Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway
|Locale||Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia|
|Dates of operation||1851–1957|
|Predecessor||Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad|
|Successor||Louisville and Nashville Railroad|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Previous gauge||5 ft (1,524 mm)|
and 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm)
|Length||1900: 1,189 miles (1,914 km)|
The Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway was a railway company operating in the southern United States in Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia. It began as the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, chartered in Nashville in December 11, 1845, built to 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge and was the first railway to operate in the state of Tennessee. By the turn of the twentieth century, the NC&StL grew into one of the most important railway systems in the southern United States.(iii, Dedication)
The Nashville & Chattanooga Railway, predecessor to the NC&StL Railway, was organized in 1848 by a group of prominent Nashville, Tennessee businessmen. By virtue of his connections to wealth from the Grundy and Bass families of Nashville, and of his vigorous promotion of a line between Nashville and Chattanooga, Vernon K. Stevenson was elected president of the line and served in that capacity for sixteen years. The first locomotive in Nashville arrived in December 1850 on the steamboat Beauty along with 13 freight cars and one passenger car. The train made its first trip the following spring, 11 miles (18 km) to Antioch, Tennessee. It took nine years to complete the 150 miles (240 km) of line between Nashville and Chattanooga, made difficult by the steep elevations of the Highland Rim and Cumberland Plateau between them. The 2,228 feet (679 m) Cowan Tunnel near Cowan, Tennessee, was considered an engineering marvel of the time. Due to terrain difficulties, the rail line crossed into Alabama and Georgia for short distances. Towns sprang up during construction, including Tullahoma and Estill Springs.
During the Civil War, the rail line was strategic to both the Union and Confederate armies. The Tennessee campaigns of 1862 and 1863 saw Union troops force the Confederates from Nashville all the way to Chattanooga, down the line of the railroad. The tracks and bridges were repeatedly damaged and repaired, and the rolling stock was largely destroyed. At different times the trains carried supplies for both armies. In 1885, the railroad successfully defended itself before the Supreme Court in Nashville, C. & St. L. R. Co. v. United States from repaying postage payments for mail in 1861 that was not delivered because of the war.
After the war. the company purchased the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad and the Hickman and Obion Railroad to Hickman, Kentucky to reach the Mississippi River. In 1873 it was reincorporated as the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway (NC&StL) (though the company's tracks never actually reached St. Louis, Missouri in the north). In early 1877 the NC&StL bought the bankrupt Tennessee and Pacific Railroad from the state government and operated it as a connection to Lebanon, Tennessee.
The Louisville and Nashville Railroad, an aggressive competitor of the NC&StL, gained a controlling interest in 1880 through a hostile stock takeover that caused much rancor between the cities of Nashville and Louisville. However, the railroads continued to operate separately until finally merging in 1957. The company gave up steam operations in 1953. After the 1880 takeover, the NC&StL acquired branch lines in Kentucky and Alabama, and expanded from Nashville to Memphis. In 1890 the tracks reached Atlanta, Georgia, by leasing the state-owned Western and Atlantic Railroad.(List of Branches in Order of Their Acquisition)
In 1902, the L&N was acquired by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in a takeover similar to that of the NC&StL, but continued to operate as a separate company. In 1982, the L&N's corporate existence ended when it was merged into ACL's successor, the Seaboard System Railroad. After several other mergers, in 1986 the Seaboard System was renamed CSX Transportation, which continues to use the original NC&StL route between Nashville, Chattanooga, and Atlanta. Other portions of the system, such as the route to Hickman, have been abandoned.
Mileage and revenues
At the end of 1925 NC&StL operated 1259 miles of road on 1859 miles of track; at the end of 1956 mileages were 1043 and 1791.
The railroad operated a number of named passenger trains, including:
- City of Memphis
- Dixie Express (once the coach section of the all Pullman Dixie Flyer and at another time the interim name of the Dixie Limited)
- Dixie Flyer
- Dixie Limited (formerly the Dixie Express, formerly the Chicago and Florida Limited)
- Dixieland (winter season only until the early 1950s)
- Dixie Flagler (ran every third day; later renamed the Dixieland)
- Dixie Mail aka Dixie Flyer - Mail and Express.
