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National Assembly of South Africa

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National Assembly

List
  • 10 other official names:
  • Nasionale Vergadering (Afrikaans)
  • iNdlu yesiBethamthetho seNarha (Southern Ndebele)
  • iNdlu yoWiso-mthetho yeSizwe (Xhosa)
  • iSishayamthetho sikaZwelonke (Zulu)
  • liBandla laVelonkhe (Swazi)
  • Seboka sa Maloko a Palamente (Northern Sotho)
  • Ntlo ya Seboka sa Naha (Sotho)
  • Ntlokokoano Bosetšhaba (Tswana)
  • Huvo ya Rixaka (Tsonga)
  • Buthano ḽa Lushaka (Venda)
27th Parliament (members)
Type
Type
Leadership
Thoko Didiza, ANC
since 14 June 2024
Annelie Lotriet, DA
since 14 June 2024
vacant
since 6 March 2023
Pemmy Majodina, ANC
since 22 May 2019
vacant (MK)
vacant (MK)
Structure
Seats400
Political groups
Government (272)
  •   ANC (159)
  •   DA (87)
  •   IFP (17)
  •   PA (9)

Official Opposition (58)

  •   MK (58)

Other parties (85)

Elections
Closed list proportional representation
Last election
29 May 2024
Next election
2029
Meeting place
Good Hope Chamber, Cape Town, South Africa[1]
Website
National Assembly – Parliament of South Africa

The National Assembly is the directly elected house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape. It consists of four hundred members who are elected every five years using a party-list proportional representation system where half of the members are elected proportionally from nine provincial lists and the remaining half from national lists so as to restore proportionality.

The National Assembly is presided over by a Speaker, assisted by a Deputy Speaker. The current speaker as of 14 June 2024 is Thoko Didiza (ANC).[2] The Deputy Speaker is Annelie Lotriet (DA) since 14 June 2024.[3]

The National Assembly chamber was destroyed in a fire in January 2022.[4] National Assembly sittings are now held in the old Good Hope Chamber, which is within the precincts of parliament.[1][5][6]

Allocation[edit]

The National Assembly seats are allocated using a proportional representation system with closed lists. Seats are first allocated according to the (integer part of the) Droop quota. Thereafter at most five seats are allocated using the largest remainder method (using the Droop quota). Any additional seats are allocated amongst the parties who then already have seats using the highest averages method.

Voters have one vote at elections to the National Assembly. Seats are allocated in ten multi-member constituencies via party lists. One constituency is a national or 'at large' constituency and nine others represent each of the nine provinces. The lists were called the national lists and regional lists in the 2009 election. 'Regional' was used to avoid confusion with the provincial legislature elections held at the same time. Previously they were called 'National to National' and 'Provincial to National'.

Of the 400 members of the National Assembly, half are assigned to be elected from national lists and the remaining half are assigned to be elected from regional lists. Every election, the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) determines the allocation of the 200 regional list seats to each province by population.

Parties decide whether they want to set up both national and regional lists or only regional lists. In the 2009 election, the Democratic Alliance (DA) chose not to use a national list. The nationwide votes entitled the DA to 67 seats, but the provincial votes amounted to only 35 seats. While normally the remaining 32 members would be drawn from the party's national list, in this case the remaining seats were distributed among the other DA regional list candidates. This resulted in the National Assembly being made up of 168 members elected on national lists and 232 members elected on regional lists.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The National Assembly was first elected in South Africa's first non-racial election in 1994 with the African National Congress (ANC) winning 252 of the 400 seats. The National Party (NP), the previous governing party, won 82 seats, and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) won 43. Under the terms of the Interim Constitution this result entitled the NP and the IFP to take part in the Government of National Unity alongside the ANC, and gave the ANC and NP the right to each nominate one Deputy President. The other parties represented in the assembly were the Freedom Front (9 seats), the Democratic Party (7 seats), the Pan Africanist Congress (5 seats), and the African Christian Democratic Party (2 seats).

In the election of 1999, the ANC won 266 seats, one short of the two-thirds majority needed to unilaterally amend the constitution. The DP expanded its representation to become the official opposition with 38 seats, while the IFP won 34. The NP, now renamed the New National Party (NNP), dropped to 28 seats, and the newly formed United Democratic Movement (UDM) won 14. Eight smaller parties also obtained seats in the assembly.

In the election of 2004 the ANC obtained 279 seats, gaining a two-thirds majority and the ability to change the constitution. The DP became the Democratic Alliance (DA) and remained the official opposition with 50 seats, while the IFP won 28 seats. The NNP was severely weakened, obtaining only 7 seats; the party was formally disbanded in 2005 with the majority of the party joining the ANC.

