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Nashville
City
Skyline of Nashville
Flag of Nashville
Flag
Official seal of Nashville
Seal
Nickname(s): Music City
Country United States
State Tennessee
County Davidson
Founded 1779
Incorporated 1806
Government
 • Mayor Karl Dean (D)
Area
 • City 526.1 sq mi (1,362.5 km2)
 • Land 502.2 sq mi (1,300.8 km2)
 • Water 23.9 sq mi (61.8 km2)
Elevation 597 ft (182 m)
Population (2007)[1][2][3][4]
 • City 626,144 (consolidated)
596,462 (balance)
 • Density 1,233.8/sq mi (476.3/km2)
 • Metro 1,632,671
 • Demonym Nashvillian
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 37201–37250
Area code(s) 615
Interstates I-40, I-24, I-65, and I-440
Waterways Cumberland River
Airports Nashville International Airport
Public transit Nashville MTA
Regional rail Music City Star
Website www.nashville.gov

Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County.Template:GR It is the second most populous city in the state after Memphis. It is located on the Cumberland River in Davidson County, in the north-central part of the state. The city is a major hub for the health care, music, publishing, banking and transportation industries.

Nashville has a consolidated city-county government which includes seven smaller municipalities in a two-tier system. The population of Nashville-Davidson County stood at 626,144 as of 2008,[1] according to United States Census Bureau estimates. The 2008 population of the entire 13-county Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area was 1,550,733,[3] making it the largest metropolitan area in the state. The 2008 population of the Nashville-Davidson—Murfreesboro—Columbia combined statistical area was estimated at 1,632,671.

History

Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and a party of Wataugans in 1779, and was originally called Fort Nashborough, after the American Revolutionary War hero Francis Nash. Nashville quickly grew because of its prime location, accessibility as a river port, and its later status as a major railroad center. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee.

Nashville riverfront shortly after the Civil War

By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a very prosperous city. The city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.

Though the Civil War left Nashville in dire economic straits, the city quickly rebounded.[citation needed] Within a few years, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and also developed a solid manufacturing base. The post-Civil War years of the late 19th century brought a newfound prosperity to Nashville. These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, which can still be seen around the downtown area.

It was the advent of the Grand Ole Opry in 1925, combined with an already thriving publishing industry, that positioned it to become "Music City USA".[citation needed], and in the early 1960s the city was home to the main activity of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement (see History of Nashville, Tennessee). In 1963, Nashville consolidated its government with Davidson County and thus became the first major city in the United States to form a metropolitan government.[citation needed] Since the 1970s, the city has experienced tremendous growth, particularly during the economic boom of the 1990s under the leadership of Mayor (now-Tennessee Governor) Phil Bredesen, who made urban renewal a priority, and fostered the construction or renovation of several city landmarks, including the Country Music Hall of Fame, the Nashville Public Library downtown, the Sommet Center, and LP Field.

The Sommet Center (formerly Nashville Arena and Gaylord Entertainment Center) was built as both a large concert facility and as an enticement to lure either a National Basketball Association or National Hockey League (NHL) sports franchise.[citation needed] This was accomplished in 1997 when Nashville was awarded an NHL expansion team which was subsequently named the Nashville Predators. LP Field (formerly Adelphia Coliseum) was built after the National Football League's (NFL) Houston Oilers agreed to move to the city in 1995. The NFL debuted in Nashville in 1998 at Vanderbilt Stadium, and LP Field opened in the summer of 1999. The Oilers changed their name to the Tennessee Titans and saw a season culminate in the Music City Miracle and a close Super Bowl game.

Today the city along the Cumberland River is a crossroads of American culture, and one of the fastest-growing areas of the Upper South.

Geography

A satellite image of Nashville

Topography

Nashville lies on the Cumberland River in the northwestern portion of the Nashville Basin. Nashville's topography ranges from 385 feet (117 m) above sea level at the Cumberland River to 1,160 feet (350 m) above sea level at its highest point.[5]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 526.1 square miles (1,363 km2), of which, 502.3 square miles (1,301 km2) of it is land and 23.9 square miles (62 km2) of it (4.53%) is water.

