National Basketball Association criticisms and controversies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The National Basketball Association (NBA) has faced a multitude of criticisms from sports publications, fans, and its own players.

Racial and cultural issues[edit]

Many criticized the NBA for embracing hip hop culture. While some observers have argued that this criticism has more to do with race than hip hop itself, it is a fact that the league is very much connected to hip hop culture. Rappers Nelly and Jay-Z had ownership stakes in NBA teams (the Charlotte Hornets and Brooklyn Nets respectively), and many artists have worn NBA throwback jerseys in music videos. In turn, the NBA plays rap and hip-hop in arenas during games. NBA video games NBA 2K and NBA Live use hip-hop in their soundtrack, and ABC/ESPN also use the music during its coverage. Players in the NBA have tried having rap or hip hop careers themselves (Shaquille O'Neal, Kobe Bryant, Tony Parker, Allen Iverson, Chris Webber, Damian Lillard and Ron Artest are some examples) and several also dress and act in ways that are in accordance with the hip hop culture (for example, the tattoos and jewelry worn by several players).

Some have argued that the criticism of the NBA is hypocritical, considering the relative lack of criticism of Major League Baseball (MLB), National Hockey League (NHL) or National Football League (NFL) players.[1][2] Some have also noticed that music genres and sports partnerships are not limited to the NBA, with alternative rock and hard rock being associated with the NHL, and country music being associated with NASCAR.[1][2]

Donald Sterling[edit]

Accusations of discrimination[edit]

In February 2009, Los Angeles Clippers owner Donald Sterling was sued by former longtime Clippers executive Elgin Baylor for employment discrimination on the basis of age and race.[3] The lawsuit alleges Sterling told Baylor that he wanted to fill his team with "poor black boys from the South and a white head coach".[4] The suit alleges that during negotiations for Danny Manning, Sterling said "I'm offering a lot of money for a poor black kid."[4][5] The suit noted those comments while alleging "the Caucasian head coach was given a four-year, $22-million contract", but Baylor's salary had "been frozen at a comparatively paltry $350,000 since 2003".[3]

Accusation of racism[edit]

On April 25, 2014, TMZ Sports released what it said is an April 9, 2014 audio recording of a conversation between Sterling and his mistress, V. Stiviano.[6][7] According to TMZ, Sterling and Stiviano argued in regards to a photo Stiviano posted on Instagram in which she posed with Magic Johnson.[7] In the audio recording, Sterling allegedly tells Stiviano: "It bothers me a lot that you want to broadcast that you’re associating with black people." and, "You can sleep with [black people]. You can bring them in, you can do whatever you want", but "the little I ask you is ... not to bring them to my games".[6] Clippers president Andy Roesen issued a statement the following day, indicating that his organization was unsure if it was a legitimate and unaltered recording, that the sentiments attributed to Sterling did not reflect Sterling's views, and that the woman on the recording was being sued by the Sterling family and had "told Mr. Sterling that she would 'get even' with him".[8][9] The Los Angeles chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) cancelled its plans for the following month to award Sterling for a second time with its lifetime achievement award.[10] President Barack Obama characterized the recording attributed to Sterling as "incredibly offensive racist statements". Obama then stated, "When ignorant folks want to advertise their ignorance, you don’t really have to do anything, you just let them talk."[11] On April 29, the NBA, upon confirming the taped conversations, announced that Sterling has been banned for life and fined $2.5 million.[12]

Dress code[edit]

Perhaps mainly because of the above-mentioned criticism, the NBA instituted a dress code in 2005, banning all clothing associated with the hip hop culture. Players were instructed not to wear jewelry, throwback jerseys, headphones, indoor sunglasses and other accessories, and instead were told to wear "business casual" clothing. The dress code, characterized by some as "clearly and unapologetically directed toward suppressing hip-hop culture",[13] was instantly controversial and a topic on many sports radio talk shows for several days.

Baggy shorts, also a symbol of hip hop culture, were banned by the league as well, which instituted a rule on the length of players' shorts while playing.[14] Tights, which players started to wear under their shorts in the 2005–06 season (though not a symbol of hip hop culture) were banned as well. No players were fined for dress code violations during the 2005–06 season. The league has also attempted to more greatly distance itself from hip hop since the infamous Pacers–Pistons brawl in 2004; in the 2005 NBA All-Star Game, country music stars Big and Rich performed at halftime, a move that was ridiculed by TNT analyst and former NBA player Charles Barkley. In addition, as noted later in this article, ABC Sports (after relying on hip-hop music early on) has used artists such as Rob Thomas and Tom Petty for the NBA Finals in recent years.

Team relocation controversies[edit]

Vancouver Grizzlies move to Memphis[edit]

The Vancouver Grizzlies moved to Memphis, Tennessee after the 2000–01 NBA season. On January 25, 2001, it was announced that the Grizzlies would be sold by Orca Bay Sports & Entertainment to Michael Heisley, who originally intended to keep the team in Vancouver. However, the team moved, in part due to the weak Canadian dollar, lack of local ownership, and the unwillingness of some players to live in Canada. After a bidding war between Memphis, Louisville, Anaheim and New Orleans, Heisley selected Memphis as the relocation destination for the Grizzlies on March 26, 2001.[15] Heisley selected Memphis because it offered a better deal and had better local executive leadership than Louisville.[16] Eventually, the NBA Board of Governors approved the team's plans to move to Memphis on July 4, 2001 and the team became the Memphis Grizzlies for the 2001–02 NBA season.[17]

Seattle SuperSonics move to Oklahoma City[edit]

The Seattle SuperSonics moved to Oklahoma City after the 2007–08 NBA season. After failed efforts to persuade Washington state government officials to provide funding to update KeyArena, the SuperSonics' ownership group, led by Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz, sold the team to Professional Basketball Club LLC (PBC), an investment group headed by Oklahoma City businessman Clay Bennett. After failing to persuade local governments to fund a US$500 million arena complex, Bennett's group notified the NBA that it intended to move the team to Oklahoma City and requested arbitration with the city of Seattle to be released from its lease with KeyArena. When the request was rejected by a judge, Seattle sued Bennett's group to enforce the lease that required the team to play in KeyArena through 2010. On July 2, 2008, a settlement was reached that allowed the team to move under certain conditions. Details of the settlement revealed that PBC would pay the city of Seattle $45 million immediately in exchange for breaking the KeyArena lease and an additional $30 million if Seattle was not given a replacement team in five years. Also, according to the conditions of the settlement, the Sonics' name and colors could not be used by the team in Oklahoma City, but could be taken by a future team in Seattle, although no promises for a replacement team were given. The Oklahoma City team would retain the franchise history of the SuperSonics, which could be "shared" with any future NBA team in Seattle. The team moved to Oklahoma City immediately and became the Oklahoma City Thunder, beginning play for the 2008–09 NBA season.[18][19]

Altercations[edit]

Latrell Sprewell chokes coach[edit]

In 1997, Latrell Sprewell was involved in arguably the most infamous incident in the NBA prior to the Pacers–Pistons brawl seven years later.

During a contentious practice, then-Golden State Warrior Sprewell was involved in an altercation with head coach P.J. Carlesimo in which he choked his coach and threatened to kill him.

