Naoda (community development block)

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Nowda
Naoda
Community development block
Nowda is located in West Bengal
Nowda
Nowda
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 23°53′53″N 88°24′25″E / 23.898°N 88.407°E / 23.898; 88.407Coordinates: 23°53′53″N 88°24′25″E / 23.898°N 88.407°E / 23.898; 88.407
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Murshidabad
Government
 • Type Community development block
Area
 • Total 230.69 km2 (89.07 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 226,859
 • Density 980/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Literacy (2011)
 • Total literates 131,957 (66.09%)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 742121 (Amtala)
742162 (Patikabari)
Telephone/STD code 03471
ISO 3166 code IN-WB
Vehicle registration WB-57, WB-58
Lok Sabha constituency Berhampur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Naoda
Website murshidabad.gov.in

Naoda (also spelt Nawda & Nowda) is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Barhampur subdivision of Murshidabad district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Overview[edit]

Naoda CD Block lies in the Ganges-Bhagirathi Basin, which is a long and narrow river valley. The Bhagirathi River splits the district into two natural physiographic regions – Rarh on the west and Bagri on the east. It has fertile soil suitable for cultivation.[1][2]

Geography[edit]

Naoda is located at 23°53′53″N 88°24′25″E / 23.898°N 88.407°E / 23.898; 88.407

Naoda CD Block is bounded by Hariharpara CD Block in the north, Karimpur I and Karimpur II CD Blocks, in Nadia district, in the east, Tehatta II CD Block, in Nadia district, in the south and Beldanga II CD Block in the west.[3]

The Bagri or the eastern part of the district is a low lying alluvial plain with the shape of an isosceles triangle. The Ganges/Padma and the Bhagirathi form the two equal sides; the Jalangi forms the entire base; other offshoots of the Ganges meander within the area. It is liable to be flooded by the spill of the Bhagirathi and other rivers.[4]

Naoda CD Block has an area of 231.39 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 162 gram sansads (village councils), 39 mouzas and 28 inhabited villages. Naoda police station serves this block.[5]Headquarters of this CD Block is at Surangapur.[6]

Gram panchayats of Naoda block/ panchayat samiti are: Bali I, Bali II, Chandpur, Kedarchandpur I, Kedarchandpur II, Madhupur, Nawda, Patikabari, Raipur and Sarbangapur.[7]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per 2011 Census of India Nawda CD Block had a total population of 226,859, all of which were rural. There were 116,341 (51%) males and 110,518 (49%) females. The population below 6 years of age was 27,209. Scheduled Castes numbered 14,804 (6.53%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 1,526 (0.67%).[8]

As per 2001 census, Naoda block has a total population of 196,021, out of which 100,997 were males and 95,024 were females. Naoda block registered a population growth of 19.14 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the district was 23.70 per cent.[9]Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[10]

The decadal growth of population in Naoda CD Block in 2001-2011 was 15.60%.[11]

Decadal Population Growth Rate (%)

5
10
15
20
25
30
1971-1981
1981-1991
1991-2001
2001-2011
  •   Naoda CD Block
  •   Murshidabad district
  •   West Bengal

Sources: [12][13][14][15][16][17]

Villages[edit]

Large villages in Naoda CD Block (2011 census population fugures in brackets): Kedarchandpur (8,838), Alampur (6,267), Ramnachandpur (19,452), Dudhsar (4,562), Sarbangapur (13,898), Bali (22,779), Tungi (9,128), Goghata (8,627), Sonatikri (8,982), Bundai Nagar (6,908), Raypur (11,504), Madhupur (20,697), Chandkati (7,046), Gangadhari (5,268), Surangapur (6,343), Jagiapur (6,360), Edrakpur (12,311), Mahammadpur (7,928), Patikabari (11,232) and Chandpur (11,880).[8]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Naoda CD Block was 131,957 (66.09% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 68,595 (66.91% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 63,362 (65.24% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 1.67%.[8]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion[edit]

In the 2001 census, Bengali was mother tongue of 98.3% of the population in Murshidabad district, followed by Santhali 0.8%, Hindi 0.4%, Telugu 0.2% and Urdu 0.1%.[18]

Religion in Naoda CD Block
Muslim
71.87%
Hindu
27.99%
Others
0.14%

In the 2011 census, Muslims numbered 163,054 and formed 71.87% of the population in Naoda CD Block. Hindus numbered 63,503 and formed 27.99% of the population. Others numbered 302 and formed 0.14% of the population. In Naoda CD Block while the proportion of Muslims increased from 66.46% in 1991 to 69.67% in 2001,the proportion of Hindus declined from 33.54% in 1991 to 30.24% in 2001.[19][20]