Climate

Nashville has a humid subtropical climate with warm summers and cool to cold winters. In July, morning lows average around 70 °F (21 °C) and afternoon highs average 89 °F (32 °C). In January, morning lows average around 28 °F (−2 °C) and afternoon highs average 46 °F (8 °C).[6] The coldest temperature ever recorded in Nashville was −17 °F (−27 °C), on January 21, 1985, and the highest was 107 °F (42 °C), on July 28, 1952.[7] In the winter months, snowfall is not uncommon in Nashville but is usually not heavy. Average annual snowfall is about 10 inches (250 mm), falling mostly in January and February and occasionally March and December.[8] The largest one-day snow total was 17 inches (430 mm) on March 17, 1892. The largest snow event in the recent memory was on January 16, 2003, when Nashville received 7 inches (180 mm) of snow in a single storm.[9] Average annual rainfall is 48.1 inches (1,220 mm),[6] typically with winter and spring being the wettest and autumn being the driest. Spring and fall are generally pleasantly warm but prone to severe thunderstorms, which occasionally bring tornadoes — with recent major events on April 16, 1998, April 7, 2006, and February 5, 2008. Relative humidity in Nashville averages 83% in the mornings and 60% in the afternoons,[10] which is considered moderate for the Southeastern United States.[11]

Nashville's long springs and autumns combined with a diverse array of trees and grasses can often make it uncomfortable for allergy sufferers.[12] In 2008, Nashville was ranked as the 18th-worst spring allergy city in the U.S. by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.[13]


Climate data for Nashville, TN
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Source: The Weather Channel[6]

Cityscape

Downtown Nashville

The downtown area of Nashville features a diverse assortment of entertainment, dining, cultural and architectural attractions. The Broadway and 2nd Avenue areas feature entertainment venues, night clubs and an assortment of restaurants. North of Broadway lies Nashville's central business district, Legislative Plaza, Capitol Hill and the Tennessee Bicentennial Mall. Cultural and architectural attractions can be found throughout the city.

The downtown area of Nashville is easily accessible. Three major interstate highways (I-40, I-65 and I-24) converge near the core area of downtown, and many regional cities are within a day's driving distance.

Nashville's first skyscraper, the Life & Casualty Tower, was completed in 1957 and started the construction of high rises in downtown Nashville. After the construction of the AT&T Building in 1994, the downtown area saw little construction until the mid-2000s. Many new residential developments have been constructed or are planned for the various neighborhoods of downtown and midtown. A new high rise office building, The Pinnacle, is also currently under construction.

Many civic and infrastructure projects are either being planned, in progress, or recently completed. A new MTA bus hub was recently completed in downtown Nashville, as was the Music City Star pilot project. Several public parks have been constructed, such as the Public Square. Riverfront Park is scheduled to be extensively updated. The Music City Center, a convention center project, has been proposed for the downtown area.

Parks and gardens

The Parthenon in Nashville's Centennial Park is a full-scale reconstruction of the original Greek Parthenon.

Metro Board of Parks and Recreation owns and manages 10,200 acres (4,120 ha) of land and 99 parks and greenways (comprising more than 3% of the total area of the county).

Warner Parks, situated on 2,684 acres (1,086 ha) of land, consist of a 5,000 square-foot (460 m²) learning center, 20 miles (30 km) of scenic roads, 12 miles (19 km) of hiking trails, and 10 miles (16 km) of horse trails. It is also the home of the annual Iroquois Steeplechase.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains parks on Old Hickory Lake and Percy Priest Lake. These parks are used for multiple activities including fishing, water-skiing, sailing and boating. Percy Priest Lake is also home to the Vanderbilt Sailing Club.

Other notable parks in Nashville include Centennial Park, Shelby Park, and Radnor Lake State Natural Area.

Metropolitan area

Nashville has the largest metropolitan area in the state of Tennessee, spanning several counties. The Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area encompasses the Middle Tennessee counties of Cannon, Cheatham, Davidson, Dickson, Hickman, Macon, Robertson, Rutherford, Smith, Sumner, Trousdale, Williamson, and Wilson.[14]

Culture

Much of the city's cultural life has revolved around its large university community. Particularly significant in this respect were two groups of critics and writers who were associated with Vanderbilt University in the early twentieth century: the Fugitives and the Agrarians.

