Nassarius

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Nassarius
Nassarius arcularia 01.JPG
Shell of Nassarius arcularia
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Caenogastropoda
Order: Neogastropoda
Family: Nassariidae
Subfamily: Nassariinae
Genus: Nassarius
Dumeril, 1806
Type species
Buccinum arcularia Linnaeus, 1758
Species

See text

Synonyms[1]
  • Aciculina A. Adams, 1853
  • Alectrion Montfort, 1810 (junior synonym)
  • Alectrion (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Alectryon Melvill, 1918 (unjustified emendation)
  • Allanassa Iredale, 1929
  • Arcularia Link, 1807
  • Arcularia (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929
  • Arculia Jousseaume, 1888 (incorrect subsequent spelling)
  • Austronassaria C. Laeron & J. Laseron, 1956
  • Bathynassa Ladd, 1976
  • Buccinum (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Chelenassa Shuto, 1969
  • Eione Risso, 1826 (Invalid: junior homonym of Eione Rafinesque, 1814)
  • Glabrinassa Shuto, 1969
  • Hebra H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassa Lamarck, 1799 (Invalid: junior homonym of Nassa Röding, 1798)
  • Nassa (Aciculina) Adams, 1853
  • Nassa (Alectrion) Montfort, 1810
  • Nassa (Alectryon) Berthold in Latreille, 1827
  • Nassa (Arcularia) Link, 1807
  • Nassa (Eione) Risso, 1826
  • Nassa (Hebra) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassa (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassa (Profundinassa) Thiele, 1929
  • Nassa (Venassa) Martens, 1881
  • Nassa (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Aciculina) Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Alectrion) Montfort, 1810
  • Nassarius (Alectryon) Berthold in Latreille, 1827
  • Nassarius (Arcularia) Link, 1807
  • Nassarius (Austronassaria) C. Laseron & J. Laseron, 1956
  • Nassarius (Bathynassa) Ladd, 1976
  • Nassarius (Catillon) Addicott, 1965
  • Nassarius (Chelenassa) Shuto, 1969
  • Nassarius (Eione) Risso, 1826
  • Nassarius (Glabrinassa) Shuto, 1969
  • Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms.
  • Nassarius (Nanarius) Woodring, 1964 accepted, alternate representation
  • Nassarius (Nassarius) Duméril, 1805· accepted, alternate representation
  • Nassarius (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Nassarius (Pallacera) Woodring, 1964 accepted, alternate representation
  • Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929
  • Nassarius (Profundinassa) Thiele, 1929
  • Nassarius (Proneritula) Thiele, 1929
  • Nassarius (Psilarius) Woodring, 1964 accepted, alternate representation
  • Nassarius (Pygmaeonassa) Annadale, 1924
  • Nassarius (Retiarcularia) Shuto, 1969 (incorrect subsequent spelling)
  • Nassarius (Tarazeuxis) Iredale, 1936
  • Nassarius (Varicinassa) Habe, 1946
  • Nassarius (Venassa) Martens, 1881
  • Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Niotha H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853
  • Pallacera Woodring, 1964
  • Plicarcularia Thiele, 1929
  • Profundinassa Thiele, 1929
  • Pygmaeonassa Annandale, 1924
  • Reticularcularia Shuto, 1969 (nomen nudum)
  • Scabronassa Peile, 1939
  • Tavaniotha Iredale, 1936
  • Tritia (Varicinassa) Habe, 1946
  • Varicinassa Habe, 1946
  • Venassa Martens, 1881
  • Zeuxis H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853

Nassarius, common name nassa mud snails (USA) or dog whelks (UK), is a genus of minute to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Nassariidae.[1] They are scavengers.

Etymology[edit]

The name is derived from the Latin word "nassa", meaning a wickerbasket with a narrow neck, for catching fish. Nassarius would then mean "someone who uses such a wickerbasket for catching fish".

Ecology[edit]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Species within this genus are found worldwide. These snails usually live on mud flats or sand flats, intertidally or subtidally.

Life habits[edit]

Most Nassarius species are very active scavengers, feeding on crabs and carrion as dead fish, etc. They often burrow into marine substrates and then wait with only their siphon protruding, until they smell nearby food.