Murshidabad district, one of the three Muslim majority districts of West Bengal, had 4,707,573 Muslims who formed 66.27% of the population, 2,359,061 Hindus who formed 33.21% of the population, and 37, 173 persons belonging to other religions who formed 0.52% of the population, in the 2011 census. While the proportion of Muslim population in the district increased from 61.40% in 1991 to 63.67% in 2001, the proportion of Hindu population declined from 38.39% in 1991 to 35.92% in 2001.[19][21][22]

Murshidabad was the only Muslim majority district in West Bengal at the time of partition of India in 1947. The proportion of Muslims in the population of Mushidabad district in 1951 was 55.24%.[23][24]The Radcliffe Line had placed Muslim majority Murshidabad in India and the Hindu majority Khulna in Pakistan, in order to maintain the integrity of the Ganges river system In India.[25]

Rural poverty[edit]

According to India Today, writing about life in a Murshidabad village, : “National Sample Survey (NSS) data for 2009 accords the district the ignominious distinction of being India’s poorest, with an unbelieveable 56% of its population living below the ridiculously low Rs. 27 per capita per day poverty line recently proclaimed by the Planning Commission.”[26]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

In Naoda CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 25.57%, agricultural labourers 49.93%, household industry workers 3.08% and other workers 21.72%.[27]

Infrastructure[edit]

There are 28 inhabited villages in Naoda CD Block. 100% villages have power supply. 27 villages (97.43%) have drinking water supply. 21 villages (75.00%) have post offices. 26 villages (96.43%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 24 villages (85.71%) have a pucca approach road and 21 villages (75.00%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 14 villages (50.00%) have agricultural credit societies and 11 villages (39.29%) have banks.[28]

Agriculture[edit]

Persons engaged in agriculture
in Naoda CD Block

  Bargadars (3.93%)
  Patta holders (11.23%)
  Small farmers (6.53%)
  Marginal farmers (33.54%)
  Agricultural labourers (44.77%)

From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[29]Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Naoda CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 3,241 (3.93%,) patta (document) holders 9,258 (11.23%), small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 5,388 (6.53%), marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 27,656 (33.54%) and agricultural labourers 36,920 (44.77%).[27]

Naoda CD Block had 38 fertiliser depots, 1 seed store and 39 fair price shops in 2013-14.[27]

In 2013-14, Naoda CD Block produced 429 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 148 hectares, 1,897 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 542 hectares, 6,760 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 2,328 hectares, 18,863 tonnes of wheat from 7,007 hectares, 253,332 tonnes of jute from 16,105 hectares and 17,050 tonnes of potatoes from 682 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[27]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Naoda CD Block was 15,766 hectares, out of which 30 hectares were irrigated with tank water, 950 hectares by river lift irrigation, 536 hectares by deep tube wells, and 14,250 hectares by other means.[27]

Silk and handicrafts[edit]

Murshidabad is famous for its silk industry since the middle ages. There are three distinct categories in this industry, namely (i) Mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing (ii) Peeling of raw silk (iii) Weaving of silk fabrics.[30]

Ivory carving is an important cottage industry from the era of the Nawabs. The main areas where this industry has flourished are Khagra and Jiaganj. 99% of ivory craft production is exported. In more recent years sandalwood etching has become more popular than ivory carving. Bell metal and Brass utensils are manufactured in large quantities at Khagra, Berhampore, Kandi and Jangipur. Beedi making has flourished in the Jangipur subdivision.[30][31]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Naoda CD Block had offices of 9 commercial banks and 2 gramin banks.[27]

Transport[edit]

Naoda CD Block has 10 ferry services and 2 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 22 km from the CD Block headquarters.[27]

Baharampur-Patikabari Ghat Road passes through this block.[32]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Naoda CD Block had 109 primary schools with 11,457 students, 12 middle schools with 1,710 students, 3 high school with 1,948 students and 13 higher secondary schools with 24,705 students. Naoda CD Block had 1 general college with 1,979 students and 332 institutions for special and non-formal education with 14,133 students[27]