Popular destinations include Fort Nashborough and Fort Negley, the former being a reconstruction of the original settlement, the latter being a semi-restored Civil War battle fort; the Tennessee State Museum; and The Parthenon, a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens. The State Capitol is one of the oldest working state capitol buildings in the nation, while The Hermitage is one of the older presidential homes open to the public.

Entertainment and performing arts

Ryman Auditorium, the "Mother Church of Country Music"

The Tennessee Performing Arts Center is the major performing arts center of the city. It is the home of the Tennessee Repertory Theatre, Nashville Children's Theatre, the Nashville Opera, and Nashville Ballet. In September 2006, the Schermerhorn Symphony Center opened as the home of the Nashville Symphony Orchestra. Nashville facilitates a variety of music genres and entertainment.

As the city's name itself is a metonym for the country music industry, many popular tourist sites involve country music, including the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, Belcourt Theatre and Ryman Auditorium. Ryman was home to the Grand Ole Opry until 1974 when the show moved to the Grand Ole Opry House nine miles east of downtown. The Opry plays there several times a week, except for an annual winter run at Ryman.

Each year, the CMA Music Festival (formerly known as Fan Fair) brings thousands of country fans to the city.

Nashville was once home of television shows like Hee Haw and Pop! Goes the Country, and to the Opryland USA theme park, which operated from 1972 to 1997 before being closed by its owners Gaylord Entertainment, and soon after demolished to make room for the Opry Mills mega-shopping mall.

Lower Broadway and Printer's Alley are home to many honky tonk bars and clubs.[citation needed]

The Christian pop and rock music industry is based along Nashville's Music Row, with a great influence in neighboring Williamson County. The Christian record companies include EMI (formally Sparrow Records), Rocketown Records, Gotee Records, Beach Street and Reunion Records.

Kirk Whalum visiting the audience at a riverfront concert in 2007

Although Nashville was never known as a jazz town, it did have many great jazz bands including The Nashville Jazz Machine led by Dave Converse and its current version, the Nashville Jazz Orchestra, led by Jim Williamson, as well as The Establishment, led by Billy Adair. The Francis Craig Orchestra entertained Nashvillians from 1929 to 1945 from the Oak Bar and Grille Room in the Hermitage Hotel. Craig's orchestra was also the first to broadcast over local radio station WSM-AM and enjoyed phenomenal success with a 12-year show on the NBC Radio Network. In the late 1930s, he introduced a newcomer, Dinah Shore, a local graduate of Hume Fogg High School and Vanderbilt University.

Radio station WMOT-FM in nearby Murfreesboro has aided significantly in the recent revival of the city's jazz scene, as has the non-profit Nashville Jazz Workshop, which holds concerts and classes in a renovated building in the north Nashville neighborhood of Germantown. Fisk University also maintains a jazz station.

Tourism

Civil War history is important to the city's tourism industry. Sites pertaining to the Battle of Nashville and the nearby Battle of Franklin and Battle of Stones River can be seen, along with several well-preserved antebellum plantation houses such as Belle Meade Plantation, Carnton plantation in Franklin and Belmont Mansion.

Nashville has several arts centers and museums, including the Frist Center for the Visual Arts, located in the former post office building; Cheekwood Botanical Garden and Museum of Art; the Tennessee State Museum; Fisk University's Van Vechten and Aaron Douglas Galleries; Vanderbilt University's Fine Art Gallery and Sarratt Gallery; and the Parthenon. The Nashville Zoo is one of the city's newer attractions.

