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Nathan Deal

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Nathan Deal
Deal in 2017
82nd Governor of Georgia
In office
January 10, 2011 – January 14, 2019
LieutenantCasey Cagle
Preceded bySonny Perdue
Succeeded byBrian Kemp
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia
In office
January 3, 1993 – March 21, 2010
Preceded byEd Jenkins
Succeeded byTom Graves
Constituency9th district (1993–2003)
10th district (2003–2007)
9th district (2007–2010)
Member of the Georgia State Senate
from the 49th district
In office
January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1993
Preceded byHoward Overby
Succeeded byJane Hemmer
Personal details
John Nathan Deal

(1942-08-25) August 25, 1942 (age 81)
Millen, Georgia, U.S.
Political partyRepublican (1995–present)
Other political
Democratic (before 1995)
(m. 1966; died 2022)
EducationMercer University (BA, JD)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1966–1968
Rank Captain

John Nathan Deal (born August 25, 1942) is an American politician and former lawyer who served as the 82nd governor of Georgia from 2011 to 2019. A Republican, he previously served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Deal served in the Georgia State Senate from 1981 to 1993, the last two years as president pro tempore of the senate. He faced a crowded field of candidates in the Republican primary when he ran for governor in 2010, ultimately facing former Georgia Secretary of State Karen Handel in a tightly contested primary runoff election, and won by fewer than 2,500 votes.[1] In the general election, Deal defeated the Democratic opponent, former governor Roy Barnes, and succeeded term-limited Sonny Perdue in 2011.[2] He won his re-election campaign for governor in 2014 against Democrat Jason Carter.

Deal came to prominence in 2014 when he signed into law the Safe Carry Protection Act, known by critics as the "Guns Everywhere Law", which allows residents with a permit to carry a concealed weapon to bring firearms into most public areas, including churches, school zones, government buildings and certain sections of airports. He was barred by term limits in 2018 and was succeeded by outgoing Secretary of State Brian Kemp.

Early life and career


Deal was born on August 25, 1942, in the town of Millen and grew up on a farm in Sandersville, Georgia. His parents, Mary (née Mallard) and Noah Jordan Deal, were teachers.[3]

He attended Mercer University in Macon, where he earned his bachelor and law degrees with honors.[4] After he earned his Juris Doctor degree in 1966, he joined the United States Army, where he earned the rank of captain.[5]

Deal spent twenty-three years in private law practice. He was also a criminal prosecutor, a Hall County juvenile court judge, and a Northeastern Judicial Circuit superior court judge. In 1980, he was elected to the Georgia State Senate as a Democrat.[6][7]

In November 1990, he was elected by his party to be the President Pro Tempore, the second highest ranking position in the chamber.[8] Democrat Jane Hemmer replaced him in the Senate, but she was defeated by Republican Casey Cagle two years later.[9]

U.S. House of Representatives (1993–2010)




Deal was first elected to Congress in November 1992 as a Democrat, succeeding eight-term incumbent Ed Jenkins in Georgia's 9th congressional district. He was re-elected as a Democrat in 1994.

However, on April 11, 1995, shortly after Republicans assumed control of the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years, Deal joined the Republican Party, which was led by Speaker Newt Gingrich, a fellow Georgian. Years later, Gingrich said that Deal became a Republican because he liked what he saw in the Contract With America.[10][11]

Deal was handily re-elected in his first election as a Republican in the 1996 general election, even though Jenkins endorsed his Democratic opponent, attorney and state representative McCracken "Ken" Poston, who represented much of the congressional district's northwestern portion. This was the first time his district had elected a Republican for a full term since Reconstruction. To date, Poston is the last Democrat to win even 30 percent of the vote in this district.

Deal was unopposed for re-election in 1998, 2002, and 2004 and defeated an underfunded Democratic candidate in 2000. His district was renumbered the 10th District in 2003, but became the 9th again after a mid-decade redistricting in 2006.

In November 2006, Deal was re-elected 77%–23%. His Democratic opponent was John Bradbury, a former elementary school teacher turned truck driver. His district, already heavily Republican, became even more Republican after the mid-decade redistricting pushed it further into the Atlanta suburbs.


Deal early in his congressional career
Deal during the 110th Congress

Deal's voting record was relatively moderate in his first term, getting ratings in the 60s from the American Conservative Union (ACU). He moved sharply to the right after his party switch and voted for all four articles of impeachment against Bill Clinton. From 1996 onward, he garnered ratings of 90 or higher from the ACU.