Jatindra Rajendra Mahavidyalaya was established in 1986 at Amtala. Guru Prasad Biswas and Birendranath Biswas made a handsome contribution, and the college was named after the fathers of both the donors. Affiliated with the University of Kalyani, it offers honours courses in Bengali, English, Arabic, history, philosophy, political science and education.[33][34]

In Naoda CD Block, amongst the 28 inhabited villages, all villages have a school, 26 villages have more than 1 primary school, 22 villages have at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 13 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[35]

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Naoda CD Block had 1 rural hospital, 5 primary health centres and 2 private nursing homes with total 82 beds and 9 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 32 family welfare subcentres. 20,828 patients were treated indoor and 353,608 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[27]

Naoda CD Block has Amtala Rural Hospital at Amtala (with 50 beds), Gangadhari Primary Health Centre (with 10 beds), Sabdarnagar PHC (wth 10 beds), Tungi PHC (with 6 beds), Sarbangapur PHC (with 2 beds) and Patkabari PHC (with 10 beds).[36]

Naoda CD Block is one of the areas of Murshidabad district where ground water is affected by high level of arsenic contamination. The WHO guideline for arsenic in drinking water is 10 mg/ litre, and the Indian Standard value is 50 mg/ litre. All but one of the 26 blocks of Murshidabad district have arsenic contamination above the WHO level, all but two of the blocks have arsenic concentration above the Indian Standard value and 17 blocks have arsenic concentration above 300 mg/litre. The maximum concentration in Naoda CD Block is 3,003 mg/litre.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Physiography, Page 13. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  2. ^ "Murshidabad". Geography. Murshidabad district authorities. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  3. ^ "Tehsil Map of Murshidabad". CD Block/ Tehsil. Maps of India. Retrieved 6 August 2017. 
  4. ^ "Types and sources of floods in Murshidabad, West Bengal" (PDF). Swati Mollah. Indian Journal of Applied Research, February 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  5. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad, Tables 2.1, 2.2". Note: At the time of uploading of the revised version of this page the internet version of the District Statistical Handbook had been taken off but there is a print version. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017. 
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Map of Murshidabad with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  7. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Murshidabad - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 14 October 2015. 
  9. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – Mushidabad district. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  10. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2012-04-12. 
  11. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Brief Analysis of Inset Tables based on Primary Census Abstract 2011 (Inset Tables 1-35), Table I: Decadal change in population of Tahsils (Sub-district) by Residence, 2001-2011, Page. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  12. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Growth Rate, Page 44. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  13. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Brief Analysis of Inset Tables based on Primary Census Abstract 2011 (Inset Tables 1-35), Table I: Decadal change in population of Tahsils (Sub-district) by Residence, 2001-2011, Page 50. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  14. ^ "Decadal Growth Rate". Mps of India. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  15. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2012-04-12. 
  16. ^ "Population explosion in West Bengal: a survey". Table 1.1 Population in West Bengal 1941-1991. South Asian Research Society. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  17. ^ "Final Population Totals West Bengal" (PDF). Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  18. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Mother-tongue, page 48. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  19. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 20 July 2016. 
  20. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Table 17.1, Population by religion in the blocks of Murshidabad. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  21. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Table 2.10, Population by religion in the district of Murshidabad, 1991 and 2001. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  22. ^ "Bengal beats India in Muslim growth rate". The Times of India, 26 August 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  23. ^ "The rise and rise of Muslims in West Bengal". Dinajpur-Maldah-Murshidabad-Birbhum region. Hindu Post. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  24. ^ "Report taking shape amid infiltration buzz". The Telegraph, 23 August 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  25. ^ Chatterji, Joya. The Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India, 1947–1967. pages 42-60. University of Cambridge, first published 2007. ISBN 978-0-521-87536-3. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  26. ^ "A day in the Life of India's Poorest". Asit Jolly. India Today, 2 August 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Tables 2.7, 17.2, 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  28. ^ "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 96-97 Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities,2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  29. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  30. ^ a b "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 22-23: Industry. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  31. ^ "Egiye Bangla Murshidabad district". Handicrafts and Silk Industry. Murshidabad district administration. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  32. ^ Google maps
  33. ^ "Jatindra Rajendra Mahavidyalaya". JRM. Retrieved 12 September 2017. 
  34. ^ "Jatindra Rajendra Mahavidyalaya". College Admission. Retrieved 12 September 2017. 
  35. ^ "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 901-902, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  36. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 19 September 2017. 
  37. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Murshidabad. SOES. Retrieved 4 August 2017.