Major annual events

Event Month Held and Location
Nashville Film Festival Takes place each year for a week in April. It features hundreds of independent films and is one of the biggest film festivals in the Southern United States.
Country Music Marathon Marathon and half marathon which normally include over 25,000 runners from around the world in April.
CMA Music Festival A four day event in June featuring performances by country music stars, autograph signings, artist/fan interaction, and other activities for country music fans.
Fourth of July Celebration which takes place each year at Riverfront Park.
Country Music Association Awards Usually held in November, typically at the Grand Ole Opry (with recent exceptions), and televised nationally to millions of viewers.
Gospel Music Association Dove Awards Held each April at various locations including the Grand Ole Opry or the Ryman Auditorium. Leading up to the awards is GMA week where radio stations interview and fans get autographs.
African Street Festival Takes place on the campus of Tennessee State University in September.
Tomato Art Festival Takes place in East Nashville every August.
Australian Festival Celebrates the cultural and business links between the U.S. and Australia.
Tennessee State Fair In September at the State Fairgrounds. The State Fair lasts nine days and includes rides, exhibits, rodeos, tractor pulls, and numerous other shows and attractions.

Sports

Nashville has several professional sports teams, most notably the Nashville Predators of the National Hockey League and the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League. Several other pro sports teams also call Nashville home, as does the NCAA college football Music City Bowl. The Vanderbilt Commodores are members of the Southeastern Conference. The football team of Tennessee State University plays its home games at LP Field.

Club Sport League Venue
Tennessee Titans Football National Football League LP Field
Nashville Predators Hockey National Hockey League Sommet Center
Nashville Sounds Baseball Minor League Baseball: Pacific Coast League Herschel Greer Stadium
Music City Stars Basketball American Basketball Association Nashville Municipal Auditorium
Nashville Metros Soccer Premier Development League Ezell Park
Nashville Storm Football North American Football League Buster Boguskie Stadium

Sports venues in Nashville are:

Media

Offices for The Tennessean

The daily newspaper in Nashville is The Tennessean, which, until 1998, competed fiercely with another daily, the Nashville Banner (although the two were housed in the same building under a joint-operating agreement). Although The Tennessean now enjoys a relative monopoly on the daily newspaper market, a smaller free daily called The City Paper has cut into The Tennessean's market share somewhat.[citation needed] Online news service NashvillePost.com competes with the printed dailies to break news of business and local/state politics. Several weekly papers are also published in Nashville, including the The Nashville Pride, Nashville Business Journal, Nashville Scene and The Tennessee Tribune. Historically, The Tennessean was associated with a broadly liberal editorial policy, while The Banner carried staunchly conservative views in its editorial pages; The Banner's heritage is carried on these days by The City Paper. The Scene is the area's alternative weekly broadsheet. The Nashville Pride of Tennessee Pride Publications Group is dedicated to being a positive force for community development focusing on individual recognition and serves Nashville's entrepreneuring population.

Nashville is home to nearly a dozen broadcast television stations, although most households are served by direct cable network connections.[citation needed] Comcast Cable has a monopoly on terrestrial cable service in Davidson County (but not throughout the entire DMA). Nashville is ranked as the 30th largest television market in the United States.[citation needed]

Nashville is also home to cable networks Country Music Television (CMT), Great American Country (GAC), and RFD-TV, among others. CMT's Master Control facilities are located in New York City with the other Viacom properties. The Top 20 Countdown and CMT Insider are taped in their Nashville studios. Nashville is also the home and namesake of the NBC country music singing competition Nashville Star, which broadcasts from the Opryland complex. Shop at Home Network was once based in Nashville, but the channel signed off in 2006.[citation needed]

Several dozen FM and AM radio stations broadcast in the Nashville area, including five college stations and one LPFM community station. Nashville is ranked as the 44th largest radio market in the United States. Nashville is home to WSM which originally stood for "We Shield Millions". WSM-FM is owned by Cumulus Media and is 95.5 FM the Wolf. WSM-AM, owned by Gaylord Entertainment Company, can be heard nationally on 650 AM or online at WSM Online from its studios located inside the Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center. WLAC is a Clear Channel-owned talk station which was originally sponsored by the Life and Casualty Insurance Company of Tennessee, and its competitor WWTN is owned by Cumulus.