In the election of 2009 the ANC lost its two-thirds majority but remained the majority party with 264 seats. The DA increased its support to 67 seats, and the new Congress of the People (COPE) party, a breakaway from the ANC, obtained 30 seats. The IFP was reduced to 18 seats.

In the election of 2014 the ANC lost further seats, but remained the majority party with 249 seats. The DA increased its support to 89 seats, while the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), a far-left breakaway from the ANC, obtained 25 seats. The IFP further reduced to 10 seats while COPE's influence was strongly reduced, only electing three MPs.

In the election of 2019 the ANC lost even more seats, but remained the majority party with a seat total of 230 seats. The Official Opposition DA declined from 89 seats to 84 seats. The EFF increased its seat total to 44 seats. The IFP managed to arrest the decline in its support and obtained 14 seats. The Freedom Front Plus (FF+) grew to 10 seats, a gain of 6 seats. Nine other parties obtained seats.

In the election of 2024 the ANC lost its majority for the first time since the end of apartheid, winning just 159 seats out of 400. This was in large part due to the formation of the breakaway MK Party founded by Jacob Zuma, which received 58 seats. The DA formed a coalition known as the Multi-Party Charter which collectively won 119 seats, and 11 other parties won seats.

The following table shows the party composition of the National Assembly over time:

Event Date ANC DP / DA NP / NNP COPE EFF IFP MK NFP VF / VF+ UDM ACDP ID Others
1994 election 27 April 1994 252 7 82 43 9 2 5
1999 election 2 June 1999 266 38 28 34 3 14 6 11
2003 floor-crossing 4 April 2003 275 46 20 31 3 4 7 1 13
2004 election 14 April 2004 279 50 7 28 4 9 7 7 9
2005 floor-crossing 15 September 2005 293 47 23 4 6 4 5 18
2007 floor-crossing 15 September 2007 297 47 23 4 6 4 4 15
2009 election 22 April 2009 264 67 30 18 4 4 3 4 6
2014 election 7 May 2014 249 89 3 25 10 6 4 4 3 7
2019 election 8 May 2019 230 84 2 44 14 2 10 2 4 10
2024 election 29 May 2024 159 87 39 17 58 6 3 3 28

Election results[edit]

The last finalized election was held on 29 May 2024.

PartyNational ballotRegional ballotTotal
seats
+/–
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
African National Congress6,459,68340.18736,231,51939.4086159–71
Democratic Alliance3,505,73521.81423,439,27221.754587+3
uMkhonto weSizwe2,344,30914.58312,237,87714.152758New
Economic Freedom Fighters1,529,9619.52171,556,9659.852239–5
Inkatha Freedom Party618,2073.858688,5704.35917+3
Patriotic Alliance330,4252.065345,8802.1949+9
Freedom Front Plus218,8501.364234,4771.4826–4
ActionSA192,3731.204219,4771.3926New
African Christian Democratic Party96,5750.60393,5810.5903–1
United Democratic Movement78,4480.49285,6180.5413+1
Rise Mzansi67,9750.42170,1420.4412New
Build One South Africa65,9120.41269,0200.4402New
African Transformation Movement63,5540.40266,8310.42020
Al Jama-ah39,0670.24253,3370.3402+1
National Coloured Congress37,4220.23147,1780.3012New
Pan Africanist Congress of Azania36,7160.23140,7880.26010
United Africans Transformation35,6790.22132,1850.2001New
Good29,5010.18136,1030.2301–1
Hope4SA27,2060.17016,8720.1100New
Allied Movement for Change22,0550.14018,3930.1200New
United Independent Movement20,0030.12018,9070.1200New
African Independent Congress19,9000.1203,8330.02000
National Freedom Party19,3970.12022,7260.1400–2
Azanian People's Organisation19,0480.12018,7410.1200–2
African Congress for Transformation18,3540.1103480.0000New
African Heart Congress16,3060.1003,5790.0200New
Congress of the People14,1770.09016,7680.1100–2
African People's Convention13,1950.08014,6930.09000
Africa Restoration Alliance11,1080.07012,6510.0800New
Forum for Service Delivery11,0770.0707,4440.05000
Democratic Liberal Congress10,9040.0707,0220.04000
Alliance of Citizens for Change9,3360.06011,2170.0700New
Action Alliance Development Party [af]7,8020.0504,6000.0300New
Conservatives in Action [af]7,4240.0501,1150.0100New
South African Royal Kingdoms Organisation [af]6,6850.0403,1950.0200New
Northern Cape Communities Movement [af]6,6290.0407,0160.0400New
People's Movement for Change5,5390.0307,0450.0400New
Abantu Batho Congress5,5310.0303,5520.0200New
Economic Liberators Forum [af]5,4080.0307,1150.0400New
Organic Humanity Movement [af]5,2410.0306,4570.0400New
African Content Movement5,1070.0304,6170.03000
Sizwe Ummah Nation5,0160.0304,8690.0300New
South African Rainbow Alliance4,7960.0307,6450.0500New
African People's Movement4,6010.0304,2000.0300New
Able Leadership [af]3,8670.0203,1610.0200New
Referendum Party3,8340.0204,2060.0300New
All Citizens Party [af]3,6930.0201,6440.0100New
Africa Africans Reclaim [af]3,3710.0202,5650.0200New
Citizans [af]2,9920.0204,0840.0300New
Xiluva2,5920.0201,1670.0100New
African Movement Congress [af]2,1410.0101,5500.0100New
Free Democrats1,9920.0102,2760.01000
Zackie Achmat (Independent)10,5680.0700New
Total16,076,719100.0020015,814,661100.002004000
Valid votes16,076,71998.6915,814,66199.02
Invalid/blank votes213,4371.31156,8340.98
Total votes16,290,156100.0015,971,495100.00
Registered voters/turnout27,782,08158.6427,782,08157.49
Source: Electoral Commission of South Africa, IOL