The incident brought mainstream attention, but not quite the amount of criticism of the league as a whole as later controversies would. While some wondered if Sprewell's actions were indicative of a growing trend in the league, others tempered that belief with the idea that it was an isolated incident. Then active player Buck Williams said this on PBS:

Sprewell would have his image redeemed somewhat after a run to the NBA Finals with the New York Knicks in 1999. However, after a contentious battle with the Minnesota Timberwolves over his salary in 2004, his image took another hit. Sprewell retired for good in 2005. After his retirement, he suffered several financial difficulties, including his home being foreclosed on and having his yacht forcibly seized and sold at auction.[21]

Pacers–Pistons brawl[edit]

Ron Artest was a major participant in the infamous Pacers–Pistons brawl.

After a massive altercation between Indiana Pacers players and Detroit Pistons fans on November 19, 2004, the NBA came under severe criticism from the national and mainstream media.[when?] Commentators, and those familiar with the event outside the sports media, were divided over the issues of who should primarily be blamed for the incident. Anger and blame was placed on the players, at NBA Union Chief Billy Hunter, who protested the length of suspensions,[22] the fans who sparked the melee and the referees who did not put a stop to it.[23]

Some in the media viewed the brawl as a statement on the disconnect between white fans and black players. USA Today's Ian O'Connor wrote:

In the wake of the brawl, the NBA came under harsh scrutiny from some outlets. Noted conservative radio personality (and former ESPN NFL analyst) Rush Limbaugh said the brawl was "hip-hop culture on parade" and also added the statement that "NBA uniforms are now in gang colors. They are in gang styles." NBA commissioner David Stern, in a 2006 interview, made this comment about the brawl-related criticism:

Knicks–Nuggets brawl[edit]

The Knicks-Nuggets brawl was an on-court altercation at a NBA game between the New York Knicks and Denver Nuggets at Madison Square Garden on December 16, 2006. This altercation was the most penalized on-court fight since the Pacers–Pistons brawl.

All ten players on the court at the time of the altercation were ejected, and seven players total were suspended. Carmelo Anthony of the Nuggets was suspended for 15 games, while J. R. Smith and Nate Robinson were suspended for 10 games each. Neither coach was suspended; still, some believed that then-Knicks coach Isiah Thomas should have been suspended for allegedly telling his players to foul any Nuggets player who attempted a dunk or layup. NBA Commissioner David Stern received criticism for not including Thomas in the suspensions.[26] Some viewed Stern's leniency as evidence of a special relationship with Thomas.[27][28]

Thomas was accused of trying to bring back the mentality of the late 1980s Detroit Pistons, who were known for their physical play.[29] Various columnists and observers found Thomas' actions inappropriate; before the fight, Thomas was seen warning Anthony not to go into the lane. ESPN analyst and former NBA player Greg Anthony stated that "I never had a coach say that to an opponent ... I've had a coach say, do a better job protecting our territory. That's a little different."[30]

The fight brought a large amount of media attention, and was a topic on mainstream news broadcasts, including World News with Charles Gibson.[31] Several columnists claimed that the NBA had been set back several years, and many used the fight as evidence of the league being a haven for thugs.[32][33]

Knicks guard Steve Francis noted that the media reaction to the fight and the suspensions itself were "racially motivated".[34] Francis argued that MLB and the NHL had fights worse or equal to the Knicks/Nuggets altercation and rarely faced the type of media attention and scrutiny that the NBA received. Several columnists agreed, including Sam Smith (who called the coverage "racist and nonsense" in a piece),[35] J. A. Adande and David Aldridge.[36][37]

Kobe Bryant trials[edit]

Age limit[edit]

In 2005, the NBA was in the midst of creating a new collective bargaining agreement. One of the main topics of the deal was the league's desire to create a new age limit for players to enter the NBA draft.

The idea of an age limit had been talked about for several years, after the entrance into the league of several high school players. While several players who have entered the league out of high school have become successes (Kobe Bryant, LeBron James, Kevin Garnett, Dwight Howard, J. R. Smith, Amar'e Stoudemire, Jermaine O'Neal, Rashard Lewis, Tracy McGrady, and decades ago, Shawn Kemp and Moses Malone), others have been relative failures (for example, Ndudi Ebi, James Lang, Kwame Brown, Sebastian Telfair, Eddy Curry, Robert Swift, DeSagana Diop). Those in favor of an age limit made the argument that players entering the league out of high school did not know the fundamentals of playing professional basketball and also were not mature enough to handle playing in the NBA.

Proponents of the age limit included Michael Wilbon, who argued that it was important for young players to get an education.[39] Wilbon's belief, while held by many, has also been referred to as "simplistic" and "[reflective] not just [of] hypocrisy but a reimagination of reality as well".[40] Michael Mccann of the Mississippi College School of Law made this argument:

Greg Anthony was one prominent NBA personality against the age limit. Anthony's belief was that people should be able to make their own decisions about whether or not to enter the league, and that (quoting an article and not Anthony himself) "players from inner-city high schools aren't academically qualified for college because of the lower quality of education compared to their suburban counterparts".[42] This led him into conflict with Wilbon and Stephen A. Smith. On an April 2005 edition of NBA Shootaround, Anthony and Smith got into a heated debate about the age-limit.[43] This came only days after Anthony was the primary interviewer in a discussion with Indiana Pacers forward Jermaine O'Neal.

The interview was described by Sports Illustrated writer Mark Bechtel as "...Greg Anthony putting words in O'Neal's mouth then saying something along the lines of, 'Is that what you meant?' And then O'Neal would say, 'Exactly.'"[44] It came on the heels of O'Neal discussing the age limit in the context of race, and as he was in the midst of growing media attention and criticism.

As noted in the article The Real Color of Money: Controlling Black Bodies in the NBA by David Leonard, O'Neal was roundly attacked for his opinion, with many accusing him of playing the race card.

With the agreement on a new collective bargaining agreement, the age limit was put into place. Any person attempting to enter the NBA draft must wait until the calendar year of his 19th birthday, and must also be at least one year out of high school. However, since the implementation of these rules, certain players have used alternative methods to enter the draft, to the point where some players declare while even still playing in high school. Players like Brandon Jennings, Emmanuel Mudiay, and Terrence Ferguson have entered their respective NBA drafts while spending a year out overseas. More recently, some players like Satnam Singh, Thon Maker, and Matur Maker have entered their respective NBA drafts while being considered as high school postgraduates, meaning they've played a fifth year of high school basketball for various reasons instead of go to college. Furthermore, both Latavious Williams and Mitchell Robinson entered their NBA drafts by entering the NBA Development League (now NBA G League) and skipping out college for a year respectively.

No tolerance rule[edit]

At the start of the 2006–07 NBA season, the NBA instituted a new rule regarding in-game player complaints. The "no tolerance rule", as it was referred to by players and the media, allowed referees to call technical fouls when players complained too vehemently about calls.

The season started with a spike in the number of technical fouls and ejections. There were "one-hundred-four technicals and seven ejections in the first fifty-one games", while "only seven games of the first fifty-one games thus far have had no technical fouls".[45] Denver Nuggets forward Carmelo Anthony, who would later be suspended for his participation in a fight later that year, was suspended on opening night of the season after two technical fouls.