Nashville has a small but growing film industry.[citation needed] Several major motion pictures have been filmed in Nashville, including The Green Mile, The Last Castle, Gummo, The Thing Called Love, Coal Miner's Daughter, and Robert Altman's Nashville.[citation needed][15]

Economy

As the "home of country music", Nashville has become a major music recording and production center. All of the Big Four record labels, as well as numerous independent labels, have offices in Nashville, mostly in the Music Row area.[16] Since the 1960s, Nashville has been the second biggest music production center (after New York) in the U.S.[17] As of 2006, Nashville's music industry is estimated to have a total economic impact of $6.4 billion per year and to contribute 19,000 jobs to the Nashville area.[18]

Although Nashville is renowned as a music recording center and tourist destination, its largest industry is actually health care. Nashville is home to more than 250 health care companies, including Hospital Corporation of America, the largest private operator of hospitals in the world. As of 2006, it is estimated that the health care industry contributes $18.3 billion per year and 94,000 jobs to the Nashville-area economy.[19] The automotive industry is also becoming increasingly important for the entire Middle Tennessee region. Nissan North America moved its corporate headquarters in 2006 from Gardena, California (Los Angeles County) to Franklin. Nissan also has its largest North American manufacturing plant in Smyrna, Tennessee. Largely as a result of the increased development of Nissan and other Japanese economic interests in the region, Japan moved its New Orleans Consulate-general to Nashville's Palmer Plaza.

Other major industries in Nashville include insurance, finance, and publishing (especially religious publishing). The city hosts headquarters operations for several Protestant denominations, including the United Methodist Church, Southern Baptist Convention, National Baptist Convention, USA, and the National Association of Free Will Baptists.

Fortune 500 companies within Nashville include Dell,[20] HCA Inc. (formerly, Hospital Corporation of America) and Dollar General Corporation (in Goodlettsville).

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1830 5,566
1840 6,929 24.5%
1850 10,165 46.7%
1860 16,988 67.1%
1870 25,865 52.3%
1880 43,350 67.6%
1890 76,168 75.7%
1900 80,865 6.2%
1910 110,364 36.5%
1920 118,342 7.2%
1930 153,866 30.0%
1940 167,402 8.8%
1950 174,307 4.1%
1960 170,874 −2.0%
1970 448,003 162.2%
1980 455,651 1.7%
1990 488,374 7.2%
2000 569,891 16.7%
Source: U.S. Census[21]

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 64.8% of Nashville's population; of which 60.2% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 28.3% of Nashville's population; of which 28.1% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.3% of the city's population. Asian Americans made up 3.1% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 2.4% of the city's population; of which 0.1% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 0.9% of the city's population; of which 0.8% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 7.3% of Nashville's population.[22][23]

The data below is for all of Metropolitan Nashville-Davidson County, including other incorporated cities within the consolidated city-county (such as Belle Meade and Berry Hill). See Nashville-Davidson (balance) for demographic data on Nashville-Davidson County excluding separately incorporated cities.

Population density map per 2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 569,891 people, 237,405 households, and 138,169 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,134.6 people per square mile (438.1/km²). There were 252,977 housing units at an average density of 503.7/sq mi (194.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 66.99% White, 25.92% African American, 0.29% Native American, 2.33% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.42% from other races and 1.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.58% of the population. Metropolitan Nashville-Davidson County's estimated population for 2007 is 626,144 people.[1]

There were 237,405 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.8% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, and 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $39,797, and the median income for a family was $49,317. Males had a median income of $33,844 versus $27,770 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,069. About 10.0% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over.

Because of its relatively low cost of living and large job market, Nashville has become a popular city for immigrants.[24] Nashville's foreign-born population more than tripled in size between 1990 and 2000, increasing from 12,662 to 39,596. Large groups of Mexicans, Kurds,[25] Vietnamese, Laotians, Cambodians, Arabs, and Bantus call Nashville home, among other groups.[26] Nashville has the largest Kurdish community in the United States, numbering approximately 11,000.[27] About 60,000 Bhutanese refugees are being admitted to the U.S. and some of them will resettle in Nashville.[28] During the Iraqi election of 2005, Nashville was one of the few international locations where Iraqi expatriates could vote.[29] The American Jewish community in Nashville dates back over 150 years ago,[30] and numbers about 6,500 (2001).

