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Nanofoams are a class of nanostructured, porous materials (foams) containing a significant population of pores with diameters less than 100 nm. Aerogels are one example of nanofoam.[1]


In 2006, researchers produced metal nanofoams by igniting pellets of energetic metal bis(tetrazolato)amine complexes. Nanofoams of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, and palladium have been prepared through this technique. These materials exhibit densities as low as 11 mg/cm3, and surface areas as high as 258 m2/g. These foams are effective catalysts.[2] Also, metal nanofoams can be made by electrodeposition of metals inside templates with interconnected pores, such as 3D-porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO).[3][4][5] Such method gives nanofoams with an organized structure and allows to control the surface area and porosity of the fabricated material.[6][7][8]


Carbon nanofoam is an allotrope of carbon discovered in 1997.[9] It consists of a cluster-assembly of carbon atoms strung together in a loose three-dimensional web. The material has a density of 2–10 mg/cm3 (0.0012 lb/ft3).[9][10][11]


In 2014, researchers also fabricated glass nanofoam via femtosecond laser ablation. Their work consisted of raster scanning femtosecond laser pulses over the surface of glass to produce glass nanofoam with ~70 nm diameter wires.[12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tappan, B.; et al. (2006). "Ultralow-Density Nanostructured Metal Foams: Combustion Synthesis, Morphology, and Composition". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (20): 6589–94. doi:10.1021/ja056550k. PMID 16704258.
  2. ^ R&D magazine 100 Awards. Access date Aug. 26, 2008.
  3. ^ Iglesias-Rubianes, L.; Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Ferguson, J.; Beneke, M. (August 2007). "Cyclic oxidation processes during anodizing of Al–Cu alloys". Electrochimica Acta. 52 (24): 7148–7157. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2007.05.052.
  4. ^ Molchan, Igor S.; Molchan, Tatsiana V.; Gaponenko, Nikolai V.; Skeldon, Peter; Thompson, George E. (May 2010). "Impurity-driven defect generation in porous anodic alumina". Electrochemistry Communications. 12 (5): 693–696. doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2010.03.008.
  5. ^ Vanpaemel, Johannes; Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M.; De Gendt, Stefan; Vereecken, Philippe M. (2015-01-29). "The Formation Mechanism of 3D Porous Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templates from an Aluminum Film with Copper Impurities". The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 119 (4): 2105–2112. doi:10.1021/jp508142m. ISSN 1932-7447.
  6. ^ Wang, Wei; Tian, Miao; Abdulagatov, Aziz; George, Steven M.; Lee, Yung-Cheng; Yang, Ronggui (2012-02-08). "Three-Dimensional Ni/TiO 2 Nanowire Network for High Areal Capacity Lithium Ion Microbattery Applications". Nano Letters. 12 (2): 655–660. Bibcode:2012NanoL..12..655W. doi:10.1021/nl203434g. ISSN 1530-6984. PMID 22208851.
  7. ^ Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; Francisco Fernández, Jose; Caballero-Calero, Olga (December 2014). "Ordered three-dimensional interconnected nanoarchitectures in anodic porous alumina". Nature Communications. 5 (1): 5130. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E5130M. doi:10.1038/ncomms6130. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 4770565. PMID 25342247.
  8. ^ Zankowski, Stanislaw P.; Vereecken, Philippe M. (2018-12-26). "Combining High Porosity with High Surface Area in Flexible Interconnected Nanowire Meshes for Hydrogen Generation and Beyond". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 10 (51): 44634–44644. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b15888. ISSN 1944-8244. PMID 30484309.
  9. ^ a b Rode, A.V.; Hyde, S.T.; Gamaly, E.G.; Elliman, R.G.; McKenzie, D.R.; Bulcock, S. (1999). "Structural analysis of a carbon foam formed by high pulse-rate laser ablation". Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing. 69 (7): S755–S758. doi:10.1007/s003390051522.
  10. ^ Zani, A.; Dellasega, D.; Russo, V.; Passoni, M. (2013). "Ultra-low density carbon foams produced by pulsed laser deposition". Carbon. 56: 358–365. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.01.029.
  11. ^ Zani, A.; Dellasega, D.; Russo, V.; Passoni, M. (2013). "Ultra-low density carbon foams produced by pulsed laser deposition". Carbon. 56: 358–365. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.01.029.
  12. ^ Grant-Jacob, James A.; Mills, Ben; Eason, Robert W. (2014-01-01). "Parametric study of the rapid fabrication of glass nanofoam via femtosecond laser irradiation". Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 47 (5): 055105. Bibcode:2014JPhD...47e5105G. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/47/5/055105. ISSN 0022-3727.