During his 17 years in Congress, Deal rose to chair the Health Subcommittee of Energy and Commerce, where he became a noted expert on entitlement reform and health care policy.[12]

Deal introduced H.R. 698, the Citizenship Reform Act, which would eliminate birthright citizenship for undocumented immigrants in the U.S. The 14th Amendment begins "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States. ... " Deal's argument is that undocumented immigrants (and their children) are not subject to U.S. jurisdiction.[13]

Committee assignments


Recovery Services, Inc. controversy


The Office of Congressional Ethics released a report on March 30, 2010, that concluded Deal appeared to have improperly used his office staff to pressure Georgia officials to continue the state vehicle inspection program that generated hundreds of thousands of dollars a year for his family's auto salvage business. Deal stated: "I have done nothing wrong and am not going to let this tarnish my ... record of public service."[14]

The Office of Congressional Ethics (OCE), released their investigative report (Review No. 09-1022) on March 30, 2010.[15] The report stipulates,

Representative Nathan Deal and his business partner own Recovery Services, Inc. a/k/a Gainesville Salvage & Disposal ('GSD'), located in Gainesville, Georgia ... The OCE does not take a position on Representative Deal's motivations for inserting himself into discussions of potential modifications to a state vehicle inspection program ... The OCE reviews the facts as presented at the time of review and does not take a position on whether Representative Deal's income from GSD was mistakenly reported as earned income since 2006 on his federal income taxes ... [F]or all the reasons stated above, the OCE Board recommends further review by the Committee on Standards of Official Conduct.

Resignation from Congress


On March 1, 2010, 29 days before the official release of the ethics report, Deal resigned his seat, which he said, excluded him from the Office of Congressional Ethics' jurisdiction.[16][17] Although this seemed too coincidental for some, Deal maintained in a speech to supporters that the resignation was so that he could "devote [his] full energies" to the gubernatorial campaign.[18]

Before returning to Georgia to run for governor, Deal cast his final congressional vote against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare.[19]

2011 ethics investigation


In 2011, then Georgia Government Transparency and Campaign Finance Commission Executive Secretary Stacey Kalberman and Deputy Executive Secretary Sherilyn Streiker launched an ethics investigation into Deal's campaign finances during his 2010 gubernatorial race. According to the complaint, Deal had used state campaign funds to pay legal bills stemming from a federal ethics investigation when he was in Congress, that he had personally profited from his gubernatorial campaign's $135,000 rental of aircraft from a company he partly owned, and that he had accepted campaign contributions beyond the legal limits.[20] The campaign also paid a total of $135,000 to consulting companies which were owned by Deal's daughter-in-law and the father of Chris Riley, Deal's chief of staff.[21]

As Kalberman and Streiker were preparing to serve subpoenas to Deal, his chief of staff, and others involved in the case, Kalberman's salary was cut by $35,000 and Streiker was ousted from her position.[22] Soon after, Kalberman was forced to resign and was replaced by Holly LaBerge, who was recruited by the governor's office.[23]

On July 23, 2012, the ethics commission cleared Deal of major ethics violations while finding he made "technical defects" in a series of personal financial and campaign finance reports. In July 2012, Deal agreed to pay $3,350 in administrative fees to resolve violations of campaign finance and disclosure laws.[24]

Holly LaBerge, the head of the ethics commission that cleared Deal of major ethics violations, claimed in July 2014 that Ryan Teague, Deal's counsel, called her to say: "It was not in the agency's best interest for these cases to go to a hearing ... nor was it in their best political interest either." Deal has stated that he is "not aware of any communications along those lines".[25][26][27][28]

Governor of Georgia (2011–2019)


2010 gubernatorial election


Incumbent Republican Governor Sonny Perdue was term-limited in 2010. Seven candidates filed to run in the Republican primary. In the initial Republican primary in July, no candidate received the 50% threshold to win the primary outright. Georgia Secretary of State Karen Handel ranked first with 34%, qualifying for the run-off election. Deal, ranked second with 23% of the vote, also qualified for the run-off election.

