||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (March 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
A nano brain is a conceptual device with massively parallel computational abilities, following the information processing principles of the human brain. This machine assembly would serve as an intelligent decision making unit for nanorobots[clarification needed]. One essential feature of a nano brain is that it would acquire all sensory inputs from the external environment, and in processing that information, generate distinct instructions for every single execution unit connected to the nano brain simultaneously. Thus, the computing machine will communicate with the external world in a similar fashion to our central nervous system.
Necessity for a nano brain
Computing in the 20th century was confined inside a box, or machine, called computer or supercomputer; now, several parameters around us compute, the computing has left the box stretching into the world at large (Internet of Things). Earlier, we used to have small amount of information stored in a book or server, and we used to upload and download as required. In this and to the next century, this could reverse, since, where we store information is becoming astronomically large. We need to extend computing beyond serial logic, as we did in the last century, if we don't, we could get isolated in the information domain, without getting connected to the desired point. Human brain follows pattern based computing like chaos, cellular automaton wherein millions of pixels of a particular image is processed at a time. Apparently the mechanism appears extremely slow and not accurate. However, as the complexity of information increases, it performs more credibly than the man made supercomputers. A human brain can read captcha letters in seconds, however, even a supercomputer can not do that in a finite time. A total ~1020 bits of information created by mankind in the last 5000 years, has been generated in the year 2008 alone. Exponential increment of information generates a serious challenge for command, control and processing when connectivity among these information also increases exponentially. Since software uses a sequential approach to analyze connectivity, to shrink infinite complexity into a finite limit, mechanism of processing infinite information has to be embedded inside the hardware. Nano brain is such a device that physically addresses nearly infinite possible connections in seconds, alleviating the singularity in the software. This concept has the potential to solve at least three bottlenecks of human civilization, providing necessary intelligence to the robots, executing jobs without conventional power supply and finally, resolving the many-body problems which are in abundance in nature.
Conceptual novelty of the hardware
Historically, equivalent circuits have been proposed for neurons and even for the central nervous system. Creating an equivalent circuit is a reliable mean to understand the electronics of a complex device as it defines the device in terms of fundamental circuit elements. The functional principle of a nano brain architecture is to exhibit “one-to-many communication at a time” among the constituent decision making units. By conventional circuit theory, it is parallel circuiting of elements. Since the conformation of wiring path changes along with electronic charge transport in the circuit, equivalent circuit would change continuously. The possible combination of such circuits is astronomically large therefore instead of defining a function for an evolving equivalent circuit, the concept of cellular automaton has been introduced. In addition, due to spherical design, information spreads out from the center of the sphere and again reflects back to the center from the outer surface. Every single atom in the spherical nano-brain experiences a continuous interference of feed forward information wave. Thus, the concept of circuit is violated here as collective evolution of a potential distribution in a 3 D space at a time can not be represented as a linear sequence of events in discrete times.
Biological neural network in Human brain evolves continuously during entire life period, it gains folds. There are several attempts to realize evolutionary circuits, however majority of these attempts assemble a few static circuits and choose one of them during computation. Human brain's evolution is functionally different, neurons change connection to make short-route, these routes lead to faster decision making, we call it increasing efficiency through learning. A nano-brain changes connection between different sub-processors in a very similar fashion, therefore it learns with experience, since no hardware restriction is imposed in the nano-brain, possibilities of changing is enormously large, not astronomical since restriction due to resource limitation imposes an upper limit, however, that number of possibility ranges in the order of millions compared to tens in the present evolving hardwares.
Multilayered decision making
There are several layers of subprocessors one top of another that constitute the nano brain, the bottom-most layer connects to the external machines or sensors and the top-most layer carry the fundamental rules that are never changed during nano brain computation. If nano brain is made of cellular automaton then number of cells decreases in every layer as computation transits upward. The embedded cellular automaton cluster that represent entire nano brain, follows two different classes of cellular automaton rules. First class of rules are those which are followed in the cellular automaton grid, and the other class of rules are basically the transition rules between two cellular automaton layers, each layers are termed as sub-processors.
References and Citations
- Bandyopadhyay, A.; Acharya, A. (2008). "A 16 bit parallel processing in a molecular assembly" (pdf). PNAS 105 (10): 3668–3672. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703105105.
- Bandyopadhyay, A.; Fujita, D.; Pati, R. (2009). "Architecture of a massive parallel processing nano brain operating 100 billion molecular neurons simultaneously" (pdf). International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation 1 (1): 50–80. arXiv:0807.1202. doi:10.4018/jnmc.2009010104.
- Cowlan, B. (1979). "A Revolution in Personal Communications: The Explosive Growth of Citizens Band Radio". In Gumpert, G.; Cathcart, R. Inter/Media Interpersonal Communication in a Media World. Oxford University Press. pp. 116–121. ISBN 9780195025057. OCLC 607201400.
- Whittaker, S.; Terveen, L.; Hill, W.; Cherny, L. (1998). "The Dynamics of Mass Interaction". Proceedings of CSCW '98 (pdf). pp. 257–264.
- Please find the video footage http://cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2008/03/10/748041.aspx
- Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Guo, X.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Duong, V. (2004). "Taking evolutionary circuit design from experimentation to implementation: Some useful techniques and a silicon demonstration". Computers and Digital Techniques, IEE Proceedings 151 (4): 295–300. doi:10.1049/ip-cdt:20040503.
- Miller, J. F.; Job, D.; Vassilev, V. K. (2000). "Principles in the Evolutionary Design of Digital Circuits—Part I". Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines 1 (1–2): 7–35. doi:10.1023/A:1010016313373.