National Bolshevik Party

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National Bolshevik Party
Национал-большевистская партия
LeaderEduard Limonov
FounderEduard Limonov
Aleksandr Dugin
Yegor Letov
Founded1 May 1993
Legalised16 August 2005[1]
Banned7 August 2007[2]
Succeeded byThe Other Russia
HeadquartersBunker NBP, st. Maria Ulyanova, 17, building 1, Moscow, Russia[3]
NewspaperLimonka
Membership56,500+ (March 2007)[4]
IdeologyNational Bolshevism[5]
Ultranationalism
Socialism
Communism
Eurasianism
Left-wing nationalism
Political positionThird position
AffiliationCoalition The Other Russia
Dissenters' March
Colors     Red
Slogan"Russia is everything, the rest is nothing!" (motto)
"Yes, Death!" (greeting)
Anthem"Anthem of the National Bolshevik Party"[6] by Dmitri Maximovich Shostakovich[7]
Website
nbp-info.com

The National Bolshevik Party (NBP; Russian: Национал-большевистская партия, also known as the Nazbols;[8] Russian: Нацболы) operated from 1993 to 2007 as a Russian political party with a political program of National Bolshevism. The NBP became a prominent member of The Other Russia coalition of opposition parties.[9] Russian courts banned the organization and it never officially registered as a political party. In 2010, its leader Eduard Limonov founded a new political party called The Other Russia.[10] There have been smaller NBP groups in other countries.

Its official publication, the newspaper Limonka, derived its name from the party leader's surname and from the idiomatic Russian word for a grenade. The main editor of Limonka for many years was Aleksey Volynets.

Ideology[edit]

The NBP believes in the National Bolshevik ideas during the Russian Civil War, such as those from Professor Nikolai Ustrialov, who came to believe that Bolshevism could be modified to serve nationalistic purposes. His followers, the Smenovekhovtsy, who then came to regard themselves as National Bolsheviks, borrowed the term from Ernst Niekisch, who was a German politician initially associated with left-wing politics and later proponent for the National Bolshevik ideology.

The NBP has denied any links to fascism, stating that all forms of antisemitism, xenophobia and racism were against the party's principles.[11]

The NBP has historically defended Stalinism, although later on the party said it did not wish to re-create that system.[11]

On 29 November 2004, participants of the general congress of the NBP adopted a new party's program. According to the program, "the main goal of the National Bolshevik Party is to change Russia into a modern, powerful state, respected by other countries and peoples and beloved by its own citizens" by ensuring the free development of civil society, the independence of the media and social justice.[12]

The NBP was highly critical of President Vladimir Putin's government and argued that state institutions such as the bureaucracy, the police and the courts were corrupt and authoritarian.[13]

Counterculture[edit]

Since its formation, National Bolshevik Party had relationship with the Russian counterculture.[14]

National Bolsheviks often used punk-stylized shock aesthetics in their propaganda.[15][16] NBP attracted a significant number of artists, punk musicians and rock bands.[17][18]

History[edit]

Origins (1993–1998)[edit]

Members of the National Bolshevik Party at a protest rally in Moscow with a copy of the Limonka newspaper (photo by Mikhail Evstafiev)

In 1992, Eduard Limonov founded the National Bolshevik Front (NBF) as an amalgamation of six minor groups.[19] Aleksandr Dugin was amongst the earliest members and was instrumental in convincing Limonov to enter politics. The party first attracted attention in 1992 when two members were arrested for possessing grenades. The incident gave the NBP publicity for a boycott campaign they were organizing against Western goods.[20] The NBF joined forces with the National Salvation Front (a broad coalition of Russian communists and nationalists).[21]

The FNS was one of the leading groups involved in the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis and Limonov participated in the clashes near the White House in Moscow on the side of the Anti-Yeltsin opposition.[22]

When others within the coalition began to speak out against the NBF, it withdrew from the alliance.[23]

On 1 May 1993, Limonov and Dugin signed a declaration of founding the NBP.[24]

On 28 November 1994, Limonov founded the newspaper Limonka, the official organ of the NBP.

