Natalia Goncharova

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For other people named Natalya Goncharova, see Natalya Goncharova (disambiguation).
Natalia Sergeyevna Goncharova
Natalia Sergeyevna Goncharova.jpg
Natalia in 1910
Born (1881-06-21)June 21, 1881
Nagaevo, Tula Governorate, Russian Empire
Died October 17, 1962(1962-10-17) (aged 81)
Paris, France
Nationality Russian
Education Moscow Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture
Known for Painting, costume design, writer, illustrator, set designer

Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova (Russian: Ната́лья Серге́евна Гончаро́ва; IPA: [nɐˈtalʲjə sʲɪrˈɡʲejɪvnə ɡəntɕɐˈrovə]; June 21, 1881 – October 17, 1962) was a Russian avant-garde artist, painter, costume designer, writer, illustrator, and set designer.

Life[edit]

Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova was born on June 21, 1881, in Nagaevo (now in the Chernsky District of Tula Oblast).[1] Her father, Sergei, was an architect and graduate of the prestigious Moscow Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.[1] Goncharova moved to Moscow at the age of 10, in 1892, graduating from the Fourth Women's Gymnasium in 1898.[2]

Education[edit]

In 1901 Goncharova began her own studies at the Moscow Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture as a sculptor, under Pavel Trubetskoi, who was associated with the World of Art movement.[3] By 1903, she began exhibiting in major Russian salons.[4] She was awarded a silver medal for sculpture in 1903-04.[5] It was at the Moscow Institute that Goncharova met fellow-student Mikhail Larionov, and not long afterwards they began sharing a studio and living space.[5][6][7] She withdrew from the Moscow Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in 1909, and in 1910, after a number of students were expelled from Konstantin Korovin's portrait class for imitating the contemporary style of European Modernism, Goncharova, Larionov, Robert Falk, Pyotr Konchalovsky, Alexander Kuprin, Ilya Mashkov and others formed Moscow's first radical independent exhibiting group, the Jack of Diamonds.[5]

Participation in avant-garde movements[edit]

The Jack of Diamonds' first exhibition (December 1910-11) included Primitivist and Cubist paintings by Goncharova, and in the later Donkey's Tail exhibition (March–April 1912) organized by Larionov, more than fifty of her paintings were on display.[5] The Donkey's Tail was conceived as an intentional break from European art influence and the establishment of an independent Russian school of modern art. The exhibition proved controversial, and the censor confiscated Goncharova's religiously-themed works, deeming it blasphemous for them to be hung at an exhibition titled after the rear end of a donkey.[8] However, the influence of Russian Futurism is much in evidence in Goncharova's later paintings. Initially preoccupied with icon painting and the primitivism of ethnic Russian folk-art, Goncharova became famous in Russia for her Futurist work such as The Cyclist and her later Rayonist works. As leaders of the Moscow Futurists, they organized provocative lecture evenings in the same vein as their Italian counterparts. Goncharova was also involved with graphic design—writing and illustrating several avant-garde books.[9]

She started to exhibit at the Salon d'Automne (Exposition de L'art Russe) since 1906.[10]

Goncharova was a member of the Der Blaue Reiter avant-garde group from its founding in 1911. In 1915, she began to design ballet costumes and sets in Geneva. In 1915 she started work on a series of designs—Six Winged Seraph, Angel', St. Andrew, St. Mark, Nativity, and others—for a ballet commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev to be titled Liturgy. Also involved in the project, for which Igor Stravinsky was invited to compose the score, were Larionov and Léonide Massine, but the ballet never materialized.[11] Goncharova moved to Paris in 1921 where she designed a number of stage sets of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. She also exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in 1921, and participated regularly at the Salon des Tuileries and the Salon des Indépendants.

Between 1922 and 1926 Goncharova created fashion designs for Marie Cuttoli's shop, Maison Myrbor on the Rue Vincent, Paris. Her richly embroidered and appliquéd dress designs were strongly influenced by Russian folk art, Byzantine mosaic and her work for the Ballets Russes.[12][13]

In 1938 Goncharova became a French citizen.[14] On June 2, 1955, four years after Larionov suffered a stroke, the two artists got married in Paris to safeguard their rights of inheritance.[14] Goncharova died seven years later, on October 17, 1962 in Paris, France after a debilitating struggle with rheumatoid arthritis.[15]

Legacy[edit]

Goncharova's work can be found in a number of public institutions, including:

Art market[edit]

Portrait of Natalia Goncharova by Mikhail Larionov (1915)

On June 18, 2007, Goncharova's 1909 painting Picking Apples was auctioned at Christie's for $9.8 million, setting a record for any female artist.[21] She is considered one of the most expensive women artists at auction,[22] and her work features in Russian art auctions during the bi-annual Russian Art Week in London.