Candidates who didn't qualify included State Senator Eric Johnson (20%), Insurance Commissioner John Oxendine (16%), State Senator Jeff Chapman (3%), businessman Ray McBerry (3%), and businessman Otis Putnam (0%). Deal performed the strongest in the northern part of the state, where he lives and represented in Congress. However, he also won some counties in the southern part of the state, such as Candler (30%) and Tift (24%). He won five counties with a majority including his home of Hall (64%), Dade (56%), Walker (56%), White (53%), and Stephens (53%).[29]

The run-off election between Handel and Deal was very competitive. Deal was endorsed by former House Speaker Newt Gingrich, U.S. Representative Jack Kingston, and former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee. Handel was endorsed by Arizona Governor Jan Brewer and former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin.[30]

On August 10, Deal defeated Handel 50.2%-49.8%, a difference of just 2,519 votes. Handel performed well in the western and eastern borders of the state, as well as the counties surrounding Atlanta. She won the heavily populated Fulton County with 71%, her best performance in the state, followed by Glascock (70%) and Burke (70%). Deal's two best counties were Taliaferro (80%) and Hall (79%).[31]

In the general election, Deal faced former governor and state senator Roy Barnes (D) and John Monds (L). Barnes previously won the 1998 gubernatorial election with 52% of the vote,[32] and lost re-election in 2002 to State Senator Sonny Perdue 51%-46%. Perdue was the first Georgia Republican Governor since Reconstruction.[33][34]

Barnes has always been considered a moderate.[citation needed] After he lost re-election, he returned to practicing law for eight years until mounting a political comeback. Deal tried to connect Barnes with President Barack Obama. Barnes said "if you would listen to what is being said, you would have thought that this is an election for president of the United States." Barnes also tried to distance himself from Obama, saying his health care law was "the greatest failure of political leadership in my lifetime". On November 3, Deal defeated Barnes 53%-43%.[35]

2014 gubernatorial election


Deal ran for re-election in 2014. He defeated two primary challengers and defeated Democratic State Senator Jason Carter in the general election with 53% of the vote to Carter's 45%.[citation needed]

Deal meeting with Georgia National Guardsman in Marietta, Georgia, September 2011



Deal took office as governor on January 10, the second Monday of 2011. His second inauguration took place on January 12, 2015.[36][37]

Supreme Court expansion


As Governor, Deal expanded the Supreme Court, adding two more justices to the court.[38]



In 2011, despite protests outside his office and threats of boycotts,[39] Deal signed Georgia HB 87 into law, which increased the state's enforcement powers in regards to illegal immigration, as well as required many employers to determine whether their newly hired employees are undocumented immigrants or not.[40]

Criminal justice reform

Deal in Atlanta, March 2017

In 2011, Georgia was in the midst of a criminal justice crisis. The prison population had doubled in the past two decades to 56,000, along with the state's incarceration budget. The recidivism rate was 30 percent for adults and 65 percent for juveniles. In response, Deal commissioned the Georgia Criminal Justice Reform Council, tasked with performing an exhaustive review of the state's current system, identifying key areas of focus and providing recommendations for reforms.[41] These areas included increased funding and support for accountability courts, overhauling the juvenile justice system, and implementing prisoner re-entry initiatives. The council's work resulted in bipartisan legislation that caused Georgia to avoid the need for 5,000 additional prison beds over 5 years and saved taxpayers at least $264 million.[42] A 2014 study showed that "prison sentences imposed on African-American offenders have dropped by 20 percent."[43]

On April 25, 2013, Deal signed HB 349 into law, which enacted a second round of criminal justice reforms. These reforms took a "smart on crime" approach and were based on recommendations from the Special Council on Criminal Justice Reform. This law gave those who, while locked up, have earned money toward college in the form of a HOPE Scholarship G-E-D Voucher the ability to use that money up to two years after their release.[44] In addition, Deal reinvested $5 million to create a voluntary grant program that gives communities incentives to offer judges more non-confinement sentencing options. These could include substance abuse treatment or family counseling.[citation needed]

With the help of the Council and the Vera Institute of Justice, Deal developed extensive performance measures to track the success of previous reforms to ensure they were enhancing public safety and saving taxpayer dollars. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported, "Since 2007 alone, more than three-dozen such courts have opened their doors across Georgia. In the first quarter of 2014, more than 4,100 offenders were enrolled in the state's 105 accountability courts, and many of these participants would likely be in prison without this alternative."[43]

On April 25, 2014, Deal announced the creation of the Governor's Interfaith Council, composed of religious leaders across Georgia, to expand upon recent criminal justice reforms. These programs and council advisors will implement cost-effective strategies will work to increase the number of former offenders returning to the workforce and supporting their families.[45] By removing barriers to employment, housing and education for rehabilitated offenders, a larger number of returning citizens are able to rejoin the workforce and support their families. Some of Deal's initiatives include education and jobs training programs, "banning the box" and creation of the Department of Community Supervision, which streamlines re-entry programs across various state agencies.[42]