Some observers viewed the rule as unfair and taking the passion out of the game; others believed that it only served to take pressure off of referees who made bad calls.

Others agreed with the rule, viewing it as a much needed policy to cut down on the "whining" by players in the league.

After the initial spike at the start of the season, the amount of technical fouls and ejections declined significantly towards the middle of the year. Several players, including Denver Nuggets guard Allen Iverson, were still ejected on technical fouls; Iverson's ejection came during his first game against his former team, the Philadelphia 76ers, and he was later fined by the league for claiming that referee Steve Javie ejected him on the basis of a feud the two supposedly had.[50]

Conspiracies[edit]

Big Market Team Favourable Biased[edit]

Some NBA fans have accused the league of conspiring to have large-market teams and popular players succeed in the postseason. Since 1980, every NBA Finals has involved at least one of the following teams: Boston Celtics, Chicago Bulls, Detroit Pistons, Golden State Warriors, Houston Rockets, Los Angeles Lakers, Miami Heat or San Antonio Spurs. Additionally, in that span, every NBA Finals has involved at least one of the following All-Star players: Larry Bird, Magic Johnson, Isiah Thomas, Michael Jordan, Hakeem Olajuwon, Shaquille O'Neal, Tim Duncan, Kobe Bryant, LeBron James, or Stephen Curry.

Many of these accusations are based on the premise that the NBA desires large markets and popular players for ratings purposes. Former CBS Sports president Neal Pilson disputes the idea that matchups have the biggest effect on ratings:

1984 NBA Finals – Celtics vs. Lakers[edit]

The 1984 NBA Finals was highly anticipated, with the Boston Celtics and the Los Angeles Lakers playing in their eighth Finals matchup ever since their first showdown in 1969. It also featured two of the biggest young stars of the era, Larry Bird and Magic Johnson, who had previously faced off in the finals of the 1979 NCAA Division I Basketball Tournament, where Magic's Michigan State team defeated Bird's Indiana State squad.

Game 6 proved controversial when the Lakers were sent to the foul line on numerous occasions on questionable calls. This led Larry Bird to claim that Commissioner David Stern had requested that the game be officiated in the Lakers's favor in hopes of extending the series to a seventh game.

Despite his conspiracy claim, The Boston Celtics did win in Game 7 earning the 111-102 victory over the Los Angeles Lakers.

1988 NBA Finals - Pistons vs. Lakers[edit]

The 1988 NBA Finals was yet another highly anticipated, with the first time, Detroit Pistons entering into the Finals and the Los Angeles Lakers. It also featured two of the biggest stars in their prime with Magic Johnson and Isiah Thomas.

The Pistons took a 3-2 series lead. With 14 seconds remaining in Game 6 and the Pistons up 102-101, Bill Laimbeer was called for a foul on Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Laimbeer fouled out on the call and Abdul-Jabbar made both free throws to give the Lakers a 103-102 victory. The Lakers won Game 7 108-105, clinching the title. In his 1993 book, The Winner Within, Lakers coach Pat Riley referred to the call as "that phantom skyhook foul."[53]

2001 Eastern Conference Finals – Bucks vs. Sixers[edit]

In 2001, the Milwaukee Bucks played the Philadelphia 76ers in the Eastern Conference Finals. The small-market Bucks (who had not even been featured on NBC that year prior to the second round of the Playoffs) did not have any "big-time" stars, with the exception of Ray Allen (who, despite being popular, was not in the upper-echelon of NBA players in terms of endorsements). Their opponent that year, the 76ers had the polarizing and popular Allen Iverson, who had a multitude of shoe deals and mainstream recognition. The Sixers also featured that year's winners of the MVP award in Iverson,[54] Defensive Player of the Year award in Dikembe Mutombo,[55] Sixth Man of the Year award in Aaron McKie,[56] and Coach of the Year award in Larry Brown.[57] During game 5, there were numerous major favourable calls for the 76ers. Glenn Robinson had not went to the foul line in any of the previous games, causing them to be viewed as suspect. Ray Allen voiced the claim that the league preferred the Sixers to be in the finals as opposed to them.

This controversy is largely based on complaints levied by members of the Bucks organization regarding the officiating of the series. Glenn Robinson, Sam Cassell and then-head coach George Karl joined Allen in complaining about the officiating and hinting that the league was against them. Karl and Allen were both fined for their comments.[58] In Game 6 of the tensely fought series, Bucks forward Scott Williams threw an elbow at Iverson and was subsequently suspended for the deciding Game 7. (Iverson had already missed a game, the Bucks Game 3 win, and been limited in others after being hit by the Bucks earlier in the series.) After the Bucks lost Game 7 on the road, Sports Illustrated columnist Marty Burns insinuated that the suspension may have been a form of payback by the league:

While normally a starter, Williams generally played limited minutes and averaged just over 4 points per game during the portion of the series in which he played. He was suspended because this was his third flagrant foul of the playoffs.

The Sixers were fourth in the league in regular season free throws attempted. The Bucks, largely a jump shooting team, were 25th.[60]

2002 Western Conference Finals – Kings Vs. Lakers[edit]

The 2002 Western Conference Finals between the Sacramento Kings and Los Angeles Lakers was one of the most memorable in league history. The popular (though small-market) Kings led the two-time defending NBA champion Lakers three games to two heading into Game 6 at Staples Center, a game which would prove to be the most infamous of the series. The game, which the Lakers won by four, featured several disputable calls, including a late game no-call involving Mike Bibby—after he was bleeding from being elbowed in the nose by Kobe Bryant. This game was the epitome of the major issue in the series. Both teams complained about the officiating at different points in the series (the Kings in Game 6 and the Lakers in Games 2 and 5). Quoting then-ESPN basketball analyst David Aldridge:

Former presidential candidate Ralph Nader weighed in on the series, voicing his displeasure with the officiating:

The Kings would go on to lose Game 7 of the series at home. Former NBA referee Tim Donaghy filed in court papers in 2008 said that Game 6 was fixed by the NBA. NBA Commissioner David Stern denies allegations. Lawrence Pedowitz, who led a review of the league's officiating following the outbreak of the scandal, concluded that, while Game 6 was poorly officiated, no concrete evidence existed of that game being fixed.[63]

Accusation from Jeff Van Gundy[edit]

During a 2005 playoff series against the Dallas Mavericks, Houston Rockets coach Jeff Van Gundy was fined a record amount for a coach, $100,000, for asserting that he had a source within the league who informed him that the referees were being instructed to call more fouls on Yao Ming, due to protests by Mavericks owner Mark Cuban.[64]

2006 NBA Finals – Dallas vs. Miami[edit]

The 2006 NBA Finals came the year after a series that saw the second-lowest ratings in NBA Finals history. After the Detroit Pistons and the small-market San Antonio Spurs slugged it out in a seven-game series, the 2006 Finals was considered more attractive because it featured the relatively large market Miami Heat and Dallas Mavericks and superstars Dirk Nowitzki, Shaquille O'Neal, and Dwyane Wade.

