National Command of the Ba'ath Party

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The National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party was the ruling organ of the party between sessions of the National Congress, and was headed by a Secretary General.[1] Between National Congresses, the National Command was held accountable by the National Consultative Council (Arabic: al-majlis al-istishari al-quami).[2] The National Consultative Council was a forum made up of representatives from the party's regional branches.[2] However, the number of National Consultative Council members were decided by the size of the regional branch.[2] The National Congress elected the National Command, National Tribunal, the party's discipline body, and the Secretary General, the party leader.[2] The congress delegates determined the party's policies and procedures.[2]

The National Command had sweeping authority.[3] The National Congress was the only body which could hold a vote of confidence against the National Command.[3] It had the authority to establish party organizations, to direct the affairs of subordinate party organs which, according to the party's Internal Rules, could not "for any reason direct themselves", the authority to elect and dissolve a Regional Command, to approve party-to-party cooperation, to approve of the party's participation in government and legislative assemblies, to publish works in the party's name, to direct party policy on international affairs and decide on all matters regarding party policy.[3] Because of these responsibilities several National Command organs were established, such as the Secretariat and the National Liaisons Office for instance.[3]

Before 1954, the party was ruled by the Executive Committee, but this organ, along with others too, were replaced at the 2nd National Congress (for more, see "Structure" section).[1] In Ba'athist jargon "Nation" means the Arab Nation, because of that, the National Command formed the highest policy-making and coordinating council for the Ba'ath movement throughout the Arab world.[1] The National Command had several bureaus, similar to those of the Regional Command.[2] National Command sessions were held monthly.[2] Of these, the National Liaisons Office was responsible for maintaining contact with the party's Regional Branches.[4]

Structure[edit]

Members[edit]

Members of the Executive Committee and the 2nd–8th National Commands
Name Took office Left office Representing
(Regional Branch)
Term(s) Duration Note
Michel Aflaq 6 April 1947 23 February 1966 Syria 8 18 years, 323 days Served as the party's Secretary General from 1947 to 1965.
Salah al-Din al-Bitar 6 April 1947 1 September 1959 Syria 2 12 years, 148 days
Jalil al-Sayyide 6 April 1947 June 1954
1 7 years, 56 days
Wahib al-Ghanim 6 April 1947 1952
1 4 years, 270 days
Midhat al-Bitar 1949 1952
1 3 years, 0 days
Fuysal ar-Rikte 1949 1952
1 3 years, 0 days
Abdul Rahman Mandhur 1949 1952
1 3 years, 0 days
Akram al-Hawrani 1952 1 September 1959 Syria 1 7 years, 243 days The former leader of the Arab Socialist Party.
Attun Mandisi 1952 June 1954
1 2 years, 151 days A politician from the Arab Socialist Party.
Fuad al-Rikabi June 1954 August 1960 Iraq 2 6 years, 61 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Regional Branch.
Ali Jabir June 1954 23 October 1964 Lebanon 4 9 years, 144 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Lebanese Regional Branch.
Abdullah Rimawi June 1954 1 September 1959 Jordan 1 5 years, 92 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Jordanese Regional Branch.
Abdallah Na'was June 1954 1 September 1959 Jordan 1 5 years, 92 days
Abd al-Wahhab Shumitli 1 September 1959 May 1962 Lebanon 2 2 years, 242 days
Ghassan Shararah 1 September 1959 May 1962 Lebanon 2 2 years, 242 days
Talib El-Shibib 1 September 1959 May 1962 Iraq 2 2 years, 242 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Regional Branch.
Sa'dun Hammadi 1 September 1959 May 1962 Iraq 2 2 years, 242 days
Khaled Yashruti 1 September 1959 23 October 1963 Palestine 3 4 years, 52 days Was elected to the National Command at the 3rd National Congress as a Lebanese Regional Branch representative.
Munif al-Razzaz 1 September 1959 23 February 1966 Jordan 5 6 years, 175 days Served as the party's Secretary General from 1965 to 1966.
Amin Shuqayr 1 September 1959 August 1960 Jordan 1 335 days
May 1962 23 October 1963 Jordan 1 1 year, 175 days
Faysal Habib Khayzaran August 1960 May 1962 Iraq 1 1 year, 273 days
Khalid Ali Salih Dulaymi August 1960 May 1962 Iraq 1 1 year, 273 days
Ghalib Yaghi August 1960 May 1962 Lebanon 1 1 year, 273 days
Ali Salih al-Sadi May 1962 18 February 1964 Iraq 2 1 year, 293 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Regional Branch.
Hamid Abd al-Majid May 1962 18 February 1964 Iraq 2 1 year, 293 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Regional Branch.
Jibran Majdalani May 1962 23 February 1966 Lebanon 4 3 years, 298 days
Abd al-Majid Rafi May 1962 23 October 1963 Lebanon 1 1 year, 175 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Lebanese Regional Branch.
18 February 1964 April 1965 Lebanon 1 1 year, 42 days
Khalid al-Ali May 1962 April 1965 Lebanon 3 2 years, 335 days
Amin al-Hafiz 23 October 1963 23 February 1966 Syria 3 2 years, 123 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Syrian Regional Branch.
Salah Jadid 23 October 1963 23 February 1966 Syria 3 2 years, 123 days Served as the Assistant Regional Secretary of the Syrian Regional Branch.
Hammud al-Shufi 23 October 1963 18 February 1964 Syria 1 118 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Syrian Regional Branch.
Muhsin Shaykh Radi 23 October 1963 18 February 1964 Iraq 1 118 days
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr 23 October 1963 23 February 1966 Iraq 3 2 years, 123 days Served as the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Regional Branch.
Salih Mahdi Ammash 23 October 1963 18 February 1964 Iraq 1 118 days
Abd al-Muhsin Abu Mayzar 23 October 1963 18 February 1964 Jordan 1 118 days
Muhammad Umran 18 February 1964 May 1965 Syria 1 1 year, 73 days
Mansur al-Atrash 18 February 1964 23 February 1966 Syria 1 2 years, 5 days
Shibli al-Aysami 18 February 1964 23 February 1966 Syria 1 2 years, 5 days
Ali Khalil 18 February 1964 23 February 1966 Lebanon 2 2 years, 5 days
Ali Ghannam 18 February 1964 23 February 1966 Saudi Arabia 2 2 years, 5 days
Hafez al-Assad May 1965 23 February 1966 Syria 1 328 days
Brahim Makhous May 1965 23 February 1966 Syria 1 328 days

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Commins 2004, p. 65.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rabinovich 1972, p. 231.
  3. ^ a b c d e Devlin 1975, p. 19.
  4. ^ Rabinovich 1972, p. 148.
  5. ^ a b c Devlin 1975, pp. 327–331.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Commins, Dean (2004). Historical Dictionary of Syria. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4934-8.
  • Devlin, John (1975). The Baath Party: a History from its Origins to 1966 (2nd ed.). Hoover Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-6561-7.
  • Rabinovich, Itamar (1972). Syria Under the Baʻth, 1963–66: The Army Party Symbiosis. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-7065-1266-9.