Nano-JASMINE is Japan's first astrometric satellite and is anticipated to be the world's third astrometric satellite, the first being Hipparcos, launched in 1989 by the European Space Agency and the second Gaia launched in 2013 (also by ESA). It is the first of a planned series of three satellites of increasing size: Nano-JASMINE, Small-JASMINE, and JASMINE. The satellite observes in the infrared, allowing for better observation towards the center of the Galaxy, and has a small, 5 centimeter primary mirror.
The satellite should measure positions with accuracy comparable to Hipparcos, but should be useful to determine the positions of stars whose current positions are poorly known owing to uncertainty in their motion since their previous measurement by Hipparcos. In addition, combining nano-JASMINE data with Hipparcos data should enable the determination of more accurate proper motions.