With the series tied at two games apiece, Game 5 was pivotal. On the final possession in overtime, Wade received an inbounds pass from mid court. Because Wade had already been in the front court prior to the inbounds of the ball, some argue that he should have been ruled ineligible to receive the pass in the backcourt and the Heat should have been called for a backcourt violation. After receiving the ball, Wade went on to drive to the basket, drawing a foul on Nowitzki. Replays would reveal that Nowitzki barely touched Wade, further angering Mavericks fans. However, the replay also showed Mavericks' guard Devin Harris grabbing Wade's arm. In between Wade's free throws, Maverick Josh Howard looked to coach Avery Johnson to see if he wanted to call for time. Howard made a timeout gesture towards his coach; referee Joe Derosa saw and charged Dallas with their final timeout.

Without a timeout, the Mavericks were forced to inbound from full court after Wade hit his second free throw. Unable to get off a shot from inside of half court as time expired, the Mavericks lost the game and the series two nights later. Game 5 had 38 fouls called against the Mavericks with only 26 against the Heat. The Mavericks shot 25 free throws as the Heat shot 49. After Game 5, Mavericks owner Mark Cuban was livid; he was quoted by The Miami Herald as screaming at David Stern that "[his] league is rigged". Cuban denied making the statement,[65] and went on to write:

Despite his denial, Cuban was fined $250,000 by the league, not for his alleged comments, but for general "acts of misconduct" following the game.

In Game 5, Wade shot a total of 25 free throws, equaling the entire Mavericks team total.

In Game 6, suspicions ran even higher as the Heat were awarded 37 free throws compared to the Mavericks’ 23. Wade shot a total of 21 free throws, nearly matching the Mavericks’ team total, including those from a foul called after bumping into Nowitzki, who was standing in Wade's way during the last 10 seconds of play, which costed them the game and allowed the Heat to walk away with their first championship. Following the season, Mavericks owner Mark Cuban allegedly hired a former FBI agent to investigate the series. He supposedly dropped this investigation due to the risk of him being banned from the league for life.[66]

2007 Western Conference Semi-finals – Suns vs. Spurs[edit]

In what some media outlets claimed were the true 2007 NBA Finals that year,[67][68] the 2007 Western Conference Semi-Finals match bettered heated rivals in the Phoenix Suns and the San Antonio Spurs under what would be the most controversial series between the two to date. The popular Phoenix Suns squad under the Seven Seconds or Less and the small-market San Antonio Spurs kicked off the series with a 111–106 Spurs win with a collision between Steve Nash and Tony Parker, with Nash having a deep cut on his nose that later forced him to sit out for a good portion of Game 1. After a dominant 101–81 performance from the Suns in Game 2, the Spurs would end Game 3 with a 108–101 win over the Suns and Manu Ginóbili would have a bruised, black eye being poked by Shawn Marion. However, near the end of Game 4, the series would reach its critical breaking point.

In the last minute of Game 4, where the Suns would win 104–98 and even up the series, Robert Horry of the Spurs collided with Steve Nash during a play and pushed Nash into the scorer's table mid-court. During this altercation, Raja Bell of the Suns would try to help his teammate out of there, but was stopped by the referees and players at hand, including Amar'e Stoudemire and Boris Diaw, who were on the team's bench at the time of the altercation. As a result of the altercation between Horry and Nash, not only would the Spurs' Horry received a two-game suspension for his outburst, but the Suns' Diaw and Stoudemire would also be suspended for Game 5 as well, with the only rule that league commissioner David Stern said they violated at that point was leaving the bench during an altercation.[69][70] Phoenix Suns head coach Mike D'Antoni weighed in on the suspensions of Stoudemire and Diaw, seeing as how they were important pieces for the Suns, questioning the fairness on their suspensions despite not being instigators in it:

The suspensions would prove to be the Suns' downfall near the end of the series. Despite leading most of Game 5 at home, the Suns would lose it 88–85 and would then lose Game 6 and the series in San Antonio 114–106, being down by as many as 20 points in the third quarter at one point despite the returns of Stoudemire and Diaw. The call on their suspensions would be further questioned and criticized in 2009 after a similar situation occurred with the Boston Celtics, yet certain key players on their team didn't receive similar suspensions themselves. In the aftermath of the 2007 Playoffs, one of the referees that was involved with this series, Tim Donaghy, was involved in a betting scandal that claimed fix-ups on certain NBA games and playoff series's. During a 2011 interview, he admitted that he felt the Suns were the better team that season, but the series was poorly officiated from the very start until the bitter end.[72] In his 2009 book Personal Foul: A First-Person Account of the Scandal That Rocked the NBA, Donaghy stated the following about the series, particularly about his supervisor during the series, Tommy Nuñez:

However, that doesn't solve the case as the Suns trade majority of the player (Shawn Marion and Marcus Banks) for Shaq. But lost again in the next season playoffs against the Spurs once more.

2007 NBA Finals – San Antonio vs. Cleveland[edit]

The 2007 NBA Finals are considered to have the lowest television ratings in NBA history, after the San Antonio Spurs swept the Cleveland Cavaliers. Many fans instead expected a Detroit Pistons rematch with Spurs from the 2005 NBA Finals. Rasheed Wallace, who then played power forward for the Pistons following the 2006–07 NBA season, claimed that the league wanted to make more money by featuring LeBron James into the Finals instead of them, just to make more excitement rather than the boring matches like they have been two years ago.

Despite his controversial statement around the start of the next season, the Detroit Pistons was able to make it to the 2008 NBA Playoffs as a second seed, which they manage to defeat Philadelphia 76ers from 2-1 deficit and Orlando Magic in 4-1 before reaching to the Eastern Conference Finals again and end up losing to the eventual champion Boston Celtics in a third straight row. That would lead to the dismembered core of the team following the start of the 2008-09 NBA season, which they won the title during the 2004 NBA Finals.

2009 Eastern Conference First Round – Bulls vs. Celtics[edit]

During a 2009 playoff series between the Boston Celtics and Chicago Bulls, many Bulls fans felt that the referees were favoring the Celtics. In Game 5, Celtics guard Rajon Rondo made hard contact with the face of Bulls' center Brad Miller, with just 2 seconds left in overtime with the Celtics leading by two. Earlier in Game 5, Rondo tripped Bulls guard Kirk Hinrich, forcing Hinrich to get stitches to close the resulting wounds from being tripped. The hit on Miller left him with a bleeding mouth, but because the foul was ruled a personal foul, Miller had to shoot the free throws, or he would not have been allowed to return, and the Celtics would pick the replacement shooter. Had the foul been ruled a flagrant, the Bulls would have been able to pick the replacement shooter. Miller would miss the first free throw, and then had to miss the second on purpose to give Bulls a chance to tie the game, but the free throw did not hit the rim and the Celtics got possession and ran out the clock. Rondo admitted after the game that he did not have a play on the ball.[75]

In Game 6, near the end of the first quarter, Rondo threw Hinrich into the scorer's table in a fashion similar to Robert Horry's body slam of Steve Nash 2 years earlier. Rondo was assessed a flagrant 1, which allowed for him to stay in the game, rather than a flagrant 2 which would have meant an ejection (which was Horry's punishment for his similar foul). Furthermore, after both games, the league reviewed the incidents in question and decided not to suspend Rondo or upgrade the fouls, while Horry's body slam earned him a 2-game suspension. Meanwhile, Orlando Magic center Dwight Howard was suspended for Game 6 of the Magic's series vs. the Philadelphia 76ers after the league reviewed tape of him elbowing Sixers center Samuel Dalembert in the head in Game 5. It was ruled a technical on the floor, but after review, the league upgraded the foul to a flagrant 2.