Law and government

The State Capitol in Nashville

The City of Nashville and Davidson County merged in 1963 as a way for Nashville to combat the problems of urban sprawl. The combined entity is officially known as "the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County", and is popularly known as "Metro Nashville" or simply "Metro". It offers services such as police, fire, electricity, water and sewage treatment. When the Metro government was formed in 1963, the government was split into two service districts—the "urban services district" and the "general services district." The urban services district encompasses the 1963 boundaries of the former City of Nashville, and the general services district includes the remainder of Davidson County. There are seven smaller municipalities within the consolidated city-county: Belle Meade, Berry Hill, Forest Hills, Lakewood, Oak Hill, Goodlettsville (partially), and Ridgetop (partially). These municipalities use a two-tier system of government, with the smaller municipality typically providing police services and the Metro Nashville government providing most other services.

Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council. It uses the strong-mayor form of the mayor-council system.[31] The current mayor of Nashville is Karl Dean. The Metropolitan Council is the legislative body of government for Nashville and Davidson County. There are 5 council members who are elected at large and 35 council members that represent individual districts. The Metro Council has regular meetings that are presided over by the vice-mayor, who is currently Diane Neighbors. The Metro Council meets on the first and third Tuesday of each month at 6:00 p.m., according to the Metropolitan Charter.

Nashville has been a Democratic stronghold since at least the end of Reconstruction. While local elections are officially nonpartisan, nearly all of the city's elected officials are known to be Democrats. At the state level, Democrats hold all but one of the city's state house districts and all but one of the city's state senate districts.

Democrats are no less dominant at the federal level. Since Reconstruction, the Democratic presidential candidate has failed to carry Nashville/Davidson County only twice. In 1968, George Wallace carried Nashville by a large enough margin that nearly enabled him to carry Tennessee. In 1972, Richard Nixon became the only Republican presidential candidate to carry Nashville. Since then, the Democrats have carried the city at the presidential level with relatively little difficulty. In the 2000 presidential election, Al Gore carried Nashville with over 59% of the vote even as he narrowly lost his home state. In the 2004 election, John Kerry carried Nashville with 55% of the vote even as George W. Bush won the state by 14 points. In 2008, Barack Obama carried Nashville with 60 percent of the vote even as John McCain won Tennessee by 15 points.

At the federal level, Nashville is split between two congressional districts. Nearly all of the city is in the 5th District, currently represented by Democrat Jim Cooper. A Republican has not represented a significant portion of Nashville since 1875. While Republicans made a few spirited challenges in the mid-1960s and early 1970s, they have not made a serious bid for the district since 1972, when the Republican candidate gained only 38% of the vote even as Nixon carried the district by a large margin. The district's best-known congressman was probably Jo Byrns, who represented the district from 1909 to 1936 and was Speaker of the House for much of Franklin Roosevelt's first term. Another nationally prominent congressman from Nashville was Percy Priest, who represented the district from 1941 to 1956 and was House Majority Whip from 1949 to 1953. Former mayors Richard Fulton and Bill Boner also sat in the U.S. House before assuming the Metro mayoral office.

All of Nashville was located in one congressional district for most of the time from Reconstruction until the 2000 Census, when a small portion of southwestern Nashville was drawn into the heavily Republican 7th District. That district is currently represented by Marsha Blackburn of neighboring Williamson County; Blackburn represented much of the Nashville share of the 7th in the state senate from 1998 to 2002.

Education

Public Schools

The city is served by the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools.

Private Schools

Colleges and Universities

Freeman Hall at Belmont University

Nashville is often labeled the "Athens of the South" due to the many colleges and universities in the city and metropolitan area.[32] The colleges and universities in Nashville include American Baptist College, Aquinas College, The Art Institute of Tennessee — Nashville, Belmont University, Draughons Junior College, Fisk University, Free Will Baptist Bible College, Gupton College, International Academy of Design and Technology, Lipscomb University, Meharry Medical College, Nashville School of Law, Nashville Auto Diesel College[33] (a NAFTC Training Center), Nashville State Community College, Strayer University, Tennessee State University, Trevecca Nazarene University, University of Phoenix, Vanderbilt University, and Watkins College of Art, Design & Film.