In 1998, Dugin left the NBP as a result of a conflict with another members of the party.[25]

Arrest of Eduard Limonov (2001–2003)[edit]

Limonov and some National Bolsheviks were jailed in April 2001 on charges of terrorism, the forced overthrow of the constitutional order and the illegal purchase of weapons. Based on an article published in Limonka under Limonov's byline,[26] the government accused Limonov of planning to start an armed insurgency in Kazakhstan.[27]

After the arrest of the leader, members of the party started activieties (including direct action slunts) against the Putin's government.[28] In 2002, members of the NBP participated in common demonstration of far-left forces in a Moscow a demonstration called Anticapitalism-2002.[29] National Bolsheviks clashed with riot police.[30]

In 2003, Limonov was released from Lefortovo Prison.[31]

In opposition to the government (2004–2007)[edit]

A Dissenters March rally in Saint Petersburg, Russia on 3 March 2007

Since 2004, the NBP has formed alliances with another opposition forces, both far-left and right-wing. In 2004, Limonov signed the declaration "Russia without Putin".[32]

In August 2006, an anti-Limonovist faction of the NBP that was more right-wing formed the National Bolshevik Front.[33]

The NBP became a prominent member of The Other Russia coalition of opposition parties.[9]

In 2007, the NBP members took part in a Dissenters' March and subsequent demonstrations against the government.[34]

Outlawed and aftermath (2007–2010)[edit]

National Bolsheviks attack a polling station in Odintsovo, Moscow Oblast during the Russian legislative election, 2007 to protest the ban of the party

The NBP was banned by a Russian lower court in June 2005, but the Russian Supreme Court overturned that ban on 16 August 2005. In November 2005, the Russian Supreme Court upheld a ban on the party on the grounds that the NBP called itself a political party without being registered as such.[35]

On 7 August 2007, the Russian Supreme Court confirmed the decision of the Moscow City Court of 19 April to ban the party[36] as an extremist organization.[37]

In 2009, NBP members took part in Strategy-31, a series of civic protests in support of the right to peaceful assembly.[38][39]

In July 2010, National Bolsheviks founded a new political party, The Other Russia.[10]

Direct actions[edit]

The NBP often used non-violent direct-action stunts, mostly against prominent political figures.[28][40]

Notable direct actions[edit]

  • On 24 August 1999, the NBP occupied a tower of Club of Military Seamen in Sevastopol in the Independence Day of Ukraine. Some of them were sentenced to prison.[41][42]
  • During Prince Charles' tour of the Baltic states in 2001, a member of the Latvian branch of the NBP hit Charles' face with a flower in an act of protest against the War in Afghanistan[43][44]
  • During the 2002 Prague summit, National Bolsheviks threw tomatoes at George Robertson to protest against extension of NATO and American imperialism.[45]
  • On 3 March 2004, National Bolsheviks occupied the United Russia headquarters in Moscow and protested against government policy.[46]
  • On 22 June 2004, National Bolsheviks occupied Germany's Trade Embassy in Moscow on the anniversary of the German invasion of the Soviet Union. They hung a banner with an inscription "Never forget! Never forgive!".[47]
  • On 2 August 2004, a group of National Bolsheviks occupied the office of Health and Social Development Ministry building in Moscow to protest against social benefits reform.[48] Police arrested most of the participants of the action and on 12 December 2004 seven National Bolsheviks were each sentenced to five years in prison.[49]
  • On 14 December 2004, NBP members occupied the presidential-administration visitors' room to protest against government policy. Police arrested thirty-nine National Bolsheviks, many of them being sentenced to prison.[50]
  • On 25 September 2006, National Bolsheviks occupied the Ministries of Finances building in Moscow to protest against liberal economic policy.[51][52][53]

International groups[edit]

National Bolshevik Party founded branches across Post-Soviet states. Relatively strong branches of the party existed in Latvia, Ukraine and Belarus. Several small groups often made up of Russian immigrants named National Bolshevik Party have existed in countries across Europe and North America.[54] Most of them did not have official registration.