2009 NBA Finals – Magic vs. Lakers[edit]

The 2009 NBA Finals had been one of the most forgettable matchup featuring the Orlando Magic and Los Angeles Lakers as dub it as Disney Series, While many fans claim that It should be the Cleveland Cavaliers and the Los Angeles Lakers matchup in a duel of superstars Kobe Versus LeBron following the Boston Celtics then, Power Forward Kevin Garnett went down with the Knee injury. Others believed such as Magic should had won the championship instead of Lakers, due to many calls are favouring the Lakers as nine out of ten analyser favouring the Lakers to be the winning team. While only one favouring the Magic to win.[76][77] Many of the news also hinted about Jameer Nelson returning to the line up to play, during in the regular season where he led the Magic to sweep the Lakers. Follow by the presumable season-ending injury of torn labrum in his right shoulder during at Dallas Homecourt game in February 2, 2009.[78] But was later confirmed that he played. While the series went to L.A. with 2-0, back to the home floor of Orlando Magic on game 3. The controversial call on Dwight Howard after attempting to block Kobe Bryant has raised question for the league about favoring L.A all the way. Following the call, Bryant only hit the one out of two free throw at the court. Where in that game having a terrible Free throw shooting percentage, which will lead to Orlando wins for the first time in NBA Finals after a steal from Mikael Pietrus.

In Game 4, it is the most intense during the first half, the Magic was able to lead in 12 and outscore the Lakers with 49-37 before going into Halftime show. Following the third quarter, the Lakers comes out outscored the Magic 30–14 in the 3rd quarter and took the lead to 67-62. Questioning about Stan Van Gundy whether wanted to keep Jameer Nelson continue to play the rest of the 4th quarter had come into criticism for not letting Rafer Alston to play especially with the decision of not to foul them during in less than 11 second left, which ultimately led to their downfall after going into Overtime, following Derek Fisher hit a pivot 3-pointer to tied it at 87 from Nelson poor defense. Another argument during in the Overtime, Nelson and Lewis double team Bryant, while Nelson was got hit by the elbow of him and was never called by the referee, before Fisher hit another 3-pointer to took the lead 94-91. Which guarantee the Lakers took the lead to 3-1.[79] That raise into question which referee didn't see, following in 7 years ago. The same thing that happened in Western Conference Finals Game 6 after Kobe elbow to Mike Bibby in less than 30 seconds.[80]

[80]

Followed by Rafer Alston comments of the league for not called the obvious foul from the referee.

[80]

However, this doesn't help the fact to solve the controversy as the Lakers won in game 5 for their 15th straight championship earning the 99-86 victory over the Orlando Magic.

NBA Draft[edit]

The 1985 NBA draft was the first to use the NBA Draft Lottery. Prior to that year, there was a coin flip between the teams with the worst record in each conference to see which team would get the first pick in the draft. The Golden State Warriors, which represent the San Francisco Bay Area, finished with the worst record in the NBA during the 1984–85 season and would have had the first draft choice under the previous system. That year, Georgetown center Patrick Ewing was the favorite to be the number one pick in the draft. The lottery was established out of concern that the Houston Rockets had been intentionally playing poorly in order to draft the best players, such as centers Ralph Sampson and Hakeem Olajuwon in 1983 and 1984 respectively.

During the first live televised draft lottery ceremony, the league used a system where sealed envelopes representing the teams with the worst records were mixed in a tumbler, and then drawn by NBA Commissioner David Stern one at a time to determine which of these clubs would get the first pick onwards. However, when these envelopes were added to the tumbler, one envelope was put in forcibly and banged against the edge, bending the corner, while all the rest of the envelopes were set in gently. Stern closely watched the tumbler spinning and took a deep breath when drawing for the first pick, and went for the envelope with the bent corner, which upon opening the envelope, it was revealed that the New York Knicks logo was inside. The large-market New York Knicks, who finished with the third-worst record in the league that season, eventually used the first pick to draft Ewing who would become a legend on the team and lead the Knicks to the 1994 NBA Finals. (Although the Knicks also reached the 1999 NBA Finals, Ewing was injured during that time). Nevertheless, the "bent envelope" fueled speculation that the league staged the result.[81][82][83] As a response to the controversy, the NBA would update their system to the more modern weighted lottery system in 1990, which gives the worst teams better odds at receiving the top 3 (later 4) picks of the NBA draft. Nevertheless, the system would receive updates in both 1994, when the Orlando Magic landed back-to-back #1 picks despite their second year having only one lottery combination possible in their chances of winning it, and 2019, after noticing the Philadelphia 76ers looked to lose on purpose for multiple seasons for higher draft picks under Sam Hinkie's regime.

For the 2003 NBA draft, the Cleveland Cavaliers and Denver Nuggets each had equal chances of drafting first overall, with the Cavaliers ultimately winning out. With high school basketball standout and future four-time NBA MVP LeBron James being the consensus number one pick in that year's draft, there was some speculation as to whether or not that year's lottery was rigged in favor of the Cavaliers, due to James being a native of nearby Akron, Ohio.[84] Following James' departure for the Miami Heat in 2010, the Cavaliers would be involved in further speculation in regards to winning three out of four NBA drafts between 2011 and 2014, some of which included the idea of LeBron James returning to the Cavaliers altogether from these drafts; James would ultimately return to Cleveland in 2014.

For the 2008 NBA draft, despite having a 1.6% chance of obtaining the number one pick, projected by many to be Chicago native Derrick Rose, the Chicago Bulls still were awarded the first overall pick and subsequently selected Rose as the first pick. Rose would go on to win NBA Rookie of the Year in the 2008–09 season and would win the NBA MVP in the 2010–2011 season while leading the Bulls to the Eastern Conference Finals that same season.

The New Orleans Hornets won the rights to the first overall selection in the 2012 draft. The Hornets were a league-owned team prior to the draft, leading to continued conspiracy theories about the lottery process.[85][86][87][88] Further suspicions were raised in 2016 and 2017, where former 76ers player Dikembe Mutombo congratulated Philadelphia for winning the first overall pick in the 2016 draft early via Twitter and recently hired Lakers president of basketball operations Magic Johnson and coach Luke Walton stating that the Lakers were going to get a Top 3 pick in the 2017 draft despite having higher odds of losing the pick to Philadelphia weeks before the draft lottery even began that year respectively.[89][90] The latter selection also had the Lakers be in prime position to take Lonzo Ball, a prime high school and college standout point guard from nearby Chino Hills, California, with his father LaVar talking about him being on the Lakers months before the event took place.

Fines and suspensions[edit]

Criticism of referees and officiating[edit]

Players, coaches or front office members criticizing referees, officials or suggesting in any way that the league has conspiracy theories would result in an automatic fine of a minimum of $25,000. Media and fans see this as the league trying to discourage such discussions and comments, as they indeed have things to hide. The league also fears such would have impact ratings and popularity, resulting in lower ratings and most importantly, revenue.

