National Day of Catalonia

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National Day of Catalonia
Catalan: Diada Nacional de Catalunya
Official name National Day of Catalonia
Also called Diada, Onze de Setembre
Observed by Catalonia (Spain)
Significance Commemorates the fall of Barcelona during the War of the Spanish Succession in 1714.
Date 11 September
Next time 11 September 2018 (2018-09-11)
Frequency annual
Floral offerings to the monuments of one of the commanders of the Catalan army during the Siege of Barcelona Rafael Casanova in Barcelona
Fossar de les Moreres, general view
Floral offerings to the monument of Rafael Casanova by President of Catalonia, Artur Mas, in 2013. On the right, Mossos d'Esquadra in gala dresses

The National Day of Catalonia[1] (Catalan: Diada Nacional de Catalunya [diˈaðə nəsiuˈnaɫ də kətəˈɫuɲə]) is a day-long festival in Catalonia and one of its official national symbols. It commemorates the fall of Barcelona during the War of the Spanish Succession.[2] The Army of Catalonia that initially fought in support of the Habsburg dynasty's claim to the Spanish throne were finally defeated at the Siege of Barcelona by the army of the Bourbon king Philip V of Spain on 11 September 1714 after 14 months of siege. That meant the loss of the Catalan constitutions under the aegis of the Nueva Planta decrees. The holiday was first celebrated on 11 September 1886, was suppressed by Francoist Spain in 1939, was celebrated publicly for the first time again on 11 September 1977 by a huge demonstration in Barcelona, and reinstated officially in 1980 by the autonomous government of Catalonia, the Generalitat de Catalunya, upon its restoration after the Francoist State.[3]

Nationalist organizations and political parties traditionally lay floral offerings at monuments of those who led the defence of the city such as Rafael Casanova and General Moragues, marking their stand against the king Philip V of Spain. Typically, Catalan nationalists organize demonstrations and meet at the Fossar de les Moreres in Barcelona, where they pay homage to the defenders of city who died during the siege and were buried there. Throughout the day, there are patriotic demonstrations and cultural events in many Catalan villages and many citizens wave senyeres and estelades. The event has become more explicitly political and particularly focused on independence rallies in the 2010s.[4]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ National Day of Catalonia - Generalitat de Catalunya Archived 2014-07-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ When the Treaty of Utrecht was signed between April and July, Catalonia remained (alongside Majorca) the only realm of which still fought for the cause of Charles III. By 9 July, the General Estates of Catalonia decided to continue the war in order to defend the Spanish constitutions
  3. ^ "Onze de Setembre" Archived 2011-12-10 at the Wayback Machine., in: Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana (online)
  4. ^ Jones, Sam (10 September 2017). "Catalans to celebrate Their National Day with Independence Protests". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group.