Current composition[edit]

Party Seats %
ANC 159 39.75
DA 87 21.75
MK 58 14.5
EFF 39 9.75
IFP 17 4.25
PA 9 2.25
VF+ 6 1.5
ActionSA 6 1.5
ACDP 3 0.75
UDM 3 0.75
RISE 2 0.5
BOSA 2 0.5
ATM 2 0.5
Al Jama-ah 2 0.5
NCC 2 0.5
PAC 1 0.25
UAT 1 0.25
Good 1 0.25
Total 400 100.00

Salaries of members of the National Assembly[edit]

Annual monetary remuneration[edit]

As of 2024, the highest earning members of the National Assembly are the Speaker of the National Assembly and the deputy president of the Republic of South Africa, who is the head of the executive government's representatives in the National Assembly. They each earn an annual salary of R3,164,654.[7][8][9]

The second highest earning members of the National Assembly are Members of Parliament (MP) who are also cabinet ministers. They earn an annual salary of R2,689,937.

The Deputy Speaker and deputy ministers earn an annual salary of R2,215,220.[9]

Senior MPs, such as the leader of the opposition and chief whips of the majority party, earn an annual salary of R1,792,595.[9]

MPs who chair committees earn an annual salary of R1,675,314.[9]

Leaders of minority parties earn R1,507,841.[9]

Regular MPs earn R1,274,536.[9]

Other benefits[edit]

  • 88 domestic journeys per year which can either be by air, train, bus or vehicle.
  • Transport to and from South African airports.
  • Parking at South African airports.
  • Transport of dependents.
  • Relocation costs.
  • "Tools of trade", which include mobile phones, tablets and laptops.
  • Equipment, furniture and stationery for MPs' offices inside the national assembly.
  • Personal accident insurance.
  • Accommodation at the parliamentary villages in Cape Town.
  • Daily transport to and from the villages to parliament.

According to Business Insider South Africa, SA MPs are in the top 1% earning bracket in the nation.[10] The lowest earning MP earns a monthly salary of around R92,245.[8][7] This salary comes while the average South African earned a monthly salary of around R21,432, as of September 2019[11] and the minimum wage was just R20 per hour.[12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "LOOK: Check out the National Assembly's 'new' venue [PICS]". The South African. 14 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  2. ^ Thale, Neo (14 June 2024). "BREAKING: ANC's Thoko Didiza is the new speaker of Parliament". The South African. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  3. ^ Thale, Neo (14 June 2024). "BREAKING: DA's Annelie Lotriet is the new deputy speaker of Parliament". The South African. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  4. ^ "LIVE | Another fire truck arrives at Parliament, National Assembly chamber 'completely gutted'". News24. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  5. ^ "National Assembly sittings to be held at Good Hope Chamber". Jacaranda FM. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  6. ^ "Budget Speech to be held at Parliament's Good Hope Chamber". Independent Online. South Africa. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  7. ^ a b Grant, Africa Check, Researched by Laura (29 May 2019). "How much do South African MPs earn?". The Citizen. Retrieved 4 October 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ a b "How much do South African members of parliament earn?". Africa Check. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Ramaphosa approves salary hikes for ministers, MPs and premiers". Business Tech. 6 June 2024. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  10. ^ "Cellphones, R1-million salaries, free flights and airport parking – these are some of the perks awaiting new MPs". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  11. ^ Staff Writer. "This is the average salary in South Africa right now". Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  12. ^ "Employment and Labour on new National Minimum Wage rate | South African Government". gov.za. Retrieved 4 October 2020.

External links[edit]