Gestures[edit]

Sam Cassell's Big Cahones dance celebration (from Major League II) are now seen as "obscene gestures". Among those who have also been fined for "dancing" are Caron Butler, Andray Blatche, Marco Belinelli, Andre Iguodala and Jameer Nelson. The fine has been documented to be a minimum of $15,000.

Restgate and Scheduling[edit]

In November 2012, San Antonio Spurs coach Gregg Popovich was fined $250,000 for sending four players home (including stars Tim Duncan, Tony Parker and Manu Ginóbili) before a nationally televised game against the defending champion Miami Heat. It was the Spurs' fourth game in five nights and sixth game in nine nights, all of which were on the road. Commissioner David Stern released a letter before the game claiming Popovich had done a disservice to the league, fans and Miami ticket buyers by not giving them the game they paid to see. Most disagreed with Stern, saying Miami fans were there to see LeBron James and the Heat, not the Spurs. Many felt this was a cultural revenge move by Stern, who in the past had openly admitted he disliked the Spurs' success due to the lack of ratings they brought to the Finals as a small market team.[91] The Spurs ended up leading for most of the game and only lost in the last minute, making Stern appear even more foolish for claiming the game was ruined before it even began. Stern later said that if Popovich had simply kept the players with the team he wouldn't have fined him, which went against his initial claim that the product on the court was diminished by who didn't play.

The incident also called into question the league's scheduling practices, such as cramming so many games into a short amount of time, especially like in the Spurs' case where the team had to travel between each game. Some called for an end to four-games-in-five-nights and five-games-in-seven-nights situations as it could put the players' health at risk and diminishes the product on the court.

Selective TV replays[edit]

While the league has implemented TV replays, as of the 2013–14 season, plays are not reviewable unless they are end of quarter plays, as well as the last 2 minutes of regulation and overtime periods. In many cases, referees have opted not to review final plays of the game, which would have impact on the final win-loss outcome. In the 2013–14 season, regular season games such as the Heat-Pacers, Mavericks-Timberwolves, Mavericks-Pelicans, Clippers-Mavericks, games have resulted in the controversial calls in the final play of the game that changed the outcome. In some cases, the NBA issued official statements after the game, admitting to the errors, however, the game's outcome remained unchanged. Many believe that such statements merely made as a PR move, although no action is done to improve the integrity of the game.

Many criticize too much time spent on replays that could have been resolved within short amounts of time. Oftentimes, the amount of time spent puts the game into long halts. The league is seen as intentionally operating in a way give negative perception of replays in general, as well as merely exaggerating their image of trying to keep the integrity of the game honest.

Joey Crawford[edit]

Joey Crawford was once suspended by the league after a confrontation with Spurs forward Tim Duncan. Duncan was ejected for laughing on the sidelines in a game against the Mavericks in the 2006–07 season. After a meeting between Crawford and the league office, the NBA decided to suspend Crawford for the remainder of the season and made him attend anger management courses.

Accusations of network bias[edit]

During its twelve-year run of covering the NBA, NBC Sports televised a substantial number of games featuring the Chicago Bulls, New York Knicks and Los Angeles Lakers. In the prime-time slot, from 5:30 p.m EST to 8:00 p.m EST, NBC aired games almost exclusively featuring New York City, Chicago or Los Angeles (incidentally, those three cities are the top three television markets in the United States, and have been historically the three most populous cities). Several fans and media analysts viewed this as favoritism,[92] and fans of teams like the Houston Rockets who, despite being a large market (and Houston being the USA's fourth most populous city), being one of the best teams in the early-to-mid-1990s, winning the title in 1994 and 1995, and featuring a superstar in Hakeem Olajuwon, were not featured on NBC at the level of the other three teams, felt as if they were being snubbed.[93][94]

From 1990 to 2002 (NBC's run of covering the NBA), the Bulls, Lakers, and Knicks played in six, four and two NBA Finals respectively, every Finals featuring one or more of those teams except 1995, when the Rockets swept the Orlando Magic to win their second consecutive NBA championship. Until 1998, the Chicago Bulls were a dominant team, and during the early to mid-1990s, the New York Knicks were also in the NBA's elite. From 1997 to 2002, the Los Angeles Lakers also joined the ranks of the best in the NBA.

New game ball[edit]

After the 2005–06 season, David Stern announced that the league would use a new microfiber ball for the 2006–07 season. The microfiber ball replaced the previously used leather balls. The league claimed the new ball would provide better grip than the leather counterparts, especially when wet from player's sweat. Still the majority of players (notably Phoenix Suns point guard Steve Nash) expressed dislike for the new ball, saying among other things that it became slippery when wet, bounced awkwardly and gave players cuts.[95][96][97]

The largest complaint came from the fact that players had not been consulted before the new ball was put into play. The NBA Players Association filed an unfair labor practice lawsuit against the league because of that fact,[98] subsequently dropping it after the league announced that it would revert to the leather balls starting on January 1, 2007. In a humorous move, the Washington Wizards played a video on the Verizon Center scoreboard welcoming back the "new old ball".[99][100] Despite complaints, scoring and field goal percentage went up while the microfiber ball was used.[101] Some individual players, however, including Chicago Bulls guard Ben Gordon and then Seattle SuperSonics guard Ray Allen, saw their usually high three-point shooting percentages decline.[102]

A more rigorous study found that while shooting percentages did in fact increase, so did turnover rates.[103]

In the aftermath, Commissioner Stern said that players would have more input on future decisions.[104]

Referee gambling scandal[edit]

In July 2007, reports of an investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) were made public, which alleged that during the 2005–06 and 2006–07 NBA seasons, referee Tim Donaghy bet on games in which he officiated.[105] On August 15, 2007, Donaghy pleaded guilty to two federal charges related to the investigation, and a year later he was sentenced to 15 months in prison and three years of supervised release. As a result, the general reaction by the media was that the NBA's popularity would be hurt by the news of this scandal.

Gilbert Arenas gun incident[edit]

On December 24, 2009, it was revealed that Gilbert Arenas of the Washington Wizards had admitted to storing unloaded firearms in his locker at Verizon Center and had surrendered them to team security. In doing so, Arenas not only violated NBA rules against bringing firearms into an arena, but also violated D.C. ordinances as well.[106] On January 1, 2010, it was also reported that Arenas and teammate Javaris Crittenton had unloaded guns in the Wizards' locker room during a Christmas Eve argument regarding gambling debts. The D.C. Metropolitan Police and the U.S. Attorney's office began investigating,[107] and on January 14, 2010, Arenas was charged with carrying a pistol without a license, a violation of Washington, D.C.'s gun-control laws.[108] Arenas pleaded guilty on January 15 to the felony of carrying an unlicensed pistol outside a home or business. His sentencing hearing was scheduled for March 26.[109]

On January 6, 2010, the NBA suspended Arenas indefinitely without pay until its investigation was complete. NBA Commissioner David Stern said in a statement that "his ongoing conduct has led me to conclude that he is not currently fit to take the court in an NBA game." By nearly all accounts, Stern felt compelled to act when Arenas' teammates surrounded him during pregame introductions prior to a game with the Philadelphia 76ers and he pretended to shoot them with guns made from his fingers.[110] The Wizards issued a statement of their own condemning the players' pregame stunt as "unacceptable."[111] On January 27, 2010, Arenas and Crittenton were suspended for the rest of the season, after meeting with Stern.[112] Both players would be removed from the team at the end of the season, with Crittenton being waived and Arenas being traded to the Orlando Magic. Crittenton would never play in the NBA again after that season (eventually being involved with a manslaughter case), while Arenas would be amnestied a year later before finishing his NBA career with the Memphis Grizzlies in 2012.

