|Natalya Yevgenyevna Gorbanevskaya|
Gorbanevskaya at the balcony of the library "Russian abroad" (Русское Зарубежье), Moscow, 19 September 2005
|Native name||Наталья Евгеньевна Горбаневская|
May 26, 1936|
Moscow , Russia
|Died||July 29, 2013
|Occupation||Russian poet, translator of Polish literature, civil rights activist|
|Citizenship||Soviet Union, Poland|
|Alma mater||Leningrad University|
Natalya Yevgenyevna Gorbanevskaya (Russian: Ната́лья Евге́ньевна Горбане́вская; IPA: [nɐˈtalʲjə jɪvˈɡʲenʲjɪvnə ɡərbɐˈnʲɛfskəjə] ( listen); 26 May 1936 – 29 November 2013) was a Russian poet, translator of Polish literature and civil rights activist. She was the founder and first editor of A Chronicle of Current Events, (1968-1982). On 25 August 1968, with seven others, she took part in the 1968 Red Square demonstration against the Soviet invasion of Czechoslakia. In 1970 a Soviet court sentenced Gorbanevskaya to incarceration in a psychiatric hospital. She was released from the Kazan Special Psychiatric Hospital in 1972, and emigrated from the USSR in 1975, settling in France. In 2005, she became a citizen of Poland.
Gorbanevskaya was born in Moscow. She graduated from Leningrad University in 1964 and became a technical editor and translator. In the period before she left the USSR in 1975 only nine of her poems were published in official journals, the remainder being privately circulated (samizdat) or published abroad (tamizdat).
From 1968 onwards Gorbanevskaya was active in what was later called the Soviet "dissident movement."
She was the founder and first editor of the Chronicle of Current Events, a samizdat publication that focused on the violation of basic human rights in the Soviet Union. Her contribution was to compile and edit the reports, and then type the first six carbon copies of the issue, the "zero-generation" copy, for further replication and distribution.
Gorbanevskaya was also one of eight protesters in the 25 August 1968 Red Square demonstration against the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. Having recently given birth, she was not immediately tried with the other demonstrators. She used this time to follow the trial in the Chronicle of Current Events, and published the accumulated documentation abroad in French and Russian (Polden). The book appeared in English in 1972 as Red Square at Noon.
In December 1969 Gorbanevskaya was arrested. In July the following year she was put on trial and found guilty of offences under Article 190-1 of the RSFSR Criminal Code, committed while of unsound mind. Gorbanevskaya was sentenced to indefinite confinement in a pyschiatric hospital where she would be treated for "sluggish schizophrenia", a diagnosis commonly applied to dissidents. Gorbanevskaya was released from the Kazan Special Psychiatric Hospital in February 1972.
Life in emigration
In December 1975, Gorbanevskaya emigrated to Paris. There, French psychiatrists at their request examined Gorbanevskaya and found her to be mentally normal. They concluded that in 1969-72 she had been committed to a psychiatric hospital for political, not medical reasons.
For a time Gorbanevskaya was a celebrity figure in the West. In 1976 Joan Baez released a song dedicated to Gorbanevskaya called "Natalia", with lyrics by Roy Apps, Shusha Guppy and G.T. Moore, on the live album From Every Stage. Introducing the song, Baez criticized Gorbanevskaya's internment in the psychiatric hospital and said: "It is because of people like Natalya Gorbanevskaya, I am convinced, that you and I are still alive and walking around on the face of the earth."
For thirty years, however, Gorbanevskaya was stateless until Poland granted her citizenship in 2005.
Commemoration rally on Red Square, 2013
In August 2013, Gorbanevskaya participated in a rally in Moscow to commemorate the forty-fifth anniversary of the invasion of Czechoslovakia. The rally was quickly dispersed by police, and ten participants (but not Gorbanevskaya) were taken into custody. They were released after international protests, especially from the Czech Republic.
She was a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.
Books and other publications
- Gorbanevskaya, Natalya, Midi, place Rouge, Paris: Robert Laffont, 1970.
- Gorbanevskaya, Natalya, Red Square at Noon, London: Andre Deutsch, 1972.