Shell description[edit]

The shells of species in this genus have a relatively high cyrtoconoid (approaching a conical shape but with convex sides) spire and a siphonal notch.

Anatomy[edit]

The animal has a long siphon.

Human use[edit]

Archeology[edit]

Several beads made from Nassarius gibbosulus shells are thought to be the earliest known forms of personal adornment, or even jewelry. Two shell beads found in Skhul Cave on the slopes of Mount Carmel, Israel, are thought to be 100,000 years old, whilst another found at Oued Djebbana, Algeria, is believed to be 90,000 years old. A further group of pierced shells, some with red ochre, has been recovered from the Aterian levels at the Taforalt site in Morocco; these Nassarius gibbosulus beads have been securely dated to about 82,000 years ago.[2]

All these examples predate several 75,000-year-old Nassarius kraussianus beads which were found at Blombos Cave, South Africa (including some colored with red ochre). These beads had previously been thought to be the oldest examples of jewelry.[3]

From A.D. 1130 to 1275, shell beads were manufactured by the inhabitants of the Exhausted Cave near the Clear Creek Ruins. A Southern Sinagua site in Verde Valley, Arizona where "shell played a major role in the economic system of this culture."[4]

Modern uses[edit]

Nassarius vibex is a species which is often selected for marine aquaria. It is often confused with Nassarius obsoletus, a cooler water snail less suited to tropical marine aquarium temperatures. In aquaria, the Nassarius is considered nearly indispensable for keeping sand beds clean and healthy, as these snails tend to burrow and plow through the upper layer in a conch-like fashion, keeping algae and detritus from building up visibly on the surface.

The shells of various species of Nassarius are popular with shell collectors, and are sometimes used in jewelry and other forms of decoration.

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus Nassarius has traditionally been subdivided into several subgenera, based on differences in shell morphology, especially the sculpture: Aciculina, Alectrion, Allanassa, Nassodonta, Niotha, Plicarcularia, Profundinassa, Pygmaeonassa, Telasco, and Zeuxis. However, this division is difficult to define, resulting in much confusion. Even phylogenetic analysis shows that the division into these subgenera appears to be uncertain and unreliable. There seem to be two groups within the genus Nassarius with the closest relationship between the subgenera Zeuxis and Telasco. Even the species within the subgenus Plicarcularia do not belong to a single clade. In the end, the molecular phylogeny did not match the previous morphological phylogeny.[5]

Gallery[edit]

Species[edit]

In the course of time, more than 1,000 names have been allocated to species in the genus Nassarius, most of which have become synonyms.

The following species are accepted names according to the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS):[1]

Synonyms[edit]

Synonymized subgenera[edit]

  • Nassarius (Aciculina) Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Alectryon) Berthold in Latreille, 1827: synonym of Nassarius (Alectrion) Montfort, 1810 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Allanassa) Iredale, 1929: synonym of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Amycla) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Amyclina) Iredale, 1918: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Arcularia) Link, 1807: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
    • Nassarius (Arcularia) glabratus (Sowerby, 1842): synonym of Nassarius glabratus (Sowerby, 1842)
  • Nassarius (Austronassaria) C. Laseron & J. Laseron, 1956: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Bathynassa) Ladd, 1976: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cencus) Gistel, 1848: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Chelenassa) Shuto, 1969: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Cryptonassarius) Watson, R.B., 1882: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cyclocyrtia) Agassiz, 1848: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Cyclonassa) Swainson, 1840: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Cyclops) Montfort, 1810: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Demondia) Addicott, 1956: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Eione) Risso, 1826: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Fackia) Nordsieck, 1972: synonym of Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912
  • Nassarius (Glabrinassa) Shuto, 1969: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Gussonea) Monterosato, 1912: synonym of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Hannonia) Pallary, 1914: synonym of Nassarius (Aciculina) Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms.: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Miohinia) Nordsieck, 1972: synonym of Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Mirua) Marwick, 1931: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Nana) Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Nanina) Risso, 1826: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Nanarius) Woodring, 1964: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Nannia) Philippi, 1844: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Nasseburna) de Gregorio, 1890: synonym of Nassarius (Sphaeronassa) Locard, 1886 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Nassodonta) H. Adams, 1867: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Nassarius) Duméril, 1805: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Naytia) H. Adams & A. Adams 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Naytiopsis) Thiele, 1929: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Neritula) Herrmannsen, 1852: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Pallacera) Woodring, 1964: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Phrontis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Panormella) Costa, 1840: synonym of Nassarius (Cyclope) Risso, 1826 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Paranassa) Conrad, 1867: synonym of Nassarius (Ilyanassa) Stimpson, 1865 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Parcanassa) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Profundinassa) Thiele, 1929: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Proneritula) Thiele, 1929: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Psilarius) Woodring, 1964: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Pygmaeonassa) Annadale, 1924: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Retiarcularia) Shuto, 1969: synonym of Nassarius (Plicarcularia) Thiele, 1929 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Reticunassa) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Schizopyga) Conrad, 1856: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Sphaeronassa) Locard, 1886: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Tarazeuxis) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Telasco) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Tavanothia) Iredale, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Niotha) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Telasco) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Tritia) A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Hinia) Gray, 1847 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Tritonella) A. Adams, 1852: synonym of Nassarius (Hima) Gray, 1852 ex Leach, ms. (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Usita) Noszky, 1936: synonym of Nassarius (Uzita) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Uzita) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Venassa) Martens, 1881: synonym of Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Varicinassa) Habe, 1946: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805
  • Nassarius (Zaphon) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Nassarius (Caesia) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805)
  • Nassarius (Zeuxis) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853: alternate representation of Nassarius Duméril, 1805

