panic," said one U.S. official present during the early briefings. "But there was no objecting, no hand-wringing. The attitude was, 'We don't care what you do to those guys as long as you get the information you need to protect the American people.'
- Open Letter from the Congress of the United States. Published June 26, 2009 . Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- Gorman, Siobhan (July 8, 2009). "Democrats Say Panetta Admits CIA Misled Them". [The Wall Street Journal]. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- Thrush, Glenn (April 23, 2009). "Pelosi briefed on waterboarding in '02". Politico. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
- "Torture battle escalating, Pelosi vs. Boehner," San Francisco . Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Thrush, Glenn (April 23, 2009). "Pelosi: I didn't know about use of waterboarding". Politico. Retrieved April 23, 2009.
- "Pelosi: Bush 'a total failure'". CNN. July 18, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
- Lindsey, Robert (April 9, 1987). "House race in west goes to runoff". The New York Times. Accessed via Lexis-Nexis.
- "Nancy Pelosi Wins House Seat". The Washington Post. June 3, 1987. Accessed via Lexis-Nexis.
- Whiting, Sam (February 3, 2008). "Christine Pelosi's boot camp trains future politicians to avoid the campaign minefield". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
- Singer, Paul; Jennifer Yachnin; Kristin Coyner (September 14, 2009). "The 50 Richest Members of Congress (2009)". Roll Call. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Net Worth, | Personal Finance Disclosure | OpenSecrets
- Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif), 2009 | Personal Finance Disclosure | OpenSecrets
- "Board Members | NOIAW". National Organization of Italian American Women. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
listed under "DISTINGUISHED BOARD MEMBERS"
- "Pelosi On. Nancy decorated". The official website of the Presidency of the Italian Republic.
- "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- Dabbous, Y., Ladley, A. (2010), "A spine of steel and a heart of gold: Newspaper coverage of the first female speaker of the house", Journal of Gender Studies 19 (2), pp. 181–194
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Database entry Nancy Pelosi on Wikidata|
- Office of the Democratic Leader official site for the Democratic Leader's Office
- U.S. Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi official site for the Congresswoman's Office
- Nancy Pelosi at DMOZ
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
- The American Ireland Fund Peace Award recipient[dead link]
- Video Biography NIAF Lifetime Achievement Award
- Nancy Pelosi Video produced by Makers: Women Who Make America
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Trinity Graduates Win Re-election: House Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi '62 Poised to Become Speaker, Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius '70 Wins Second Term[dead link] from Trinity Washington University, November 8, 2006
- Rolling With Pelosi[dead link], from Newsweek, October 23, 2006
- Pelosi mines 'California gold' for Dems nationwide: Personal skills, wide network of wealthy donors help party's House leader gather millions, from sfgate.com, April 3, 2006
- Pelosi rides high, from The Economist, Feb 22, 2007
- This Is What a Speaker Looks Like, the Winter 2007 cover story to Ms.