National Bolshevik Party

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from National Bolshevik Party-Belarus)
Jump to: navigation, search
National Bolshevik Party
Национал-большевистская партия
Leader Eduard Limonov
Founder Eduard Limonov
Aleksandr Dugin
Yegor Letov
Founded 1 May 1993
Legalised 16 August 2005[1]
Banned 7 August 2007[2]
Succeeded by The Other Russia
Headquarters Bunker NBP, st. Maria Ulyanova, 17, building 1, Moscow, Russia[3]
Newspaper Limonka
Membership 56,500+ (March 2007)[4]
Ideology National Bolshevism[5]
Socialism
Communism
Eurasianism
Left-wing populism
Political position Syncretic
Left-wing
Affiliation Coalition The Other Russia
Dissenters' March
Slogan "Russia is everything, the rest is nothing!" (motto)
"Yes, Death!" (Greeting)
Anthem Anthem of the National Bolshevik Party (author Dmitri Shostakovich)[6]
Website
www.nbp-info.com

The National Bolshevik Party (NBP, Russian: Национал-большевистская партия, НБП, also known as the Nazbols,[7] Russian: Нацболы) operated from 1993 to 2007 as a Russian political party with a political program of National Bolshevism. The NBP became a prominent member of The Other Russia coalition of opposition parties.[8] Russian courts banned the organization: it never officially registered as a political party. In 2010, its leader, Eduard Limonov, founded a new political party, The Other Russia.[9] There have been smaller NBP groups in other countries.

Its official publication, the newspaper Limonka, derived its name from the party leader's surname and from the idiomatic Russian word for a grenade. The main editor of Limonka for many years was Aleksey Volynets.

Ideology[edit]

The NBP believes in the national bolshevik ideas during the Russian Civil War, such as those from Professor Nikolai Ustrialov, who came to believe that Bolshevism could be modified to serve nationalistic purposes. His followers, the Smenovekhovtsi, who then came to regard themselves as National Bolsheviks, borrowed the term from Ernst Niekisch who was a German politician initially associated with mainstream left-wing politics and later proponent for the National Bolshevik ideology.

The NBP has denied any links to fascism, stating that all forms of antisemitism, xenophobia, and racism were against the party's principles.[10]

The NBP has historically defended Stalinism, although later on the party said it did not wish to re-create that system.[10]

On 29 November 2004 participants of the general congress of the NBP adopted a new Party's program. According to the program "The main goal of the National Bolshevik Party is to change Russia into a modern, powerful state, respected by other countries and peoples and beloved by its own citizens" by ensuring the free development of civil society, the independence of the media and social justice.[11]

The NBP was highly critical of the Putin government and argued that state institutions such as the bureaucracy, the police and the courts were corrupt and authoritarian.[12]

History[edit]

Origins, 1993 - 1998[edit]

Members of the National Bolshevik party at a protest rally in Moscow with a copy of the Limonka newspaper. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev.

In 1992, Eduard Limonov founded the National Bolshevik Front as an amalgamation of six minor groups.[13] Aleksandr Dugin was amongst the earliest members, and was instrumental in convincing Limonov to enter politics. The party first attracted attention in 1992 when two members were arrested for possessing grenades. The incident gave the NBP publicity for a boycott campaign they were organizing against Western goods.[14] NBF joined forces with the National Salvation Front (a broad coalition of Russian communists and nationalists)[15]

The FNS was one of the leading groups involved in the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis and Limonov participated in the clashes near the White House.[16] When others within the coalition began to speak out against the NBF, it withdrew from the alliance.[17]

In 1993 Eduard Limonov and Aleksandr Dugin signed a declaration of founding the National Bolshevik Party.[18]

On 28 November 1994 Eduard Limonov founded the newspaper Limonka - official organ of the NBP.

In 1998, as a result of a conflict with another members of the party, Aleksandr Dugin left the NBP.[19]

Arrest of Limonov, 2001 - 2003[edit]

Limonov and some national-bolsheviks were jailed in April 2001 on charges of terrorism, the forced overthrow of the constitutional order, and the illegal purchase of weapons. Based on an article published in Limonka[20] under Limonov's byline, the government accused Limonov of planning to start an armed insurgency in Kazakhstan.[21]

After the arrest of the leader, members of the National Bolshevik Party started activieties (including direct action slunts) against the Putin's government.[22] In 2002 members of the NBP participated[23] in common demonstration of far-left forces in Moscow "Anticapitalism 2002". National-bolsheviks clash with riot police.[24]

In 2003, Limonov was released from Lefortovo Prison.[25]

In opposition to the government, 2004 - 2007[edit]

A Dissenters March rally in Saint Petersburg, Russia on 3 March 2007

Since 2004, the National Bolshevik Party has formed alliances with another opposition forces, both left and right-wing. In 2004 Eduard Limonov signed declaration "Russia without Putin"[26]

In August 2006, an anti-Limonovist faction of the NBP that was more right-wing formed the National Bolshevik Front.[27]

The NBP became a prominent member of The Other Russia coalition of opposition parties.[8]

In 2007, the National Bolshevik Party members took part in a Dissenters' March and subsequent demonstrations against the government.[28]

Outlawed and aftermath, 2007 - 2010[edit]

National Bolsheviks attack a polling station in Odintsovo, Moscow Oblast during the Russian legislative election, 2007 to protest the ban of the NBP.

