National Bolshevik Party
|Founded||1 May 1993|
|Legalised||16 August 2005|
|Banned||7 August 2007|
|Succeeded by||The Other Russia|
|Headquarters||Bunker NBP, st. Maria Ulyanova, 17, building 1, Moscow, Russia|
|Membership||56,500+ (March 2007)|
|Political position||Syncretic |
|Affiliation||National Salvation Front (1993)|
Coalition The Other Russia
|Slogan||"Russia is everything, the rest is nothing!" (motto)|
"Yes, Death!" (greeting)
|Anthem||"Anthem of the National Bolshevik Party" by Dmitri Maximovich Shostakovich|
The National Bolshevik Party (NBP; Russian: Национал-большевистская партия, also known as the Nazbols; Russian: Нацболы) operated from 1993 to 2007 as a Russian political party with a political program of National Bolshevism. The NBP became a prominent member of The Other Russia coalition of opposition parties. Russian courts banned the organization and it never officially registered as a political party. In 2010, its leader Eduard Limonov founded a new political party, called The Other Russia. There have been smaller NBP groups in other countries.
Its official publication, the newspaper Limonka, derived its name from the party leader's surname and from the idiomatic Russian word for a grenade. The main editor of Limonka was for many years, Aleksey Volynets.
The NBP believes in the National Bolshevik ideas that arose during the Russian Civil War, such as those from Professor Nikolai Ustryalov, who came to believe that Bolshevism could be modified to serve nationalistic purposes. His followers, the Smenovekhovtsy, who then came to regard themselves as National Bolsheviks, borrowed the term from Ernst Niekisch, who was a German politician initially associated with left-wing politics and later, the National Bolshevik ideology.
Limonov and Dugin sought to unite far-left and far-right radicals on the same platform. With Dugin viewing national Bolsheviks as a point between Communist ideas and Fascists. Dugin was forced to act in the peripheries of each group. In 1998, Dugin left the NBP and this led to the party moving further left in Russia's political spectrum.
The party is described as a mixture of far-left and far-right ideology, including among its members Sovietism' nostalgics as well as skinheads, with the hammer and sickle (which replace the swastika) in a white circle on a red background as party's flag.
On 29 November 2004, participants of the general congress of the NBP adopted a new party program. According to the program, "the main goal of the National Bolshevik Party is to change Russia into a modern, powerful state, respected by other countries and peoples and beloved by its own citizens" by ensuring the free development of civil society, the independence of the media and social justice.
In the Russian media, the National Bolshevik Party was usually referred to as a far-left youth movement; however, some critics (including ex-members) described the NBP as an organisation dedicated to carry out a democratic colour revolution in Russia.
In 1992, Eduard Limonov founded the National Bolshevik Front (NBF) as an amalgamation of six minor groups. Aleksandr Dugin was among the earliest members and was instrumental in convincing Limonov to enter politics. The party first attracted attention in 1992 when two members were arrested for possessing grenades. The incident gave the NBP publicity for a boycott campaign they were organizing against Western goods. The NBF joined forces with the National Salvation Front (a broad coalition of Russian communists and nationalists).
The FNS was one of the leading groups involved in the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, and Limonov participated in the clashes near the White House in Moscow on the side of the Anti-Yeltsin opposition.
When others within the coalition began to speak out against the NBF, it withdrew from the alliance.
On 1 May 1993, Limonov and Dugin signed a declaration of founding the NBP.
On 28 November 1994, Limonov founded the newspaper Limonka, the official organ of the NBP.
In 1998, Dugin left the NBP as a result of a conflict with other members of the party. This led to the party moving further left in Russia's political spectrum, and lead to members of the party denouncing Dugin and his group as fascists.
Arrest of Eduard Limonov (2001–2003)
Limonov and some National Bolsheviks were jailed in April 2001 on charges of terrorism, the forced overthrow of the constitutional order, and the illegal purchase of weapons. Based on an article published in Limonka under Limonov's byline, the government accused Limonov of planning to start an armed insurgency in Kazakhstan.
After the arrest of the leader, members of the party started activities (including direct action stunts) against Putin's government. In 2002, members of the NBP participated in a common demonstration of far-left forces in a Moscow a demonstration called Anticapitalism-2002. National Bolsheviks clashed with riot police.
