National Association of the Motion Picture Industry
The National Association of the Motion Picture Industry (NAMPI) was a regulatory body created by the Hollywood studios in 1916 to answer demands of censorship. The system consisted of a series of "Thirteen Points", a list of subjects and storylines they promised to avoid. The organization tried to prevent New York from becoming the first state with its own censorship board in 1921, but failed. NAMPI was ineffective and was replaced when the studio hired Will H. Hays to oversee censorship in 1922.
- "American film censorship". filmreference.com. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
- Butters. pg. 149
- Black. pg. 30
- Doherty. pg. 6
- Black, Gregory D. Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics, and the Movies. Cambridge University Press 1996 ISBN 0-521-56592-8
- Butters, Gerard R. Banned in Kansas: motion picture censorship, 1915-1966. University of Missouri Press 2007
- Doherty, Thomas Patrick. Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema 1930-1934. New York: Columbia University Press 1999. ISBN 0-231-11094-4
- Wittern-Keller, Laura. Freedom of the Screen: Legal Challenges to State Film Censorship, 1915-1981. University Press of Kentucky 2008 ISBN 978-0-8131-2451-3
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