In November 2007, Bluebells, (1909), brought £3.1 million ($6.2 million).[23] The record was updated a year later, when Goncharova's 1912 still-life The Flowers (formerly part of Guillaume Apollinaire's collection) sold for $10.8 million.[24]

The copyright in the Estate of Natalia Goncharova is administered by ADAGP, Paris.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sharp, Jane E. (2000). "Natalia Goncharova". In Bowlt, John E.; Drutt, Matthew. Amazons of the avant-garde : Alexandra Exter, Natalia Goncharova, Liubov Popova, Olga Rozanova, Varvara Stepanova, and Nadezhda Udaltsova. New York: Guggenheim Museum. p. 155. ISBN 0-8109-6924-6. 
  2. ^ Sharp, Jane E. (2000). "Natalia Goncharova". In Bowlt, John E.; Drutt, Matthew. Amazons of the avant-garde : Alexandra Exter, Natalia Goncharova, Liubov Popova, Olga Rozanova, Varvara Stepanova, and Nadezhda Udaltsova. New York: Guggenheim Museum. p. 156. ISBN 0-8109-6924-6. 
  3. ^ Gray, Camilla (1962). The Great Experiment: Russian Art 1863-1922. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 87. 
  4. ^ Gray, Camilla (1962). The Great Experiment: Russian Art 1863-1922. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 88. 
  5. ^ a b c d Sharp, Jane E. (2000). "Natalia Goncharova". In Bowlt, John E.; Drutt, Matthew. Amazons of the avant-garde : Alexandra Exter, Natalia Goncharova, Liubov Popova, Olga Rozanova, Varvara Stepanova, and Nadezhda Udaltsova. New York: Guggenheim Museum. p. 158. ISBN 0-8109-6924-6. 
  6. ^ "Наталия Гончарова. Между Востоком и Западом". 
  7. ^ "Михаил Ларионов и Наталия Гончарова". 
  8. ^ Gray, Camilla (1962). The Great Experiment: Russian Art 1863-1922. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 87. 
  9. ^ "MoMA.org | Interactives | Exhibitions | 2002 | The Russian Avant-Garde Book 1910 - 1934". www.moma.org. Retrieved 2016-03-05. 
  10. ^ Exposition de l'art russe 1906; salon-automne.com
  11. ^ Norton, Leslie. Léonide Massine and the 20th Century Ballet . McFarland, 2004. p. 12. ISBN 0786417528
  12. ^ Lussier, Suzanne (2006). Art deco fashion (Repr. ed.). London: V&A Publications. p. 46. ISBN 9781851773909. Goncharova's primitive interpretation of Russian folk art and Byzantine mosaics was evident not only in her costumes for the Ballets Russes but also in her designs for Myrbor 
  13. ^ "Evening dress by Natalia Goncharova for Myrbor". V&A Museum. Retrieved 6 December 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "Natalia Goncharova", Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  15. ^ Sharp, Jane E. (2000). "Natalia Goncharova". In Bowlt, John E.; Drutt, Matthew. Amazons of the avant-garde : Alexandra Exter, Natalia Goncharova, Liubov Popova, Olga Rozanova, Varvara Stepanova, and Nadezhda Udaltsova. New York: Guggenheim Museum. p. 163. ISBN 0-8109-6924-6. 
  16. ^ The Museum of Modern Art (2010). "MoMA Collection: Natalia Goncharova". Moma.org. Retrieved 25 November 2011. 
  17. ^ "Goncharova, Natalia". Collections Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 27 October 2011. 
  18. ^ "Natalya Goncharova". Tate Collection. the Tate. Retrieved 27 October 2011. 
  19. ^ "Natalia Goncharova". The Israel Museum Exhibition Online. The Israel Museum. Retrieved 27 October 2011. 
  20. ^ McNay Art Museum (2014). "McNay Collection: Natalia Gontcharova". Mcnayart.org. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  21. ^ "Who Was Natalia Goncharova?". The New York Sun. 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  22. ^ "artnet News's Top 10 Most Expensive Women Artists at Auction". artnet. 2015-08-31. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  23. ^ Artist Dossier: Natalia Goncharova
  24. ^ Vogel, Carol (2008-06-25). "A Monet Sets a Record: $80.4 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Floirat, Anetta. 2016, "The Scythian element of the Russian primitivism, in music and visual arts. Based on the work of three painters (Goncharova, Malevich and Roerich) and two composers (Stravinsky and Prokofiev"), https://www.academia.edu/27688221/The_Scythian_element_of_the_Russian_primitivism_in_music_and_visual_arts._Based_on_the_work_of_three_painters_Goncharova_Malevich_and_Roerich_and_two_composers_Stravinsky_and_Prokofiev_