In opposition to the government (2004–2007)
Since 2004, the NBP has formed alliances with other opposition forces, both far-left and right-wing. In 2004, Limonov signed the declaration titled "Russia without Putin."
Outlawed and aftermath (2007–2010)
The NBP was banned by a Russian lower court in June 2005, but the Russian Supreme Court overturned that ban on 16 August 2005. In November 2005, the Russian Supreme Court upheld a ban on the party on the grounds that the NBP called itself a political party without being registered as such.
Notable direct actions
- On 24 August 1999, the NBP occupied a tower of the Club of Military Seamen in Sevastopol on Ukraine's Independence Day. Some of the operatives were sentenced to prison.
- During Prince Charles' tour of the Baltic states in 2001, a member of the Latvian branch of the NBP hit Charles' face with a flower in an act of protest against the War in Afghanistan.
- During the 2002 Prague summit, National Bolsheviks threw tomatoes at George Robertson to protest against the extension of NATO and American imperialism.
- On 3 March 2004, National Bolsheviks occupied the United Russia headquarters in Moscow and protested against government policy.
- On 22 June 2004, National Bolsheviks occupied Germany's Trade Embassy in Moscow on the anniversary of the German invasion of the Soviet Union. They hung a banner with an inscription "Never forget! Never forgive!"
- On 2 August 2004, a group of National Bolsheviks occupied the office of the Health and Social Development Ministry building in Moscow to protest against the social benefits reform. Police arrested most of the participants, and on 12 December 2004, seven National Bolsheviks were each sentenced to five years in prison.
- On 14 December 2004, NBP members occupied the presidential-administration visitors' room to protest against government policy. Police arrested thirty-nine National Bolsheviks, with many of them being sentenced to prison.
- On 25 September 2006, National Bolsheviks occupied the Ministries of Finances building in Moscow to protest against liberal economic policy.
National Bolshevik Party founded branches across the Post-Soviet states. Relatively strong branches of the party existed in Latvia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Several small groups often made up of Russian immigrants that are named National Bolshevik Party have existed in countries across Europe and North America. Most of them did not have official registration.
Latvia's NBP has had members hold office in Riga and has executed notable publicity stunts, but it remains largely marginal there. The Latvian branch has been led by Vladimir Linderman and Aijo Beness.
In 2005, during the visit of George W. Bush in Latvia, local national Bolsheviks and the Vanguard of Red Youth organized meetings against American imperialism. Police broke up a demonstration and arrested its participants. The Latvian NBP was also active in anti-capitalist demonstrations and in anti-Nazi blockades during Remembrance day of the Latvian legionnaires.
The Ukrainian NBP was largely based in the east of the country. Initially, the NBP joined forces with another small parties and signed a "Declaration of the Kiev Council of Slav Radical Nationalists" together with Ukrainian nationalists. But later, Ukrainian national Bolsheviks were active in demonstrations against Ukrainian nationalists on the anniversary of the founding of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. National Bolsheviks also organized actions against the rapprochement with NATO. During the Orange Revolution, the Ukrainian NBP decided to not support any side. Since 2014, national Bolsheviks formed armed troop interbrigades and participated in the pro-Russian unrest in Donbass.
Until banning of the NBP in 2007
- Zakhar Prilepin
- Vladimir Linderman
- Aijo Beness
- Sergei Aksenov
- Aleksandr Averin
- Andrei Dmitriev
- Sergei Fomchenkov
- Taisiya Osipova
- Maxim Gromov
- Eduard Limonov
- Yegor Letov
- Aleksandr Nepomniachtchi
- Natalya Medvedeva
- Aleksandr Dolmatov
- Yuriy Chervochkin
- Andrei Sukhorada
- Sergey Kuryokhin
- Sud nad prizrakom (2002)
- Saratov (2002)
- Fuck off Mr. Bond! (2002)
- Da, smert (2004)
- Zuby drakona (2005)
- Les Enfants terribles de Vladimir Vladimirovitch Poutine (2006)
- The Revolution That Wasn't (2008)
- Anatomy of a Hero (1997)
- My Political Biography (2002)
- Russian Psycho (2003)
- The Other Russia (2003)
By other authors
- Ultranormalnost (2005), a novel by Natan Dubovitskiy
- Generation of Limonka (2005), a collection of short stories by multiple young Russian authors
- The Gospel of the Extremist (2005), a novel by Roman Konoplev
- Sankya (2006), a novel by Zakhar Prilepin
- The Way of the Hongweibin (2006), a novel by Dmitri Zhvaniya
- Truth of the Trenches of the Chechen War (2007), a collection of articles by multiple Russian authors
- 12 Who Don't Agree (2009), a non-fiction book by Valery Panyushkin
- Girls of the Party (2011), a photo-album by Sergei Belyak
- Limonka to Prison (2012), a novel by NBP political prisoners
- Limonov (2011), a biographical novel by Emmanuel Carrère
- Religion of the Furious (2013), a novel by Ekaterina Rysk
- Orda, a comic book by Igor Baranko
- "Верховный суд России отменил запрет Национал-большевистской партии". Радио Свобода. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Лимонов использует НБП незаконно. И вообще он не Лимонов".