Latvia[edit]

Latvia's NBP has had members hold office in Riga[55] and has executed notable publicity stunts, but it remains largely marginal there.[56] The Latvian branch has been led by Vladimir Linderman and Aijo Beness.[57][58][59][60][61] In 2003 Linderman was accused of storing explosives and of calling for the overthrow of the political system.[62][63] He left Latvia and moved to Russia. In 2005, during the visit of George W. Bush in Latvia, local national-bolsheviks and Vanguard of Red Youth organized meeting against american imperialism. Police broke up a demonstration and arrested its participants.[64][65] Latvian NBP was also active in anti-capitalist demonstrations and in anti-nazi blockades during Latvian Legion Day.[66][67]

Ukraine[edit]

The Ukrainian NBP was largely based in the east of the country. Initialy, the NBP joined forces with another small parties and signed a Declaration of the Kiev Council of Slav Radical Nationalists together with Ukrainian nationalists.[68] But later, Ukrainian national-bolsheviks were active in demonstrations against Ukrainian nationalists on the anniversary of the founding of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.[69] National-bolsheviks also organized actions against rapprochement with NATO.[70] During the Orange Revolution, the Ukrainian NBP decided to not support any side. Since 2014, national-bolsheviks formed armed troops Interbrigades [ru] and participated in pro-Russian unrest in Donbass.[71][72]

Notable members[edit]

Current[edit]

Former[edit]

Deceased[edit]

Media depictions[edit]

Films[edit]

  • Sud nad prizrakom (2002)
  • Saratov (2002)
  • Fuck off Mr. Bond! (2002)
  • Da, smert (2004)
  • Zuby drakona (2005)
  • Les Enfants terribles de Vladimir Vladimirovitch Poutine (2006)
  • The Revolution That Wasn't (2008)

Books[edit]

Books by Eduard Limonov:

  • Anatomy of a Hero (1997)
  • My Political Biography (2002)
  • Russian Psycho (2003)
  • The Other Russia (2003)

Books by another authors:

Other[edit]

  • Orda, comic book by Igor Baranko

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Верховный суд России отменил запрет Национал-большевистской партии". Радио Свобода. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Лимонов использует НБП незаконно. И вообще он не Лимонов".
  3. ^ "Бункер НБП (Москва)". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  4. ^ "Svoboda Limonov".
  5. ^ "Andrei Dmitriev - "Who are the National Bolsheviks?".
  6. ^ Дмитрий Шостакович - Гимн НБП
  7. ^ "Пой, партия, пой!". www.b-port.com. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  8. ^ Russian Nationalism, Foreign Policy and Identity Debates in Putin's Russia: New Ideological Patterns after the Orange Revolution. Columbia University Press. 2014. p. 147. ISBN 9783838263250. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  9. ^ a b Stolyarova, Galina (6 March 2007) Thousands Take to City Streets for Protest. Sptimesrussia.com. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  10. ^ a b Лимонов готов стать гламурным политиком. Ng.ru (12 July 2010). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
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  14. ^ Феномен национал-большевистского движения: идеологический, социальный и культурный аспекты. socionauki.ru
  15. ^ Making post-Soviet counterpublics: the aesthetics of Limonka and the National-Bolshevik Party
  16. ^ Eduard Limonov - Punk and national-bolshevism
  17. ^ Pussy Riot’s Musical Precursors? The National Bolshevik Party Bands, 1994–2007
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  20. ^ Lee, p. 320
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  58. ^ Лимонка: Бенес Айо Archived 6 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
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  61. ^ Рига: Акция против Джорджа Буша. nbp-info.ru. 7 May 2005
  62. ^ Владимиру Абелю предъявили обвинение
  63. ^ Estonia sends “National Bolshevik” back to Finland
  64. ^ Anti-Bush protest broken up by police
  65. ^ "Акция против Джорджа Буша и задержание Рига, 7 мая 2005". Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-06.. nbp-info.ru. 7 May 2005
  66. ^ День сопротивления в Риге. 16 марта 2006. nbp-info.ru
  67. ^ Рига: Акция протеста против шествия нацистов 16 марта 2005. nbp-info.ru
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]