|Paperwhite, Joss flower
Chinese Sacred Lily,
|Narcissus tazetta in Israel|
Narcissus tazetta (Paperwhite, Bunch-flowered Narcissus, Bunch-flowered Daffodil, Chinese Sacred Lily, Joss Flower, Polyanthus Narcissus) is a perennial ornamental plant that grows from a bulb. Cultivars of N. tazetta include 'Paperwhite', 'Grand Soleil d'Or' and 'Ziva', which are popularly used for forcing indoors, as is the form of N. tazetta known as Chinese Sacred Lily.
Narcissus tazetta is amongst the tallest of the narcissi, and can grow to a height of up to 80 cm, with thin, flat leaves up to 40 cm long and 15 mm wide. Umbels have as many as 8 flowers, white with a yellow corona.
Six subspecies are accepted by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families:
- N. tazetta subsp. aureus (Jord. & Fourr.) Baker – south-east France, Sardinia, north-west Italy, Algeria, Morocco
- N. tazetta subsp. canariensis (Burb.) Baker – Canary Islands
- N. tazetta subsp. chinensis (M.Roem.) Masam. & Yanagih. – south-east China, Japan
- N. tazetta subsp. corcyrensis (Herb.) Baker – Corfu (Greece)
- N. tazetta subsp. italicus (Ker Gawl.) Baker syn. N. italicus – Mediterranean from southern France to Greece
- N. tazetta subsp. tazetta – widely distributed from the western Mediterranean to Afghanistan
Narcissus tazetta contains a fragrant compound found in only a few other plants, including roses and Acnistus arborescens, called orcinol dimethyl ether, which is almost undetectable to the human nose. Experiments with honeybees have shown they can readily detect it.
Narcissus tazetta is a widespread species, native to the Mediterranean region from Portugal to Turkey and across the Middle East and also widely introduced to Central Asia to Bhutan, as well as from the Canary Islands, China (Fujian, Zhejiang) and Japan. It is also naturalized in Australia, Bhutan, Korea, Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Bermuda, Mexico and the United States (Oregon, California, Texas, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia) and South America.
Narcissus tazetta is grown commercially for its essential oil, mostly in southern France. An interspecies hybrid, with Narcissus poeticus, is also grown for its essential oil. A recent medicinal use is that a certain protein known as lectin has antiviral properties against influenza. This is based on a dose-dependent manner. The antiviral property results from the fact that it can inhibit RSV during the viral infection cycle and so the problem could not spread. The antiviral activity of the certain lectin group protein will usually have a greater effect during the earlier stages of the influenza. It has little cytotoxicity and great potential as an antiviral agent, so it has potential for further use in biotechnology research in the future.
Ooi, Linda (MAR 2010). "Narcissus tazetta lectin shows strong inhibitory effects against respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1) and B viruses". Journal of Biosciences (Bangalore 35 (1): 95-103. doi:10.1007/s12038-010-0012-8. PMID 20413914. Retrieved 30 April 2015. Check date values in:
- "BSBI List 2007" (XLS). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- Judith Farr; Louise Carter (31 October 2005). The Gardens Of Emily Dickinson. Harvard University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-674-01829-7. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Tovah Martin; Brooklyn Botanic Garden (1 March 2000). Old-Fashioned Flowers: Classic Blossoms to Grow in Your Garden. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-889538-15-0. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- H. L. Li (3 December 2002). Chinese Flower Arrangement. Courier Dover Publications. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-486-42316-6. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Michaux, Jean (2009). "Narcissus tazetta". La Flore. Académie de Besançon. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 290 Narcissus tazetta
- Haworth, Adrian Hardy. 1819. Supplementum Plantarum Succulentarum 142, Hermione tazetta
- Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel. 1848. Flora Telluriana 4: 21 Jonquilla tazetta
- Rouy, Georges C. Chr. 1912. Flore de France 13: 40 Narcissus linnaeanus
- Sessé y Lacasta, Martín & Mociño, José Mariano. 1894. Flora Mexicana ed. 2: 85 Pancratium tazetta
- Search for "Narcissus tazetta", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2012-12-26
- Baker, John Gilbert. 1888. Handbook of the Amarylldaceae p 9
- Baker, John Gilbert. 1888. Handbook of the Amarylldaceae p 8
- Flora of China v 24 p 269, Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis, common name 水仙 shui xian
- Masamune, Genkei & Yanagihara, Masayuki. 1941. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa 31: 329.
- Baker, John Gilbert. 1888. Handbook of the Amarylldaceae p 7
- Natalia Dudareva; Eran Pichersky (27 March 2006). Biology of Floral Scent. CRC Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8493-2283-9.
- Kew Checklist of Selected Plant Families
- Chile Flora
- Nigel Groom (30 June 1997). The New Perfume Handbook. Springer. pp. 225–226. ISBN 978-0-7514-0403-6. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- van Kampen et fils, Nicolas (1760). Traité des fleurs à oignons: contenant tout ce qui est nécessaire pour les bien cultiver, fondé sur une expérience de plusieurs années (in French). Harlem: Bohn. Retrieved 26 December 2014. translated into English as (van Kampen & Son 1764)
- van Kampen & Son, Nicolas (1764). The Dutch florist, or, True method of managing all sorts of flowers with bulbous roots (TRANSLATED (HARRISON) FROM FRENCH: (VAN KAMPEN ET FILS 1760)) (2 ed.). London: Baldwin. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
Next to the Hyacinths, Tulips, Ranunculuses, and Anemones, of which we have treated already, the Polyanthus Narcissus holds the first place and demands our chief attention
- Rivka Dulberger. Flower Dimorphism and Self-Incompatibility in Narcissus tazetta L. Evolution Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 1964), pp. 361-363
- ARROYO, JUAN; DAFNI, AMOTS (January 1995). "Variations in habitat, season, flower traits and pollinators in dimorphic Narcissus tazetta L. (Amaryllidaceae) in Israel". New Phytologist 129 (1): 135–145. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1995.tb03017.x. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Krelage, JH (17 April 1890). "On Polyanthus Narcissi". Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 12 (Daffodil Conference and Exhibition): 339–346. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
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