Within 30 miles (48 km) of Nashville in Murfreesboro is Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU), a full-sized public university with Tennessee's second-largest undergraduate population. Enrollment in post-secondary education in Nashville is around 43,000. Within the Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area—which includes MTSU, Cumberland University (Lebanon), Volunteer State Community College (Gallatin), and O'More College of Design (Franklin)—total enrollment exceeds 74,000. Within a 40 miles (64 km) radius are Austin Peay State University (Clarksville) and Columbia State Community College (Columbia), enrolling an additional 13,600.

Transportation

A Music City Star commuter train beneath the Shelby Street Bridge

Nashville is centrally located at the crossroads of three Interstate Highways: I-40, I-24, and I-65. Interstate 440 is a bypass route connecting I-40, I-65, and I-24 south of downtown Nashville. Briley Parkway connects the north side of the city and its interstates.

The Metropolitan Transit Authority provides bus transit within the city, out of a newly built hub station downtown. Routes utilize a hub and spoke method. Expansion plans include use of Bus rapid transit for new routes, with the possibility for local rail service at some point in the future.

Nashville is considered a gateway city for rail and air traffic for the Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion.[34]

The city is served by Nashville International Airport, which was a hub for American Airlines between 1986 and 1995 and is now a mini-hub for Southwest Airlines.

Although it is a major rail hub, with a large CSX Transportation freight rail yard, Nashville is one of the largest cities in the U.S. not served by Amtrak.

Nashville launched a passenger commuter rail system called the Music City Star on September 18, 2006. The only currently operational leg of the system connects the city of Lebanon to downtown Nashville at the Nashville Riverfront. Legs to Murfreesboro and Gallatin are currently in the feasibility study stage. The system plan includes seven legs connecting Nashville to surrounding suburbs.

Notable bridges in the city are:

Official Name Other Names Length Date Opened
Gateway Bridge Korean War Veterans Memorial Bridge 1,660 feet (510 m) May 19, 2004
Kelly Miller Smith Bridge Jefferson Street Bridge March 2, 1994
Old Hickory Bridge 1929
Martin Luther King Jr. Bridge Bordeaux Bridge September 18, 1980
Shelby Street Bridge Shelby Avenue Bridge 3,150 feet (960 m) July 5, 1909
Silliman Evans Bridge 2,362 feet (720 m) 1963
Victory Memorial Bridge July 2, 1956
William Goodwin Bridge Hobson Pike Bridge 2,215 feet (675 m)
Woodland Street Bridge 639 feet (195 m)

Nicknames

Nashville is a colorful, well-known city in several different arenas. As such, it has earned various sobriquets, including:

Sister cities

Nashville is an active participant in the Sister Cities program and has relationships with the following towns:[41]