- "Бункер НБП (Москва)". Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Svoboda Limonov".
- "Andrei Dmitriev - "Who are the National Bolsheviks?".
- Shenfield, Stephen (2016). Russian Fascism: Traditions, Tendencies and Movements. Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 9781315500041. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
- Дмитрий Шостакович - Гимн НБП
- "Пой, партия, пой!". www.b-port.com. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- Russian Nationalism, Foreign Policy and Identity Debates in Putin's Russia: New Ideological Patterns after the Orange Revolution. Columbia University Press. 2014. p. 147. ISBN 9783838263250. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
- Stolyarova, Galina (6 March 2007) Thousands Take to City Streets for Protest. Sptimesrussia.com. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- Лимонов готов стать гламурным политиком. Ng.ru (12 July 2010). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- Rogatchevski, Andrei; Steinholt, Yngvar (21 October 2015). "Pussy Riot's Musical Precursors? The National Bolshevik Party Bands, 1994–2007". Popular Music and Society. 39 (4): 448–464. doi:10.1080/03007766.2015.1088287. S2CID 192339798.
- "National Bolshevik Party – FAQ". Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Veronika Colosimo (12 July 2013). "Édouard Limonov, l'imprécateur des lettres russes". Le Figaro (in French).
- "Программа Национал-Большевистской Партии". Российская газета. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Program of the National Bolshevik Party". Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Феномен национал-большевистского движения: идеологический, социальный и культурный аспекты. socionauki.ru
- Making post-Soviet counterpublics: the aesthetics of Limonka and the National-Bolshevik Party
- Eduard Limonov - Punk and national-bolshevism
- Pussy Riot’s Musical Precursors? The National Bolshevik Party Bands, 1994–2007
- Russian punks: The ideology, music and lifestyle
- Yasmann, Victor (29 April 2005). "Russia: National Bolsheviks, The Party Of 'Direct Action'". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
For this mobilization, the NBP used a bizarre mixture of totalitarian and fascist symbols, geopolitical dogma, leftist ideas, and national-patriotic demagoguery.
- Mathyl, Markus (7 December 2010). "The National-Bolshevik Party and Arctogaia: two neo-fascist groupuscules in the post-Soviet political space". Patterns of Prejudice. 36 (3): 62–76. doi:10.1080/003132202128811493. S2CID 144248974.
- Феномен "национал-оранжизма"
- Национал-большевизм: конец темы
- Александр Дугин: НБП не имеет права на существование, её лидер – вампир
- Lee, p. 314
- Lee, p. 320
- Lee, p. 321
- "Эдуард Лимонов, Писатель, политик". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- Lee, pp. 328–9
- "Нацбол.ру - Нацбол должен знать - Декларация о создании НБП". 21 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "ВОС". w-o-s.ru. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "The Second Russia". GRENADE F1. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Famous writer and National Bolshevic leader Eduard Limonov really arrested". 14 April 2001. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Russia: National Bolsheviks, The Party Of 'Direct Action'". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "НБП-ИНФО :: ФОТО :: Антикапитализм-2002". 22 December 2008. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- Олег Бородин (14 September 2013). "Антикап 2002 Площадь Маяковского 480". Retrieved 2 September 2018 – via YouTube.
- "Russian Writer is Released from Prison". Retrieved 30 June 2006.
