Together with Naqsh-e Rustam, which lies less than a kilometer away, the site is part of the Marvdasht cultural complex. Together, the two sites are a tentative candidate for UNESCO World Heritage status.
Naqsh-e Rajab is the site of four limestone rockface inscriptions and rock-cut bas-reliefs that date to the early Sassanid era. One of the carvings is the investiture inscription of Ardeshir I (ruled in 226-241 CE), the founder of the dynasty. The second investiture inscription is Ardeshir's successor, Shapur I (241-272 CE). A third bas-relief, known as 'Shapur's Parade' celebrates the king's military victory in 244 over the Roman emperor Valerian and Philip the Arab. A fourth bas-relief and inscription is attributed to Kartir, high priest under Shapur I and his sons Hormizd I (272-273 CE) and Bahram I (273–276 CE).