Safe Carry Protection Act


In 2014, Deal signed House Bill (H.B.) 60, the Safe Carry Protection Act, referred to by critics as the "Guns Everywhere" Law.[46] Deal stated that gun rights through the United States Constitution's Second Amendment are important to people in Georgia.[46] The Safe Carry Protection Act took effect on July 1, 2014, and permits licensed gun owners to carry guns into many public and private places, including churches, school property, bars, nightclubs, libraries, and some government buildings in Georgia.[46][47][48][49][50][51] The law was supported by the Georgia Baptist Convention which included 3,600 Baptist churches in Georgia in favor of increased church autonomy,[50] but was not supported by Catholic or Episcopalian church leaders due to their belief that it is against Jesus' teachings.[50] By 2016, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution found that while 57% of Georgians believed that owning a gun protects people, 59% disapproved of the law itself.[52]

Resettlement of Syrian refugees


In 2015 Deal issued an executive order ordering state agencies to "halt any involvement in accepting refugees from Syria for resettlement in the state of Georgia",[53] resulting in the state's Department of Human Resources refusing to process applications for food stamps and other benefits filed by newly arrived Syrian refugees.[54] Deal rescinded his order on January 4, 2016, after Georgia Attorney General Sam Olens said Deal lacked the authority to issue it.[55]

Religious liberty bill veto


On March 28, 2016, Deal vetoed a religious liberty bill that had been passed by both houses of the Georgia State Legislature, and that had been opposed by multiple large corporations, including Salesforce.com, the Coca-Cola Company and the Home Depot.[56]

Campus carry


On May 3, 2016, Deal vetoed a campus carry bill that had been passed by the state legislature, after a number of state legislators refused to include exceptions for child-care centers and other places on college campuses. Had Deal signed the bill into law, it would have made concealed carrying of guns legal at every public college in Georgia, so long as the carrier was 21 or older and had a proper permit.[57] One year later, on May 4, 2017, Deal signed a revised and stricter version of the campus carry bill into law.[58]

Deal was succeeded as governor by Brian Kemp on January 14, 2019.

Electoral history

Georgia gubernatorial election, 2014
Party Candidate Votes % +
Republican Nathan Deal (incumbent) 1,345,237 52.75% -0.27%
Democratic Jason Carter 1,144,794 44.89% +1.92%
Libertarian Andrew Hunt 60,185 2.36% -1.65%
Write-in David Byrne 420 0.17%
Write-in Matthew Jamison 10 0.00%
Write-in Chancey Andrell Porter 2 0.00%
Majority 200,443 7.86% -2.19%
Turnout 2,550,648
Republican hold Swing
Georgia Republican primary gubernatorial election, 2014
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Nathan Deal (incumbent) 430,170 72.15%
Republican David Pennington, III 99,548 16.70%
Republican John Barge 66,500 11.15%
Georgia gubernatorial election, 2010[59]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Nathan Deal 1,365,832 53.02% −4.93%
Democratic Roy Barnes 1,107,011 42.97% +4.75%
Libertarian John Monds 103,194 4.01% +0.17%
Write-ins 124 0.00%
Majority 258,821 10.05% −9.68%
Turnout 2,576,161
Republican hold Swing
Georgia Republican primary runoff gubernatorial election, 2010
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Nathan Deal 291,035 50.2%
Republican Karen Handel 288,516 49.8%
Georgia Republican primary gubernatorial election, 2010
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Karen Handel 231,990 34.1%
Republican Nathan Deal 155,946 22.9%
Republican Eric Johnson 136,792 20.1%
Republican John Oxendine 115,421 17.0%
Republican Jeff Chapman 20,636 3.0%
Republican Ray McBerry 17,171 2.5%
Republican Otis Putnam 2,543 0.4%
Georgia's 9th congressional district: Results 1992–2000, 2006–2008;
Georgia's 10th congressional district: Results 2002–2004[60]
Year District Democratic Votes Pct Republican Votes Pct
1992 9th Nathan Deal 113,024 59% Daniel Becker 77,919 41%
1994 9th Nathan Deal (incumbent) 79,145 58% Robert L. Castello 57,568 42%
1996 9th McCracken "Ken" Poston 69,662 34% Nathan Deal (incumbent) 132,532 66%
1998 9th (no candidate) Nathan Deal (incumbent) 122,713 100%
2000 9th James Harrington 60,360 25% Nathan Deal (incumbent) 183,171 75%
2002 10th (no candidate) Nathan Deal (incumbent) 129,242 100%
2004 10th (no candidate) Nathan Deal (incumbent) 219,136 100%
2006 9th John D. Bradbury 39,240 23% Nathan Deal (incumbent) 128,685 77%
2008 9th Jeff Scott 70,401 25% Nathan Deal (incumbent) 216,925 75%



