|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Aleve, Anaprox, Apronax, Naprelan, Naprosyn|
|Licence data||US Daily Med:|
|Metabolism||Hepatic (to 6-desmethylnaproxen)|
|Biological half-life||12–24 hours|
|ATC code||G02 M01, M02|
|Molar mass||230.259 g/mol|
|Melting point||152–154 °C (306–309 °F)|
Naproxen // (INN; brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn and many others) is a nonselective COX inhibitor; usually sold as the sodium salt, naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (which puts it in the same class as ibuprofen) commonly used for relief of a wide variety of pain, fever, swelling and stiffness.:665,673
It is the preferred NSAID for long-term use in people with a high risk of cardiovascular (for example, heart attacks or strokes) complications,:665 due to its relatively low risk of causing such complications. Naproxen has an intermediate risk of causing stomach ulcers as compared with ibuprofen, which is low-risk, and indometacin, which is high-risk. In order to reduce the risk of stomach ulceration, it is often combined with a proton-pump inhibitor (a medication that reduces the production of stomach acid) during long-term treatment, in those with pre-existing stomach ulcers, or a history of developing stomach ulcers while on NSAIDs.:665,673
Naproxen is commonly used for the reduction of pain, fever, inflammation, and stiffness caused by conditions including migraine, osteoarthritis, kidney stones, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual cramps, tendinitis, and bursitis, among others. It is also used for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.
COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs have been linked to increases in the number of serious and potentially fatal cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarctions and strokes. Naproxen is, however, associated with the smallest overall cardiovascular risks. Cardiovascular risk needs to be taken into account when prescribing any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The drug had roughly 50% of the associated risk of stroke as compared with ibuprofen and was also associated with a reduced number of myocardial infarctions as compared to control groups. As with other non-COX-2 selective NSAIDs, naproxen can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as heartburn, constipation, diarrhea, ulcers and stomach bleeding. Persons with a history of ulcers or inflammatory bowel disease should consult a doctor before taking naproxen.
It was found that high-dose naproxen induced near-complete suppression of platelet thromboxane throughout the dosing interval and appeared not to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, whereas other high-dose NSAID regimens had only transient effects on platelet COX-1 and were associated "with a small but definite vascular hazard". Conversely, naproxen was associated with higher rates of upper gastrointestinal bleeding complications in comparison to other NSAIDs.
Mechanism of action
Naproxen is a member of the 2-arylpropionic acid (profen) family of NSAIDs. The free acid is an odorless, white to off-white, crystalline substance. It is lipid-soluble and practically insoluble in water. It has a melting point of 152–155 °C.
Naproxen has been industrially produced by Syntex as follows:
Marketing and brand names
Naproxen and naproxen sodium are marketed under various brand names, including: Aleve, Accord, Anaprox, Antalgin, Apranax, Feminax Ultra, Flanax, Inza, Midol Extended Relief, Nalgesin, Naposin, Naprelan, Naprogesic, Naprosyn, Narocin, Pronaxen, Proxen, Soproxen, Synflex, MotriMax and Xenobid.
Naproxen was originally marketed as the prescription drug Naprosyn by Syntex in 1976, and naproxen sodium was first marketed under the brand name Anaprox in 1980. It remains a prescription-only drug in much of the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved its use as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug in 1994; OTC preparations in the U.S. are mainly marketed by Bayer HealthCare under the brand name Aleve and generic store brand formulations in 220 mg tablets. In Australia, packets of 275 mg tablets of naproxen sodium are Schedule 2 pharmacy medicines, with a maximum daily dose of five tablets or 1375 mg. In the United Kingdom, 250 mg tablets of naproxen were approved for OTC sale under the brand name Feminax Ultra in 2008, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in women aged 15 to 50. In the Netherlands, 220 mg and 275 mg tablets are available OTC in drugstores, 550 mg is OTC only at pharmacies. Aleve became available over-the-counter in most provinces in Canada on 14 July 2009, but not British Columbia, Quebec or Newfoundland and Labrador; it subsequently became available OTC in British Columbia in late January 2010.
Naproxen may have anti-viral activity against influenza. Specifically, it blocks the RNA-binding groove of the nucleoprotein of the virus, thereby preventing formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex, thus taking the viral nucleoproteins out of circulation.
Use in horses
Naproxen is given orally to horses at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and has shown to have a wide safety margin (no toxicity when given at 3-times the recommended dose of 42 days). It is more effective for myositis than the commonly-used NSAID phenylbutazone, and has shown especially good results for treatment of equine exertional rhabdomyolysis, but is less commonly used for musculoskeletal disease.
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|Look up naproxen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Aleve U
- Aleve Canada
- CID 1302 from PubChem
- EINECS number 244-838-7
- MedlinePlus Information on naproxen
- FDA Statement on Naproxen, released 20 December 2004
- Alzheimer's Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial
- Forbes article (expressing the point of view that the risk of heart attack or stroke was overstated)
- Which NSAID for Heart Disease Patients? – Medscape
- U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal – Naproxen
- Aleve Daily Med
- Naproxen bound to proteins in the PDB
- Use of naproxen in the Treatment of RSD