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2010). Nassarius Duméril, 1806. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138235 on 2010-11-30
  2. ^ Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Barton, Nick; Vanhaeren, Marian; d'Errico, Francesco; Collcutt, Simon; Higham, Tom; Hodge, Edward; Parfitt, Simon; Rhodes, Edward; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Stringer, Chris; Turner, Elaine; Ward, Steven; Moutmir, Abdelkrim; Stambouli, Abdelhamid (12 June 2007). "82,000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behavior". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (24): 9964–9969. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703877104. PMC 1891266. PMID 17548808.
  3. ^ Study reveals 'oldest jewellery', BBC News, 22 June 2006
  4. ^ Hudgens, Bruce R (1975). "Shell Industry". The archeology of Exhausted Cave: a study of prehistoric cultural ecology on the Coconino National Forest, Arizona. USDA, Forest Service, Southwestern Region. p. 79. OCLC 1038355316.
  5. ^ Li, Haitao; Lin, Duan; Fang, Hongda; Zhu, Aijia; Gao, Yang (1 May 2010). "Species identification and phylogenetic analysis of genus Nassarius (Nassariidae) based on mitochondrial genes". Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology. 28 (3): 565–572. Bibcode:2010ChJOL..28..565L. doi:10.1007/s00343-010-9031-4. S2CID 82834850.
  6. ^ Gastropods.com: Nassarius catallusl; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  7. ^ "Nassarius (Nassodonta) dorri". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  8. ^ Gastropods.com: Nassarius (Nassarius) emilyae emilyae; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  9. ^ "Nassarius (Plicarcularia) jonasii". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  10. ^ Gastropods.com: Nassarius miser Archived 2010-11-04 at the Wayback Machine; Retrieved 28 February 2011
  11. ^ "Nassarius (Hima) mobilis". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  12. ^ "Nassarius (Plicarcularia) moolenbeeki". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  13. ^ "Nassarius mundus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  14. ^ "Nassarius (Niotha) nigellus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  15. ^ "Nassarius (Zeuxis) poupini". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  16. ^ "Nassarius (Zeuxis) pyrrhus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  17. ^ "Nassarius (Zeuxis) reunionensis". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  18. ^ "Nassarius (Zeuxis) richeri". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  19. ^ "Nassarius (Alectrion) spiratus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  20. ^ "Nassarius (Plicarcularia) burchardi". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  21. ^ "Nassarius (Cryptonassarius) ephamillus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  22. ^ "Nassarius (Naytiopsis) granum". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  23. ^ "Nassarius (Zeuxis) melanioides". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  24. ^ "Nassarius karinae". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  25. ^ "Nassarius (Nassarius) smitsorum". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  26. ^ SysTax: Nassarius zonalis

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]