See also



  1. ^ Aaron Gould Sheinin (August 11, 2010). "Deal defeats Handel in August 2010 Republican primary". Blogs.ajc.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  2. ^ "Deal defeats Barnes to take Governor's Mansion". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved September 3, 2010.
  3. ^ "Nathan Deal (b. 1942)". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. December 23, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  4. ^ [1] Archived July 29, 2012, at archive.today
  5. ^ "Governor Nathan Deal: Office of the Governor". Gov.georgia.gov. January 10, 2011. Archived from the original on July 3, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  6. ^ "The U.S. Congress Votes Database". The Washington Post.
  7. ^ "Candidate - Nathan Deal". Our Campaigns. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  8. ^ "The Albany Herald". Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  9. ^ Thorne, Emily Rose (July 21, 2018). "Casey Cagle vs. Brian Kemp: A quick guide to the Republican runoff candidates for Georgia governor". Atlanta. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  10. ^ "Georgia Congressman Deserts Demos/Nathan Deal is third to switch to GOP since Nov. 8". San Francisco Chronicle. April 11, 1995. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  11. ^ Newt Gingrich talks about Nathan Deal on YouTube in campaign video for Deal's gubernatorial bid.
  12. ^ "Health Subcommittee Chairman Takes Lead on Cancer Care: Interview With Rep. Nathan Deal". Journal of Oncology Practice. 2 (1): 24. 2006. doi:10.1200/jop.2006.2.1.24. PMC 2794635. PMID 29442565.
  13. ^ H. R. 698 (see especially section 3)
  14. ^ Eric Lipton (March 29, 2010). "Ethics Report Faults Ex-Congressman". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  15. ^ OCE (March 26, 2010). "Review No. 09-1022" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 7, 2010.
  16. ^ Justin Elliott (March 1, 2010). "Did GOP Rep Resign To Squelch Ethics Probe?". Tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com. Retrieved September 25, 2010.
  17. ^ Aaron Gould Sheinin (March 1, 2010). "Breaking: Deal says he'll resign from Congress | Gold Dome Live". Blogs.ajc.com. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
  18. ^ Aaron Gould Sheinin and Jim Tharpe. "Deal's resignation upends state politics". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved September 25, 2010.
  19. ^ "Nathan Deal on the Issues". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  20. ^ Copeland, Larry (July 16, 2014). "New ethics memo surfaces, roiling Ga. governor's race". USA Today.
  21. ^ Jim Walls (November 6, 2013). "Probe sought Deal data, Ethics official's pay cut, job eliminated after subpoenas prepared". ajc.com.
  22. ^ Sheinin, Aaron (April 4, 2014). "Jury rules in favor of ex-ethics chief; awards $700,000 judgment". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
  23. ^ The Associated Press (April 5, 2014). "Ethics Chief in Georgia Wins Suit Over Ouster". The New York Times.
  24. ^ Cassidy, Christina (December 12, 2013). "Subpoenas Related To Ethics Complaints Involving Georgia Gov. Nathan Deal". The Huffington Post.
  25. ^ Sheinin, Aaron (July 14, 2014). "Ethics chief claims Deal aides pressured her, threatened agency". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on September 4, 2014. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
  26. ^ Aaron Gould Sheinin (September 8, 2014). "Ethics commission chief Holly LaBerge fired". ajc.com.
  27. ^ KATE BRUMBACK, Associated Press (September 8, 2014). "Ga. ethics agency chief fired after judge fines her for withholding key documents in lawsuit". northwestgeorgianews.com.
  28. ^ CHRISTINA A. CASSIDY, Associated Press (January 27, 2014). "Staffing situation worsens at GA ethics commission". washingtontimes.com.
  29. ^ "GA Governor - R Primary Race". Our Campaigns. July 20, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  30. ^ "Karen Handel Concedes Georgia GOP Governor Runoff to Nathan Deal". CBS News. August 11, 2010. Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  31. ^ "GA Governor - R Runoff Race". Our Campaigns. August 10, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  32. ^ "GA Governor Race". Our Campaigns. November 3, 1998. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  33. ^ "Handel, Deal Neck and Neck in GOP Gubernatorial Runoff". Fox News Channel. August 11, 2010.
  34. ^ "GA - Governor Race". Our Campaigns. November 5, 2002. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  35. ^ "GA Governor Race". Our Campaigns. November 2, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  36. ^ "Georgia Gubernatorial Inauguration". C-SPAN.
  37. ^ Associated Press (January 12, 2015). "Gov. Deal inauguration today". Augusta Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
  38. ^ "Expansion of Georgia's Supreme Court wins final approval". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
  39. ^ Valdes, Gustavo (May 13, 2011). "Georgia governor signs controversial anti-illegal immigration law". CNN. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