The NBP was banned by a Russian lower court in June 2005, but the Russian Supreme Court overturned that ban on 16 August 2005. In November 2005, however, the Russian Supreme Court upheld a ban on the party on the grounds that the NBP called itself a political party without being registered as such.[29]

On 7 August 2007, the Russian Supreme Court confirmed the decision of the Moscow City Court of April 19, 2007 to ban the National Bolshevik Party[30] as an extremist organization.[31]

In 2009, NBP members took part in Strategy-31, a series of civic protests in support of the right to peaceful assembly.[32][33]

In July 2010, national-bolsheviks founded a new political party, The Other Russia.[9]

Direct actions[edit]

The National Bolshevik Party often used non-violent direct-action stunts, mostly against prominent political figures.[22][34]

Notable direct actions[edit]

  • On 24 August 1999 members of National Bolshevik Party occupied a tower of Club of Military Seamen in Sevastopol in day of Independence of Ukraine. Some of them were sentenced to prison[35][36]
  • In 2001 during a Prince Charles tour of the Baltic states a member of Latvian branch of NBP hit Charles the face with a flower, protested against War in Afghanistan[37][38]
  • During 2002 Prague summit Russian national-bolsheviks threw tomatoes at George Robertson, protested against extension of NATO and american imperialism.[39]
  • On 3 March 2004 of national-bolsheviks occupied "United Russia" HQ in Moscow protested against government policy.[40]
  • On 22 June 2004 national-bolsheviks occupied Germany's Trade Embassy in Moscow, on the anniversary of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. They hung a banner with an inscription "Never forget! Never forgive!"[41]
  • On 2 August 2004 group of national-bolsheviks occupied the office of Health and Social Development Ministry building in Moscow protested against social-benefits reform.[42] Police arrested most of the participants of the action and on 12 December 2004 seven national-bolsheviks were each sentenced to five years in prison.[43]
  • On 14 December 2004 group of National-Bolshevik Party members occupied the presidential-administration visitors' room[44] protested against government policy. Police arrested thirty-nine national-bolsheviks, many of them were sentenced to prison.
  • On 25 September 2006 national-bolsheviks occupied Ministries of finances building in Moscow, protested against liberal economic policy.[45][46][47]

International groups[edit]

Several small groups, often made up of Russian immigrants, named National Bolshevik Party have existed in countries across Europe and North America.[48] In Belarus, a Pentecostal church in Minsk was vandalised in 2006, with the NBP emblem drawn on its walls.[49] The NBP was not officially registered in the country. This followed a similar incident at the Latvian embassy in the city the previous year.[50] Latvia's NBP has had members hold office in Riga[51] and has executed notable publicity stunts, but remains largely marginal there.[52] The Latvian branch has been led by Vladimir Linderman and Aijo Beness.[53][54][55][56][57] In 2006, the Latvian NBP was active in anti-capitalist demonstrations and in blockades against Latvian SS veterans' parades during Latvian Legion Day.[58][59]

In Lithuania, National Bolsheviks appeared in 2005 in Visaginas and Klaipėda. One of their most notable actions was against education reform.[60] The Moldovan NBP was refused registration as a political party in 2005, so it registered as a non-governmental organization, with Transnistria as its main center of activity.[citation needed] In Ukraine, the NBP joined other small parties in signing a Declaration of the Kiev Council of Slav Radical Nationalists in 1996, in an initiative led by the Ukrainian National Assembly.[61] The Ukrainian NBP, which was largely based in the east of the country, was active in anti-Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA)[62] and anti-NATO[63] demonstrations. During the Orange Revolution, the Ukrainian NBP did not support Viktor Yushchenko or Viktor Yanukovych.

Notable members[edit]

Current[edit]

Former[edit]

Deceased[edit]

Media depictions[edit]

Films[edit]

  • Суд над призраком (2002)
  • Saratov (2002)
  • Fuck off Mr. Bond! (2002)
  • Da, smert (2004)
  • Зубы дракона (2005)
  • Les Enfants terribles de Vladimir Vladimirovitch Poutine (2006)
  • The Revolution That Wasn't (2008)

Books[edit]

Books by Eduard Limonov

  • Anatomy of a Hero (1997)
  • My Political Biography (2002)
  • Russian Psycho (2003)
  • The Other Russia (2003)

Books by another authors

Other[edit]

  • Orda - comic book by Igor Baranko

References[edit]