- Gorbanevskaya, Natalya, Poems, Manchester: Carcanet Press, 1972. ISBN 0-85635-002-8
- Martin, Douglas (December 1, 2013). "Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Soviet Dissident and Poet, Dies at 77". NY Times. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- A Chronicle of Current Events Nos 1- 11, 30 April 1968 to 31 December 1969.
- A Chronicle of Current Events No 4, 30 October 1968 — 4.1 "The Trial of the [Red Square] protestors".
- A Chronicle of Current Events No 11, 31 December 1969 - 11.1 "The Arrest of Gorbanevskaya."
- A Chronicle of Current Events No 15, 31 August 1970 - 15.1 "The Trial of Gorbanevskaya."
- A Chronicle of Current Events No 24, 5 March 1972 - 24.10 "News in Brief."
- Bloch, Sidney; Reddaway, Peter (1985). Soviet psychiatric abuse: the shadow over world psychiatry. Westview Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-8133-0209-9.
- "Joan Baez: The Complete A&M Recordings". PopMatters. Retrieved 24 August 2014. Shusha Guppy herself also recorded it; it was included in her 1974 album Shusha.
- "AKoss-Dyb. Natalia Gorbaniewska uhonorowana przez UMCS" (in Polish). Radio Lublin. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- "Lublin: Doktorat honoris causa UMCS dla Natalii Gorbaniewskiej" (in Polish). Dziennik Wschodni. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- "Natalia Gorbaniewska doktorem honorowym UMCS". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- "Natalia Gorbaniewska doktorem honorowym UMCS" (in Polish). Wirtualna Polska. 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- Zamojski, Marcin (2008-10-23). "Angelus Central European Literature Award". Translated by Dominika Chojnacka. News.poland.com. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- "Gorbanevskaya received medal from Charles University". Radio Prague. 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
- "10 Russians Detained for Commemorating Czechoslovakian Invasion – Police". RIA Novosti. 2013-08-25..
- "Prague Declaration: Selected signatories". Institute for Information on the Crimes of Communism. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
- "Умерла Наталья Горбаневская". Colta.ru.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Natalya Gorbanevskaya.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Links in English
- http://www.poetrymagazines.org.uk/magazine/record.asp?id=13151 Y. Kublanovsky. Natalya Gorbanevskaya, New Series No. 20 - 2002; (English translation from a review, published in Novy Mir, No.7, 1997, p. 67–68).
- Natalia Gorbanevskaya / Translated by Misha Semenov // Twenty-first Century Russian Poetry. — In: «Big Bridge», No. 17 (2013).
- http://www.arlindo-correia.org/060804.html Poems, with translations into English
- Harrison, Harrison E.; Gorbanevskaya, Natalia (1976). "Red Square at Noon". American Political Science Review 70 (4): 1335–1336. doi:10.2307/1959448.
- 10 poems by Natalya Gorbanevskaya: Audio of her own reading with text translations into different languages
Links in Russian
- http://www.newkamera.de/gor_02.html Bibliography
- http://www.vavilon.ru/texts/gorbanevsk/ Biography and bibliography
- http://www.rvb.ru/np/publication/01text/02/11gorbanev.htm, links
- http://magazines.russ.ru/authors/g/gorbanevskaya/ Biography and bibliography
- http://www.newkamera.de/gor_01.html N. Gorbanevskaya. 6 циклов восьмистиший.
- http://www.poesis.ru/poeti-poezia/gorbanevskaja/biblio.htm bibliography
- http://www.rvb.ru/np/publication/02comm/02/11gorbanev.htm List of publications
- http://gallery.vavilon.ru/people/g/gorbanevskaya/ Photographs and biography
- http://www.goldref.ru/biography/Gorbanevskaja_N.E./1/ Биография
- http://www.hro.org/editions/karta/nr21/demonstr.htm Наталья Горбаневская. Что помню я о демонстрации
- http://www.memo.ru/history/DISS/chr/chr3.htm Информация о демонстрации в бюллетене «Хроника текущих событий»
- http://www.memo.ru/history/DISS/chr/chr4.htm Информация о суде над демонстрантами в бюллетене «Хроника текущих событий»
- http://www.yale.edu/annals/sakharov/documents_frames/Sakharov_008.htm; Письмо Андропова в ЦК про демонстрацию (windows encoding)
- http://ng68.livejournal.com/ Blog of Gorbanevskaya at Livejournal