  40. ^ "Georgia governor signs immigration bill into law". USA Today. Associated Press. May 13, 2011. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
  41. ^ Press Release (February 16, 2011) - "Deal, Leaders Seek Commission on Criminal Justice Reform" Archived August 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Governor Nathan Deal - Office of the Governor.
  42. ^ a b Shavin, Naomi (April 1, 2015). "GOP Governor Nathan Deal Is Leading the U.S. on Prison Reform". New Republic. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  43. ^ a b Rankin, Bill & Gould Sheinin, Aaron (August 2, 2014) - "Fewer Black Georgians Sent to Prison" Archived August 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  44. ^ Press Release (August 4, 2014) - "AJC: Deal's Criminal Justice Reforms Paying Dividends" Archived August 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Governor Nathan Deal - Office of the Governor.
  45. ^ Press Release (April 25, 2014) - "Deal: Interfaith Council Will Build Upon Criminal Justice Reform Initiatives" Archived December 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Governor Nathan Deal - Office of the Governor.
  46. ^ a b c Georgia law allows guns in some schools, bars, churches, CNN, Atlanta, GA: Cable News Network/Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., April 23, 2014, Sayers, D.M. & McLaughlin, E.C.. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  47. ^ House Bill 60, Official Code of Georgia Annotated, Georgia House of Representatives, Atlanta, GA, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  48. ^ Ga. governor signs 'guns everywhere' into law, USA Today, New York, NY: Gannett Satellite Information Network, Inc., April 23, 2014, Copeland, L. & Richards, D.. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  49. ^ Georgia governor signs 'unprecedented' gun rights bill, The Huffington Post, The Huffington Post, LLC, April 23, 2014, Lavender, P.. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  50. ^ a b c Georgia’s sweeping gun law sparks religious backlash, Time, May 5, 2014, Sanburn, J.. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  51. ^ Georgia lawmakers pass controversial 'guns everywhere' bill, MSNBC, New York, NY: NBC Universal, March 21, 2014, Richinick, M.. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  52. ^ "New AJC poll shows voters disapprove of Georgia's new gun law". Ajc.com. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  53. ^ "State of Georgia Executive Order" (PDF). November 13, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 24, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  54. ^ Redmon, Jeremy (December 10, 2015). "Georgia won't process benefits applications for new Syrian refugees". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  55. ^ "Georgia: Governor Lifts Block Against Syrian Refugees". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 5, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  56. ^ Ellis, Ralph (March 28, 2016). "Georgia Gov. Nathan Deal to veto 'religious liberty' bill". CNN. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  57. ^ Bluestein, Greg (May 3, 2016). "Deal rejects Georgia's 'campus carry' bill". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
    "Georgia governor vetoes "campus-carry" concealed gun bill". CBS News. Associated Press. May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  58. ^ "Governor Nathan Deal Signs "Campus Carry" Bill". WAGA-TV. May 4, 2017. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
    Hagen, Lisa (May 4, 2017). "Flipping On The Issue, Georgia Gov. Signs Campus Carry Bill". NPR. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
  59. ^ "11/2/2010 - Federal and Statewide". sos.georgia.gov. Archived from the original on March 27, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  60. ^ "Election Statistics". Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Archived from the original on July 25, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2008.
  61. ^ "令和5年秋の外国人叙勲 受章者名簿" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved November 3, 2023.



Georgia State Senate
Preceded by
Howard Overby
Member of the Georgia State Senate
from the 49th district

Succeeded by
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 9th congressional district

Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 10th congressional district

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 9th congressional district

Succeeded by
Party political offices
New office Chair of the Blue Dog Coalition for Policy
Served alongside: Gary Condit (Administration), John S. Tanner (Communications)
Succeeded by
Preceded by Republican nominee for Governor of Georgia
2010, 2014
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Governor of Georgia
Succeeded by
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded byas Former Governor Order of precedence of the United States
Within Georgia
Succeeded byas Former Governor
Order of precedence of the United States
Outside Georgia
Succeeded byas Former Governor