  1. ^ Верховный суд России отменил запрет Национал-большевистской партии
  2. ^ Лимонов использует НБП незаконно. И вообще он не Лимонов утро.ру
  3. ^ Бункер НБП (Москва)
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ https://robertamsterdam.com/andrei_dmitriev_who_are_the_national-bolsheviks/ Andrei Dmitriev - "Who are the National Bolsheviks?"
  6. ^ Пой, партия, пой!
  7. ^ Russian Nationalism, Foreign Policy and Identity Debates in Putin's Russia: New Ideological Patterns after the Orange Revolution. Columbia University Press. 2014. p. 147. ISBN 9783838263250. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  8. ^ a b Stolyarova, Galina (6 March 2007) Thousands Take to City Streets for Protest. Sptimesrussia.com. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  9. ^ a b Лимонов готов стать гламурным политиком. Ng.ru (12 July 2010). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  10. ^ a b National Bolshevik Party – FAQ. Web.archive.org. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  11. ^ Программа Национал-Большевистской Партии
  12. ^ Program of the National Bolshevik Party. nbp-info.ru. November 2004
  13. ^ Lee, p. 314
  14. ^ Lee, p. 320
  15. ^ Lee, p. 321
  16. ^ Свободная Пресса: Эдуард Лимонов
  17. ^ Lee, pp. 328–9
  18. ^ Декларация о создании НБП
  19. ^ 170 лет одиночества: Куда делись нацболы?
  20. ^ The Second Russia
  21. ^ Famous writer and National Bolshevic leader Eduard Limonov really arrested.
  22. ^ a b Russia: National Bolsheviks, The Party Of 'Direct Action'
  23. ^ Антикапитализм-2002 Москва
  24. ^ Антикап 2002 Площадь Маяковского
  25. ^ Russian Writer is Released from Prison. Voanews.com. 30 June 2006.
  26. ^ Declaration Of Public Movement "Russia Without Putin"
  27. ^ "An Interview with the Leader of the NBF (Roman Golovkin). Majorityrights.com (6 September 2007). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  28. ^ Police Clash With Anti-Kremlin Protesters, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 3 March 2007
  29. ^ RIA Novosti – Russia – UPDATE: Russian Supreme Court upholds ban on National Bolshevik Party. En.rian.ru (15 November 2005). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  30. ^ Верховный суд РФ подтвердил законность запрета НБП
  31. ^ Перечень некоммерческих организаций, в отношении которых судом принято вступившее в законную силу решение о ликвидации или запрете деятельности по основаниям, предусмотренным ФЗ "О противодействии экстремистской деятельности"
  32. ^ Питерские нацболы арестованы за участие в акции у Гостиного двора. Grani.ru. 1 November 2010.
  33. ^ Нацболы через суд требуют разрешить акцию "Стратегия-31". Rosbalt.ru. 27 January 2010.
  34. ^ От нацболов к Павленскому. Краткая хроника русского акционизма
  35. ^ 1999. Захват Башни моряков. Севастополь, НБП
  36. ^ Захват башни клуба моряков в Севастополе
  37. ^ Hugs and handshakes with public keep Meghan Markle’s bodyguards on their toes
  38. ^ Latvia flower-attacker spared jail
  39. ^ WRAP Tomato incident, Robertson, Ukraine delegates, family photo
  40. ^ Национал-большевики захватили общественную приемную "Единой России" в Москве
  41. ^ Protest outside German offices on war anniversary
  42. ^ Национал-большевики захватили Минздрав
  43. ^ За захват здания Минздрава лимоновцы получили по 5 лет тюрьмы
  44. ^ Условный захват президентской приемной
  45. ^ "Побои" за Минфин
  46. ^ За захват Минфина нацболов обвинили в хулиганстве
  47. ^ Leftist protestors chain themselves to Finance Ministry in anti-Putin protest
  48. ^ Interview to the "Revolt" French magazine. eng.nbp-info.ru. 15 February 2004. Archived 1 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  49. ^ 'National Bolsheviks Accused of Vandalizing Beleaguered Pentecostal Church'. Fsumonitor.com (15 January 2014). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  50. ^ 'Far-left group attacks Latvian embassy in Minsk' Archived 6 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Charter97.org (16 March 2005). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  51. ^ Shenfield, Stephen (2001). Russian Fascism: Traditions, Tendencies, Movements. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 190–. ISBN 978-0-7656-0635-8. 
  52. ^ Muizneiks, N. (2005) "Latvia" in Mudde, Cas Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe, Routledge, ISBN 0415355931 pp. 101–128
  53. ^ Айо Бенес — магистр биологии и профессор НБП. D-pils.lv (23 March 2005). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  54. ^ Лимонка: Бенес Айо Archived 6 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  55. ^ «Красный магистр» Бенес Айо: «Мы готовим такое!..». D-pils.lv (8 November 2005). Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  56. ^ Бенес Айо: Когда я дошел до 45 кг, меня пришлось выпустить. Rus.tvnet.lv. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  57. ^ Рига: Акция против Джорджа Буша. nbp-info.ru. 7 May 2005
  58. ^ День сопротивления в Риге. 16 марта 2006. nbp-info.ru
  59. ^ Рига: Акция протеста против шествия нацистов 16 марта 2005. nbp-info.ru
  60. ^ Flyer of Lithuanian National Bolsheviks. img15.imageshack.us
  61. ^ Ukraine Archived 4 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Axt.org.uk. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  62. ^ АНТИ-УПА-2009 Archived 25 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Nbp.kharkov.ua. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.
  63. ^ «Нато-Stop!» Archived 27 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Nbp.kharkov.ua. Retrieved on 23 February 2014.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]