Netanyahu is the son of mathematician Elisha Netanyahu and Supreme Court of Israel justice Shoshana Netanyahu, the nephew of historian Benzion Netanyahu, and the cousin of Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu. He did his graduate studies at the University of Maryland, College Park, earning a Ph.D. in 1992 under the supervision of David Mount and Azriel Rosenfeld.
Netanyahu has co-authored highly cited research papers on nearest neighbor search and k-means clustering. He has published many papers on computer chess, was the local organizer of the 12th World Computer Chess Championship in 2004, and was program co-chair for the 4th International Conference on Computers and Games, colocated with the WCCC. Another frequent topic in his research is image registration.
- Faculty profile, Bar-Ilan University, retrieved 2012-02-29.
- Nathan S. Netanyahu at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.
- Arya, Sunil; Mount, David M.; Netanyahu, Nathan S.; Silverman, Ruth; Wu, Angela Y. (1998), "An optimal algorithm for approximate nearest neighbor searching fixed dimensions", Journal of the ACM, 45 (6): 891–923, doi:10.1145/293347.293348.
- Kanungo, Tapas; Mount, David M.; Netanyahu, Nathan S.; Piatko, Christine D.; Silverman, Ruth; Wu, Angela Y. (2002), "An efficient k-means clustering algorithm: analysis and implementation", IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 24 (7): 881–892, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2002.1017616.