Klutch Sports Group[edit]

After the 2016-2017 season, the NBA investigated LeBron James to determine whether he had ownership shares in Klutch Sports Group, which was founded by James' childhood friend and agent Rich Paul. The sports management company's clients include former teammates of James from the Cleveland Cavaliers and Los Angeles Lakers.[113] In September 2018, Anthony Davis signed with Klutch Sports. James commented after a December 2018 game that it would be "amazing" if Davis joined the Los Angeles Lakers.[114] By January 2019, Paul had publicly requested that Davis be traded from the New Orleans Pelicans, which led to concerns of a conflict-of-interest and player tampering accusations for James.[115] James joked about the tampering accusations during the 2019 NBA All-Star Game draft stating that those "rules do not apply" and went on to pick several high-profile free agents from the class of 2019 for his team including Davis, Kawhi Leonard, Kevin Durant, Klay Thompson and Kyrie Irving.[114] Draymond Green signed with Klutch Sports Group in March 2019, stating that "LeBron didn't recruit" him, but it was "impossible to say LeBron played no part in me joining Klutch, simply because he has been Klutch since the beginning".[116]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jason McIntyre (September 27, 2006). "NBA Players Chasing Strippers? No Way! Talkin' Hoops with SI.com's Kelly Dwyer". Thebiglead.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  2. ^ a b The NFL > The NBA? – SLAM Online Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b Lisa Dillman, Elgin Baylor sues Clippers, claiming racism, Los Angeles Times, February 12, 2009, Retrieved February 13, 2009.
  4. ^ a b Bill Plaschke, There are no winners in Elgin Baylor's lawsuit against Clippers, Los Angeles Times, February 13, 2009, Retrieved February 13, 2009.
  5. ^ Lisa Dillman, Mention of David Stern is an error in Elgin Baylor's lawsuit, Los Angeles Times, February 14, 2009, Retrieved February 13, 2009.
  6. ^ a b Cacciola, Scott; Witz, Billy (April 26, 2014). "N.B.A. probing racial remarks tied to owner". The New York Times.
  7. ^ a b "L.A. Clippers owner to GF: Don't bring black people to my games ... including Magic Johnson". TMZ.com. EHM Productions. April 25, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  8. ^ Knoblauch, Austin (April 26, 2014). "Clippers release statement on alleged Donald Sterling racist comments". Los Angeles Times.
  9. ^ "Statement from Clippers president Andy Roeser" (Press release). The Los Angeles Clippers, via NBA.com. April 26, 2014. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014.
  10. ^ Rovell, Darren (April 27, 2014). "NAACP won't award Donald Sterling". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on April 27, 2014.
  11. ^ "With Uproar Around Sterling, Clippers Take the Court". The New York Times. April 26, 2014.
  12. ^ "NBA bans Clippers owner Sterling for life" from CNN (April 29, 2014)
  13. ^ Lamont, Marc. "THE BARBERSHOP NOTEBOOKS: Thoughts on the NBA Dress Code". PopMatters. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  14. ^ "The NBA has had a long history with hip-hop". ESPN.com. February 28, 2005. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  15. ^ "Memphis Grizzlies? It's looking that way". Deseret News. Associated Press. March 26, 2001. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  16. ^ Stahmer, Albrecht (November 9, 2010). "Can Louisville Support an NBA Team?". Strait Pinkie. Archived from the original on August 3, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  17. ^ "NBA Approves Grizzlies' Move". National Basketball Association. July 3, 2001.
  18. ^ Pian Chan, Sharon (July 2, 2008). "Sonics, city reach settlement". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
  19. ^ Details of settlement between Bennett, Seattle revealed, August 21, 2008
  20. ^ "Out of Bounds". Pbs.org. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  21. ^ "Sprewell sells yacht, home could be foreclosed". ESPN.com. February 11, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  22. ^ "NBA players' union chief shouldn't let penalties temper talks". Usatoday.com. November 28, 2004. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  23. ^ "Pistons cite refs for severity of brawl". Usatoday.com. November 21, 2004. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  24. ^ "Pistons-Pacers brawl can't be analyzed in black and white". Usatoday.com. November 28, 2004. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  25. ^ "League of his own". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  26. ^ "Celizic: Stern blew it by letting Isiah off easy – NBA- NBC Sports". MSNBC. December 18, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  27. ^ "ESPN – Not so Stern: Commish lets Isiah off the hook – NBA". Insider.espn.go.com. December 19, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  28. ^ Wilbon, Michael (December 19, 2006). "A Hittin' Image". The Washington Post.
  29. ^ Bialik, Carl (December 19, 2006). "Thomas May Be Only Winner In Wake of NBA's Latest Fight". WSJ.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  30. ^ NOT SO TOUGH Archived December 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Brian on December 18, 2006 9:12 PM (December 18, 2006). "The Ticker: Olbermann, Schaap, Walters". Mediabistro.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  32. ^ "Article 404 - Uticaod - Utica, NY". Uticaod. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  33. ^ "OnlineAthens.com - Opinion - Hanna: There's no team, and no shame, in today's basketball players 12/26/06". January 6, 2010. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  34. ^ "Knicks' Francis: Race A Factor". New York Post. Archived from the original on January 11, 2007.
  35. ^ "Ask Sam Smith". Chicagosports.chicagotribune.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  36. ^ "Winston-Salem Journal - An Image Issue: NBA's marketing philosophy has caused its players to be under close scrutiny". September 30, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  37. ^ "NBA's image vs. the NFL's". mercurynews.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  38. ^ "All Stars Too Soon: The NBA Age Dilemma". Transcripts.cnn.com. February 11, 2001. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  39. ^ "Taking a Stern Stand Against Child Labor". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. May 12, 2001. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  40. ^ a b "The Real Color of Money: Controlling Black Bodies in the NBA" (PDF). Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  41. ^ "Illegal Defense: The Irrational Economics of Banning High School Players from the NBA Draft". Papers.ssrn.com. July 25, 2004. SSRN 567745. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  42. ^ Chris HannasSenior Writer. "Stern picks wrong fight". Susqu.edu. Archived from the original on February 6, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  43. ^ Sandomir, Richard (July 31, 2005). "ESPN's New Master of the Offensive Foul". Retrieved March 4, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
  44. ^ "LeBron's no idiot (cont.)". Sports Illustrated. April 13, 2005. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  45. ^ Is Stern On A Power Trip? Archived November 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ "No-tolerance rule stops making sense". Denverpost.com. September 14, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  47. ^ "Kings' Williamson has 'no tolerance' for new rule". Sports.espn.go.com. November 21, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  48. ^ "Mailbag: 'zero tolerance,' Big Ben and more". Msn.foxsports.com. Archived from the original on March 1, 2007. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  49. ^ View all comments that have been posted about this article. (November 11, 2006). "NBA Players Need To Play by the Rule". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  50. ^ "Denver's Iverson fined for referee remarks". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2007.
  51. ^ Rovell, Darren (June 19, 2001). "Putting NBA conspiracy theory to the test". ESPN. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  52. ^ "Basketbawful". basketbawful.blogspot.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  53. ^ https://bleacherreport.com/articles/2103545-pat-riley-admits-84-lakers-benefited-from-phantom-foul-vs-detroit-pistons