Thus, the railroad came to be advertised as the 'Dixie Line,' beginning in the 1920s. Additionally, the railroad operated the Quickstep (name dropped before 1910, then known as Nos. 3 and 4), Lookout (formerly the Nashville/Chattanooga Express), Georgian, City of Memphis, Volunteer, an unnamed night train (formerly the Memphis Limited), a Nashville-Hickman local, plus a through sleeping car from the Tennessean on Nos. 3 and 4, a Chicago-to-Augusta, Georgia, train. Another part of the train split at Chattanooga and continued as a Southern Railway operation through eastern Tennessee, and onward to Washington and the Northeast Corridor.
Two 4-4-0 locomotives from the NC&StL's predecessor road, the Western and Atlantic are on display in museums: The General and The Texas are in the Atlanta suburbs of Kennesaw and Buckhead, respectively.
In 1953, the NC&StL donated its last steam engine, No. 576, to the city of Nashville. Originally known as a Yellow Jacket, the J3-57-class 4-8-4 locomotive was manufactured by the American Locomotive Company ("Alco") in 1942. The NC&StL referred to their 4-8-4s as Dixies, while most other railroads called them Northerns. It has been on display in Centennial Park since then. In 2016, the city of Nashville allowed the Nashville Steam Preservation Society to take out a 23-year renewable lease on the locomotive. The group aims to move the locomotive to the Tennessee Central Railway Museum in late 2018 or early 2019, restore it to working order, and use it for weekend excursion runs from downtown Nashville east to Watertown. 
Two other NC&StL steamers survive, 0-4-0Ts that used to work in the shops. They are stored in Taylorsville and are in either private ownership or abandoned. They appear to still have yellow-painted handrails.
In 2004, a former NC&StL EMD GP7 diesel locomotive, No. 710, was restored to its original paint scheme by the Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum. The TVRM also has the tail car from the city of Memphis on display at its Grand Junction Yard in Chattanooga.
In 2007, Huntsville terminal switcher No. 100, a former NC&StL GE 44 ton Diesel (1950) was moved from Mt. Pleasant to the Cowan Railroad Museum in Cowan. Though subsequently an L&N engine (number 3100), she was cosmetically restored to original scheme and number. In the process, the locomotive was found to be runnable. It is important as the first transistorized remote control locomotive in the US (converted in 1962)
- Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works
- List of Louisville and Nashville Railroad precursors Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway section
- "The Days They Changed the Gauge".
- "Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad".
- "The First Railroad Across Tennessee". Tennessee History for Kids. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- DeBow, James Dunwoody Brownson (1900). Legal history of the Entire System of Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry. and Possessions. Nashville, Tennessee: Press of Marshall & Bruce Co. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Nashville and Northwestern
- "A Vast Railroad Scheme" (PDF), The New York Times, January 19, 1880
- Prince, Richard E. (1968). The Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis Railway: History and Steam Locomotives. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press. p. 5. ISBN 025333764X. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry. History and Steam Locomotives by Richard E Prince (1967) p. 152 & 163 Wheelwright Lithographing Co. (L of C # 67-26269) [later rereleased-see below], plus Official Guide(s) of the Railways January 1910, February 1926, May 1945, March 1952, July 1957
- Ibata, David (2016-04-26). "Team to restore a 'Dixie' 4-8-4". Trains Magazine. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
- Anon. (June 1996) [January 1953]. Official Railway Equipment Register. The Railway Equipment and Publication Company, reprinted by National Model Railroad Association. ISBN 0-9647050-1-X.
- Drury, George H. (1985). The Historical Guide to North American Railroads. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing Company. pp. 200–201. ISBN 0-89024-072-8.
- Prince, Richard E., Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway: History and Steam Locomotives. Indiana University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-253-33927-8.