References

  1. ^ a b c U.S. Census Largest US Counties By Population
  2. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-07-10. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  3. ^ a b U.S. Census Population Estimates for 2008 - Metropolitan Areas
  4. ^ Consolidated refers to the population of Davidson County; Balance refers to the population of Nashville excluding other incorporated cities within the Nashville-Davidson boundary.
  5. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 2001. Retrieved November 7 2006.  Unknown parameter |dateformat= ignored (help); Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  6. ^ a b c "Monthly Averages for Nashville, TN". Weather.com. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 
  7. ^ "Calendar of Significant Weather Events in Middle Tennessee". NOAA.gov. 2009-08-03. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 
  8. ^ "Historical Weather for Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America". Weatherbase.com. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 
  9. ^ "Daily Records for Nashville (1871-Present)". NOAA.gov. 2009-09-17. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 
  10. ^ "Nashville Relative Humidity". Cityrating.com. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  11. ^ Cities of the United States. 1. Thomson-Gale. 2006. p. 511. 
  12. ^ Buchanan, Joy (2007-03-21). "Nashville's an allergy leader, but it's not alone". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2007-03-21. 
  13. ^ "Spring Allergy Capitals 2008" (PDF). AAFA.org. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  14. ^ U.S. Census Bureau: Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Components, November 2004
  15. ^ http://www.imdb.com/List?endings=on&&locations=Centennial%20Park,%20Nashville,%20Tennessee,%20USA&&heading=18;with+locations+including;Centennial%20Park,%20Nashville,%20Tennessee,%20USA
  16. ^ List of Nashville-based labels at clubnashville.com. Retrieved March 10, 2006.
  17. ^ "Hoedown on a Harpsichord". TIME Magazine. November 14, 1960. 
  18. ^ "Nashville's Music Industry Worth $6.38 Billion". MusicDish. January 11, 2006. 
  19. ^ Pack, Todd (February 15, 2006). "Health care worth $18B here". The Tennessean. 
  20. ^ "Dell to Expand Nashville Operations; Increase Area Workforce By Up to 1,000 Employees" (Press release). Dell.com. June 2, 2006. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  21. ^ U.S. Census Bureau: Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places In The U.S.: 1790 to 1990
  22. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Nashville&_cityTown=Nashville&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010
  23. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US4752006&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on
  24. ^ Swarns, Rachel (July 20, 2003). "U.S. a Place of Miracles for Somali Refugees". The New York Times. 
  25. ^ Nashville Refugee Population Grows, wsmv.com, February 7, 2009
  26. ^ Cornfield, Daniel B. Final Report of the Immigrant Community Assessment. August 15, 2003.
  27. ^ a b Copeland, Larry (June 15, 2006). "Who's the biggest fish in the South?". USA Today. 
  28. ^ Newest refugees hail from Bhutan, By Chris Echegaray, THE TENNESSEAN, January 1, 2009
  29. ^ a b Alligood, Leon (January 11, 2005). "Local Iraqis ready to vote but worried about process". The Tennessean.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "kurdish2" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  30. ^ A Brief History of the Nashville Jewish Community, Jewish Federation of Nashville and Middle Tennessee
  31. ^ "Rein of Council redefines mayoral relationship". City Paper. April 9, 2004. Retrieved 2008-08-04. Traditionally Nashville has had a strong mayor/weak council system of government. 
  32. ^ Vanderbilt University Press
  33. ^ http://www.nashvilleautodiesel.net/
  34. ^ "Georgia Tech - MegaRegions". Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  35. ^ "Music City, U.S.A.". BMI.com. Archived from the original on 2001-07-07. Retrieved 2007-08-07. 
  36. ^ "Fisk Jubilee Singers Celebrate 135 Year Tradition with "Walk of Fame" Honors" (PDF). Fisk. 2 (1): 14. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-07.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  37. ^ Vanderbilt University Press - home
  38. ^ "Nashville Area Churches". NashCity.com. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  39. ^ Miller, Rachel L (2008-04-14). "Nashville: Sophisticated Southern City with a Country Edge". RoadandTravel.com. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  40. ^ Nashville Scene - Love-Hate Mail
  41. ^ "Nashville's Sister Cities". SCNashville.org. Retrieved 2009-02-26. 

Further reading

  • Carey, Bill (2000). Fortunes, Fiddles, & Fried Chicken: A Nashville Business History. Franklin, Tenn.: Hillsboro Press. ISBN 1-57736-178-4. 
  • Egerton, John (1979). Nashville: The Faces of Two Centuries, 1780-1980. Nashville: PlusMedia. LCCN 79089173. 
  • Egerton, John and E. Thomas Wood (eds.) (2001). Nashville: An American Self-Portrait. Nashville: Beaten Biscuit Press. ISBN 0-9706702-1-4. 
  • Lovett, Bobby L. (1999). African-American History of Nashville, Tennessee, 1780-1930: Elites and Dilemmas. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1-55728-555-1. 
  • Wooldridge, John (ed.) (1890). History of Nashville, Tennessee. Nashville: Publishing House of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. LCCN 76027605. 

External links

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Coordinates: 36°09′54″N 86°47′02″W / 36.165°N 86.784°W / 36.165; -86.784

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