  54. ^ "MVP Award Winners". Basketball-reference.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  55. ^ "Defensive Player of the Year Award Winners". Basketball-reference.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  56. ^ "Sixth Man of the Year Award Winners". Basketball-reference.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  57. ^ "Larry Brown Coaching Record". Basketball-reference.com. September 14, 1940. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  58. ^ a b "Bucks think Sixers are getting all the calls". Static.espn.go.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  59. ^ "Big man, big game". Sports Illustrated. June 4, 2001. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  60. ^ "2000-01 NBA Season Summary". Basketball-Reference.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  61. ^ "Perception more harmful to NBA than reality". Static.espn.go.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  62. ^ "Nader urges Stern to review officiating". Usatoday.com. June 6, 2002. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  63. ^ "Report to the Board of Governors of the National Basketball Association" (PDF). Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  64. ^ JONATHAN FEIGEN, Copyright 2005 Houston Chronicle (May 2, 2005). "Yao 'targeted,' alleges Van Gundy". Chron.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  65. ^ "The NBA is rigged ? Please". Blogmaverick.com. June 20, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  66. ^ "Mark Cuban allegedly consulted with a former FBI agent about investigating and suing the NBA in 2006". sg.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  67. ^ JACOBS, JEFF. "STERN DISCIPLINE TOWARD SUNS IRRATIONAL". courant.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  68. ^ "Tim Donaghy Details How NBA Officials, League Allegedly Fix Games (Exclusive Interview Part 3)". chicagonow.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  69. ^ "NBA.com - Three Players Suspended Following Spurs-Suns Incident". www.nba.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  70. ^ "Amare, Diaw suspended one game; Horry gets 2". ESPN.com. May 15, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  71. ^ http://www.azcentral.com/sports/suns/articles/0516suns-ON.html
  72. ^ paulmbanks (June 3, 2015). "Tim Donaghy details how the NBA allegedly fixes games (EXCLUSIVE)". The Bank. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  73. ^ Craggs, Tommy (October 28, 2009). "Excerpts From The Book The NBA Doesn't Want You To Read". Deadspin. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  74. ^ "HoopsHype". HoopsHype. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  75. ^ Jay Mariotti %BloggerTitle% (April 30, 2009). "Rondo in, Howard Out: Double Standard". Jay-mariotti.fanhouse.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  76. ^ Dunlap, Evan (June 22, 2009). "Examining the Orlando Magic's Rafer Alston/Jameer Nelson Point Guard "Controversy"". Orlando Pinstriped Post. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  77. ^ Illinois, Mike from (August 21, 2013). "What if Jameer Nelson had been healthy in 2009?". Orlando Pinstriped Post. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  78. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/03/AR2006100300145.html
  79. ^ http://www.espn.com/nba/playoffs/2009/columns/story?columnist=sheridan_chris&page=magicgame4l-090612
  80. ^ a b c "Broussard: Why did Game 3 hero sit out fourth?". ESPN.com. June 12, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  81. ^ Mahoney, Brian (May 18, 2009). "Griffin the big gift at lottery's 25th anniversary". USA Today. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  82. ^ McManis, Sam (May 14, 1985). "NBA's New Showtime: It's Called the Lottery". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  83. ^ "ESPN.com - 2002 NBA Draft: NBA out to prove conspiracy theorists wrong". Sports.espn.go.com. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  84. ^ http://www.cbssports.com/nba/story/6381961
  85. ^ Helin, Kurt. "David Stern expects your draft conspiracy theories now". nbcsports.com. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012.
  86. ^ Dengate, Jeff (May 16, 2007). "Let the Ping-Pong Balls Fall". NBA.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012.
  87. ^ Schoenfield, David (June 29, 2009). "The first lottery draft still rates the best". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009.
  88. ^ "David Stern, Jim Rome battle on radio". ESPN.com. June 13, 2012. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012.
  89. ^ May 17, foxsports; ET, 2016 at 5:33p (May 17, 2016). "Did Dikembe Mutombo reveal that the NBA Draft lottery is rigged?". FOX Sports. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  90. ^ Winfield, Kristian (May 4, 2017). "Luke Walton says Magic Johnson assured him the Lakers will keep their top 3 pick". SBNation.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  91. ^ "David Stern stumbles again in his failed culture war against the Spurs, fines franchise $250K". sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  92. ^ PUSSSYKATT   View profile    More options (February 5, 1999). "NBC loves Lakers". Groups.google.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  93. ^ "NBC pays for the snub". Groups.google.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  94. ^ "NBC's East Coast Bias". Groups.google.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  95. ^ LIZ ROBBINS; Michael S. Schmidt contributed reporting. (December 6, 2006). "PRO BASKETBALL; A Whole New Game Ball? N.B.A. Admits Its Mistake". Select.nytimes.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  96. ^ Marc Stein (December 8, 2006). "NBA ball controversy reaches new level". Sports.espn.go.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  97. ^ "Microfiber ball was on the 'cutting' edge". nwitimes.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  98. ^ Nance, Roscoe (December 4, 2006). "Union: New ball cuts hands". Usatoday.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  99. ^ youtube.com Archived April 11, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  100. ^ Marc Stein (December 12, 2006). "Leather ball will return on Jan. 1". Sports.espn.go.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  101. ^ New NBA ball gets bounced Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  102. ^ "Suburbs - Chicago Tribune". www.chicagotribune.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  103. ^ "Did the New Ball Have an Effect?". Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved February 28, 2007.
  104. ^ "NBA.com - Stern Says Players Will Have Input in Future Balls". www.nba.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  105. ^ Schwartz, Alan; Rashbaum, William K. (July 21, 2007). "N.B.A. Referee Under Investigation". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
  106. ^ "Arenas faces firearms possession probe by NBA". ESPN.com. December 24, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  107. ^ "NBA Players Reportedly Drew Guns in Christmas Eve Argument". Fox News. January 1, 2010.
  108. ^ Howard Beck. "Wizards’ Arenas Is Charged With Felony". New York Times. January 14, 2010. Retrieved on January 14, 2010.
  109. ^ "Crittenton's plea agreement on gun charges could affect Arenas' future". CNN. January 25, 2010.
  110. ^ "Yahoo Sports NBA". sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  111. ^ "NBA suspends Wizards' Arenas indefinitely". ESPN.com. January 6, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  112. ^ "Arenas, Crittenton suspended for rest of season". ESPN.com. January 27, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  113. ^ "Report: NBA investigated LeBron James, Klutch Sports". SI.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  114. ^ a b Tornoe, Rob. "Charles Barkley mocks LeBron James with Anthony Davis trade joke". https://www.philly.com. Retrieved February 8, 2019. External link in |website= (help)
  115. ^ "Could LeBron's ties to AD lead to tampering fines?". SI.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  116. ^ "Draymond signs with Klutch: 'Right move for me'". ESPN.com. March 13, 2019. Retrieved April 1, 2019.