- "Declaration Of Public Movement "Russia Without Putin"". 29 October 2005. Archived from the original on 29 October 2005. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "An Interview with the Leader of the NBF (Roman Golovkin)". 6 September 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Police Clash With Anti-Kremlin Protesters". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 March 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "RIA Novosti – Russia – UPDATE: Russian Supreme Court upholds ban on National Bolshevik Party". En.rian.ru (15 November 2005). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- "Верховный суд РФ подтвердил законность запрета НБП". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Перечень некоммерческих организаций, в отношении которых судом принято вступившее в законную силу решение о ликвидации или запрете деятельности по основаниям, предусмотренным ФЗ "О противодействии экстремистской деятельности" - Минюст России". minjust.ru. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- Питерские нацболы арестованы за участие в акции у Гостиного двора. Grani.ru. 1 November 2010.
- Нацболы через суд требуют разрешить акцию "Стратегия-31". Rosbalt.ru. 27 January 2010.
- "От нацболов к Павленскому. Краткая хроника русского акционизма". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "1999. Захват Башни моряков. Севастополь, НБП". artprotest.org. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "НБП-ИНФО :: ФОТО :: Захват башни клуба моряков в Севастополе". 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 18 January 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Hugs and handshakes with public keep Meghan Markle's bodyguards on their toes". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Latvia flower-attacker spared jail". 2 September 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- AP Archive (30 July 2015). "WRAP Tomato incident, Robertson, Ukraine delegates, family photo". Retrieved 2 September 2018 – via YouTube.
- "Национал-большевики захватили общественную приемную". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- AP Archive (21 July 2015). "Protest outside German offices on war anniversary". Retrieved 2 September 2018 – via YouTube.
- "Национал-большевики захватили Минздрав". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Газета.Ru - За захват здания Минздрава лимоновцы получили по 5 лет тюрьмы". www.gazeta.ru. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Условный захват президентской приемной". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- ""Побои" за Минфин". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "Грани.Ру: За захват Минфина нацболов обвинили в хулиганстве". pub.g.graniru.org. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- AP Archive (24 July 2015). "Leftist protestors chain themselves to Finance Ministry in anti-Putin protest". Retrieved 2 September 2018 – via YouTube.
- Interview to the "Revolt" French magazine. eng.nbp-info.ru. 15 February 2004. Archived 1 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Shenfield, Stephen (2001). Russian Fascism: Traditions, Tendencies, Movements. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 190–. ISBN 978-0-7656-0635-8.
- Muizneiks, N. (2005) "Latvia" in Mudde, Cas Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe, Routledge, ISBN 0415355931 pp. 101–128
- Айо Бенес — магистр биологии и профессор НБП. D-pils.lv (23 March 2005). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- Лимонка: Бенес Айо Archived 6 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- «Красный магистр» Бенес Айо: «Мы готовим такое!..». D-pils.lv (8 November 2005). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- Бенес Айо: Когда я дошел до 45 кг, меня пришлось выпустить. Rus.tvnet.lv. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- Рига: Акция против Джорджа Буша. nbp-info.ru. 7 May 2005
- Владимиру Абелю предъявили обвинение
- Estonia sends “National Bolshevik” back to Finland
- Anti-Bush protest broken up by police
- "Акция против Джорджа Буша и задержание Рига, 7 мая 2005". Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.. nbp-info.ru. 7 May 2005
- День сопротивления в Риге. 16 марта 2006. nbp-info.ru
- Рига: Акция протеста против шествия нацистов 16 марта 2005. nbp-info.ru
- Ukraine Archived 4 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Axt.org.uk. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- АНТИ-УПА-2009 Archived 25 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Nbp.kharkov.ua. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- «Нато-Stop!» Archived 27 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Nbp.kharkov.ua. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
- "Нацболы отбили атаку карателей в ЛНР". Archived 13 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Нацболы отбили атаку карателей в ЛНР".
- Поколение Лимонки Archived 25 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ultraculture.ru
- Окопная правда Чеченской войны. ru.delfi.lt
- Захар Прилепин представляет «Лимонка» в тюрьму. genefis-gbr.ru
- Лимонка в тюрьму. worldbookreview.ru
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Bolshevik Party.|
- National Bolshevik Party – old website (archived)
- National Bolshevik Party website (archived)
- Nazbol – website of russian national-bolsheviks (archived)
- NBP-INFO – National Bolshevik blog
- Who Are the National-Bolsheviks? by Andrei Dmitriev
- An interview with national-bolshevik Beness Aijo
- Russia: National Bolsheviks, The Party Of 'Direct Action' from Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty