National Democratic Alliance (India)

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National Democratic Alliance
Chairperson Amit Shah
Founder Bharatiya Janata Party
Lok Sabha leader Narendra Modi
Rajya Sabha leader Arun Jaitley
Former Prime Minister(s) Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Founded 1998
Political position Centre-right to Right-wing
No. of members 35 Parties
Seats in Lok Sabha
337 / 545
Present Members 544 + 1 Speaker
Seats in Rajya Sabha
64 / 245
Present Members 242
Politics of India
Political parties

The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right[1] coalition of political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and had thirteen constituent parties. Its honorary chairman is former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former deputy prime minister who is the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister of India and Leader of house in Lok Sabha; Arun Jaitley, Leader of house in the Rajya Sabha. The coalition was in power from 1998 to 2004. The alliance stormed back to power in the elections held in April/May 2014.The combined vote share of NDA in Indian general election, 2014 was 38.5%.[2] Its leader, Narendra Modi was sworn-in Prime Minister of India on 26 May.


Prime Minister Narendra Modi

The National Democratic Alliance was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. It was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party, and included several regional parties, including the Samata Party and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP.[3][4] With outside support provided by the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), the NDA was able to muster a slim majority in the elections of 1998, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee returned as prime minister.[5] The government collapsed within a year because the (AIADMK) withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became prime minister for a third time, this time for a full five-year term.[6]

The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government as responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA unexpectedly suffered a heavy defeat, winning only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh succeeding Vajpayee as prime minister. Some commentators have stated that the NDA's failure to reach out to rural Indians was the explanation for its defeat; others have pointed to its "divisive" policy agenda as the reason.[7][8]


The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure in place, such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies. Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility and replaced by Sharad Yadav, the national president of the Janata Dal(United) political party. On 16 June 2013, the JD(U) left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener.[9]

Present Members and Seats in Parliament[edit]

Currently, the parties in and supporting the NDA are:[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

No Party Current No. of MPs in Lok Sabha (As on 13 February 2016) Current No. of MPs in Rajya Sabha (As on 13 February 2016) Base State
1 Bharatiya Janata Party 280 48 National Party
2 Shiv Sena 18 3 Maharashtra
3 Telugu Desam Party 16 6 Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
4 Lok Janshakti Party 6 0 Bihar
5 Shiromani Akali Dal 4 3 Punjab
6 Jammu & Kashmir People's Democratic Party 3 2 Jammu and Kashmir
7 Rashtriya Lok Samata Party 3 0 Bihar
8 Apna Dal 2 0 Uttar Pradesh
9 National People's Party 1 0 Meghalaya
10 Swabhimani Paksha 1 0 Maharashtra
11 Naga People's Front 1 0 Nagaland
12 Pattali Makkal Katchi 1 0 Tamil Nadu
13 All India N.R. Congress 1 0 Puducherry
14 Republican Party of India (Athvale) 0 1 Maharashtra
15 Bodoland People's Front 0 1 Assam
16 Mizo National Front 0 0 Mizoram
17 Rashtriya Samaj Paksha 0 0 Maharashtra
18 Shiv Sangram 0 0 Maharashtra
19 Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam 0 0 Tamil Nadu
20 Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi 0 0 Tamil Nadu
21 Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi 0 0 Tamil Nadu
22 New Justice Party 0 0 Tamil Nadu
23 Jana Sena Party 0 0 Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
24 Gorkha Janmukti Morcha 0 0 West Bengal
25 Kerala Congress (Nationalist) 0 0 Kerala
26 Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) 0 0 Kerala
27 Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party 0 0 Goa
28 Goa Vikas Party 0 0 Goa
29 All Jharkhand Students Union 0 0 Jharkhand
30 North-East Regional Political Front 0 0 North-East
31 Manipur Peoples Party 0 0 Manipur
32 Kamtapur Peoples Party 0 0 West Bengal
33 Jammu & Kashmir People's Conference 0 0 Jammu and Kashmir
34 Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular) 0 0 Bihar
35 Kerala Congress (Thomas) 0 0 Kerala
Total 337 64 India

NDA Governments in various states[edit]

As of November 2015, states with BJP governments are shown in orange (8), and NDA governments in brown (4). States where the BJP is a significant opposition party are in yellow (5) and others

As of November 2015, the BJP holds a majority of assembly in 8 states: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Goa, Haryana, Maharashtra and Jharkhand. In 4 other states and 1 Union Territory – Punjab, Nagaland, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh and Puducherry respectively – it shares power with other political parties of the NDA coalition. The BJP has previously been the sole party in power in Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, and Delhi. It has also ruled Odisha, and Bihar as part of coalition governments.[25] In 2014 Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly elections, BJP emerged as 2nd largest party by winning 25 seats and largest party by vote share of 23%.[26]

List of Current NDA Chief Ministers[edit]

No State/UT Govt Since Chief Minister CM's Party CM Since Alliance Partner Seats in Assembly Percentage of Seats
1 Gujarat 28 February 1998 Anandiben Patel Bharatiya Janata Party 22 May 2014 None 120/182 66
2 Chhattisgarh 4 December 2003 Raman Singh Bharatiya Janata Party 7 December 2003 None 49/90 54
3 Madhya Pradesh 4 December 2003 Shivraj Singh Chouhan Bharatiya Janata Party 29 November 2005 None 165/230 72
4 Punjab 13 February 2007 Prakash Singh Badal Shiromani Akali Dal 1 March 2007 Bharatiya Janata Party 68/117 58
5 Nagaland 8 March 2008 T. R. Zeliang Nagaland People's Front 24 May 2014 Bharatiya Janata Party 38/60 63
6 Puducherry 13 May 2011 N. Rangaswamy All India N.R. Congress 16 May 2011 Bharatiya Janata Party 15/30 50
7 Goa 6 March 2012 Laxmikant Parsekar Bharatiya Janata Party 8 November 2014 MGP 24/40 60
8 Rajasthan 8 December 2013 Vasundhara Raje Bharatiya Janata Party 13 December 2013 None 160/200 82
9 Andhra Pradesh 16 May 2014 N. Chandrababu Naidu Telugu Desam Party 8 June 2014 Bharatiya Janata Party 106/175 61
10 Haryana 19 October 2014 Manohar Lal Khattar Bharatiya Janata Party 26 October 2014 None 47/90 52
11 Maharashtra 19 October 2014 Devendra Fadnavis Bharatiya Janata Party 31 October 2014 Shiv Sena 186/288[27] 64
12 Jharkhand 23 December 2014 Raghubar Das Bharatiya Janata Party 28 December 2014 AJSU 48/81 59
13 Jammu and Kashmir 1 March 2015 Mufti Mohammad Sayeed Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party 1 March 2015 Bharatiya Janata Party 53/87 60.91

List of Prime Ministers[edit]

No. Prime Ministers Year Duration Constituency
1 Atal Bihari Vajpayee 1996, 1998–04 6 years Lucknow
2 Narendra Modi 2014 Incumbent Varanasi

List of NDA Candidates for 2014[edit]

Alliance Election wise[edit]

For Lok Sabha Election 2014[edit]

Party Base State Seats Contested Seats Won Seat Change
Bharatiya Janata Party National Party 426 282 Increase166
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 15 0 0
Pattali Makkal Katchi Tamil Nadu 8 1 Increase1
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 7 0 Decrease1
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
New Justice Party Tamil Nadu 1 0 0
Telugu Desam Party AP, Telangana 30 16 Increase10
Jana Sena Party AP, Telangana 0
Shiv Sena Maharashtra 20 18 Increase7
Swabhimani Paksha Maharashtra 2 1 Increase0
Republican Party of India (Athvale) Maharashtra 1 0 0
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha Maharashtra 1 0 0
Shiromani Akali Dal Punjab 10 4 Increase0
Lok Janshakti Party Bihar 7 6 Increase6
Rashtriya Lok Samata Party Bihar 3 3 Increase3
Haryana Janhit Congress Haryana 2 0 Decrease1
Apna Dal Uttar Pradesh 2 2 Increase2
Kerala Congress (Nationalist) Kerala 1 0 0
Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) Kerala 1 0 0
All India N.R. Congress Puducherry 1 1 Increase1
National People's Party (India) Meghalaya 1 1 Increase1
Naga People's Front Nagaland 1 1 Increase0
United Democratic Front Mizoram 1 0 0
Manipur Peoples Party Manipur 0
North-East Regional Political Front North East #
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha West Bengal 0
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Goa 0
Goa Vikas Party Goa 0
National Democratic Alliance – Total India 543 336 Increase195

^ BJP had fielded 427 candidates on 427 seats out of 543 but nomination of BJP candidate S. Gurumoorthy was rejected from Niligiris for failing to submit mandatory forms during his nomination.[28][29][30][31][32][33]
(#) NPP, NPF and MNF are contesting in each Seats & Other 8 Members supporting NDA Candidates

For Lok Sabha election 2009[edit]

Prime minister candidate Parties
L. K. Advani Bhartiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
Shiv Sena
Indian National Lok Dal
Rashtriya Lok Dal
Asom Gana Parishad
Nagaland People's Front
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal
Kamtapur Progressive Party
Ladakh Union Territory Front

Telangana Rashtra Samithi[34]

For Lok Sabha Election 2004[edit]

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
A B Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Telugu Desam Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
All India Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Janata Party
Mizo National Front
Indian Federal Democratic Party
Manipur State Congress Party

For Lok Sabha election 1999[edit]

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
A B Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

Janata Dal (United)
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Samata Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
Nationalist Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Pattali Makkal Katchi
Lok Shakti
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam
Haryana Vikas Party
Indian National Lok Dal
Mizo National Front
Sikkim Democratic Front
Manipur State Congress Party
Telugu Desam Party (External Support)

For Lok Sabha Election 1998[edit]

Prime Minister Candidate Parties
A B Vajpayee Bharatiya Janata Party

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Samata Party
Biju Janata Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal
Nationalist Trinamool Congress
Shiv Sena
Pattali Makkal Katchi
Lok Shakti
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam
Haryana Vikas Party
Janata Party
Mizo National Front

Past members[edit]

No Party Base State Withdrawal Date Reason for Withdrawal
1 Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 1999 Aligned with Indian National Congress during 1999 elections[35]
2 Lok Shakti Bihar 1999 Merged with Janata Dal (United) for 1999 Elections
3 J & K National Conference J & K 2002 Blaming the BJP for its loss in the Jammu and Kashmir state elections.
4 Samata Party Bihar 2003 Merged with Janata Dal (United) in 2003
5 Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 2004 Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections
6 Haryana Vikas Party Haryana 2004 Aligned with Congress Party during 2004 elections
7 Indian Federal Democratic Party Kerala 2004 Following the 2004 election, Merged with Kerala Congress
8 All India Trinamool Congress West Bengal 2007 Aligned with the Congress party before the 2009 elections.
9 Indian National Lok Dal Haryana 2009 Left due to seat sharing disagreements during assembly elections 2009.
10 Biju Janata Dal Odisha 2009 Left the alliance just over a month before the 2009 elections.
11 Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telangana 2009 Left the alliance post defeat in 2009 election.
12 Janata Dal (Secular) Karnataka 2010 Left the alliance in 2010
13 Ladakh Union Territory Front J & K 2010 Merged with BJP.
14 Kamtapur Progressive Party West Bengal 2010 Withdrew Support due to Merger with Kamtapur People's Party.
15 Asom Gana Parishad Assam 2011 Left the alliance before 2011 Assam legislative assembly election.
16 Uttarakhand Kranti Dal Uttarakhand 2012 Withdrew Support before State Elections
17 Rashtriya Lok Dal UP 2012 Has allied with Congress for 2012 Uttar Pradesh legislative assembly election
18 Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Jharkhand 2012 Withdrew from alliance in 2012
19 Janata Dal (United) Bihar 2013 Withdrew on 16 June 2013 against Narendra Modi's candidate-ship as prime minister.
20 Janata Party Tamil Nadu 2013 Merged with BJP
21 Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) Haryana 2014 Withdrew from alliance before Haryana Legislative Assembly election, 2014[36]
22 Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Tamil Nadu 2014 Withdrew alliance in a view to Tamil Nadu Elections 2016

Year by year changes[edit]


New parties that have joined NDA coalition are Haryana based Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) and Maharashtra based Republican Party of India.
Ajit Singh led Rashtriya Lok Dal has withdrawn from NDA.


Presidential election

NDA nominated P. A. Sangma as its presidential candidate who lost against UPA's Pranab Mukherjee.

Vice-Presidential election

Jaswant Singh was named as the candidate for the post of Vice-President against UPA's Hamid Ansari. Ansari won his second term in office.[37]


On 16 June 2013, Nitish Kumar led Janta Dal United(JD-U) has withdrawn from NDA.

On 13 September 2013, Narendra Modi declared as PM candidate for 2014 Elections

On 11 August 2013, after a discussion with BJP President Rajnath Singh, Janata Party Chairman Dr.Subramanian Swamy officially joined Bharatiya Janata Party and merged his Janata Party with the Bharatiya Janata Party in presence of BJP president Rajnath Singh.The announcement was made by Mr Swamy and BJP president Rajnath Singh after they met at the latter's residence in Delhi. Former BJP chief Nitin Gadkari and senior party leader Arun Jaitley were also present at the meet.


On 1 January 2014, Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam leader Vaiko has announced that MDMK formally joined back to NDA. Vaiko also announced Modi will be the best candidate for Prime Minister.[38] The two small parties viz Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam and Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi have also joined NDA Alliance. The BJP would like Two more southern parties such as Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam, Pattali Makkal Katchi to also join the alliance.[39]

In Maharashtra, two regional political outfits, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha, joined NDA in January. [40] The coalition of Five parties is termed as Mahayuti. So in Maharashtra now NDA alliance consist of 5 Parties viz BJP, Shiv Sena, Republican Party of India, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha.[41]

On 23 February 2014, Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha joined NDA and will be contesting at 3 Lok Sabha seats in Bihar.[42] On 27 February 2014 Lok Janshakti Party led by Ramvilas Paswan joined NDA[43] It would contest at 7 Lok Sabha Seats in Bihar during 2014 Elections.[44]

DMDK will be fighting Lok Sabha Election through an alliance with BJP led NDA.[45] MDMK, PMK led Social Democratic Alliance are the other allies of NDA in Tamil Nadu.

Maharashtra Navnirman Sena : Its President, Sh. Raj Thackeray announced external support to NDA on 9 March 2014 which is marked as Party's formation day, supporting Sh. Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate.

Indian National Lok Dal : Its Gen. Sec., Sh. Ajay Singh Chautala announced external support to NDA, supporting Sh. Narendra Modi as Prime Ministerial Candidate.

Lok Satta Party : President Shri J P Narayan announced external support to NDA, supporting PM candidate Narendra Modi ji.

All India NR Congress (AINRC) formally joined NDA on 13 March 2014 and will be contesting in Puducherry Lok Sabha constituency.[13]

Telugu Desam Party (TDP) has rejoined NDA on 6 April, after breaking alliance in 2004 post general election defeat.[46]

Shiv Sena Though Shiv Sena has quit Mahayuti in Maharashtra, before Maharashtra Legislative Assembly Elections 2014, but has decided to remain with NDA at the Centre.[47]

All Jharkhand Students Union BJP on Monday clinched an alliance with All Jharkhand Students Unions for Jharkhand Assembly elections under which its junior partner will contest eight of the 81 seats in the state.[48]


Bharatiya Janata Party on Friday 27th Feb, 2015 clinched an alliance with People's Democratic Party for Government Formation in Jammu & Kashmir under which its CM will be from PDP in the state.[49]


Bharatiya Janata Party on 17th Jan, 2016 clinched an alliance with BPF in Assam for its upcoming state elections in Assam. [50]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Simta Prakash (17 June 2013). "NDA implodes". Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "BJP's 31% lowest vote share of any party to win majority". 
  3. ^ Keith Jones (9 October 1999). "Hindu chauvinist-led coalition to form India's next government". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Penguin. p. 254. 
  5. ^ "Rediff on the NeT: TDP helps Vajpayee wins confidence vote". Retrieved 4 January 2011. 
  6. ^ Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian. Penguin. 
  7. ^ Ramesh, Randeep (14 May 2004). "News World news Shock defeat for India's Hindu nationalists". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
  8. ^ Editorial (14 May 2004). "The Meaning of Verdict 2004". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 December 2013. 
  9. ^ "Live: It was time to remove Cong from Centre, not to break ties, says Rajnath". IBN Live. 16 June 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  10. ^ Small parties, independents in great demand. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
  11. ^ "NDA hopeful of more pre-poll and post-poll friends". Business Standard. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  12. ^ Tiwari, Ravish (5 March 2014). "Partners & possibles in BJP's target 272 | Page 2". The Indian Express. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Dutta, Debjani (13 March 2014). "Rangasamy in NDA, Names Ex-Speaker as LS Candidate". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "BJP Forms State Chapter of NDA with 4 Parties". The New Indian Express. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "MPP to back BJP in Manipur LS polls". The Telegraph. Kolkota. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Apna Dal allies with NDA". The Hindu. 24 March 2014. 
  17. ^ "Northeast parties stitch alliance with NDA". Daily News and Analysis. Indo-Asian News Service. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  18. ^ R Guhambika (2 April 2014). "Homilies apart, TN NDA Tally Zilch on Women Candidates". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "BJP Projects Grand Alliance of 28 Parties". The New Indian Express. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  20. ^ "Goa Vikas party pledges support for BJP in Lok Sabha election". The Times of India. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  21. ^ Varma, Gyan (13 June 2015). "Manjhi joins NDA ahead of Bihar polls". Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  22. ^ "Kerala Cong P C Thomas Faction Joins NDA". New Indian Express. 19 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  23. ^ Ehsan, Mir. "J&K govt formation: PDP against inducting Lone in cabinet". Srinagar: Indian Express. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  24. ^ Mukane, Pratik (21 October 2014). "Maharashtra assembly polls: 36 of 58 candidates who defected to BJP failed to woo voters". Mumbai: Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 23 August 2015. Three other candidates who lost the election include alliance partner and Shiv Sangram's leader Vinayak Mete 
  25. ^ Word Statesman 2014.
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ BJP suspends Nilgiris (SC) LS seat candidate S Gurumurthy. Daily News and Analysis. (5 May 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  29. ^ BJP suspends Nilgiris ‘candidate’ for nomination goof. The Times of India. (6 May 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  30. ^ Rejected candidate accuses RO of bias towards BJP. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  31. ^ Will NDA support AIADMK in Nilgiris?. Business Standard (11 April 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  32. ^ Bhushan Casts Doubts Over BJP Nilgiris Goof-up. The New Indian Express (13 April 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  33. ^ BJP members angry over Nilgiris nomination fiasco. (15 April 2014). Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  34. ^ TRS joins NDA
  35. ^ "Third Front is born, asks for nation's trust". Retrieved 12 March 2009. 
  36. ^ "Haryana Janhit Congress snaps ties with BJP". 28 August 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  37. ^ "NDA names Jaswant Singh as its vice-presidential candidate". 16 July 2012. 
  38. ^ "Modi will become PM, says Vaiko". 1 January 2014. 
  39. ^ "Can Modi's magic help win BJP allies? Three southern parties to decide soon". Hindustan Times. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  40. ^ "Setback to AAP plans as Swabhimani Shetkari Sanghatana joins Sena-BJP led combine". The Economic Times. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  41. ^ "SSS joins NDA, threat to NCP". The Indian Express. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  42. ^ "LS polls: BJP joins hands with Upendra Kushwaha's Rashtriya Lok Samata Party – IBNLive". 23 February 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  43. ^ "Ram Vilas Paswan's LJP returns lo to NDA, to contest from 7 seats in Bihar". Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  44. ^ "LJP rejoins NDA, would contest 7 seats in Bihar in 2014 Elections". Indo-Asian News Service. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  45. ^ Panwar, Preeti (26 February 2014). "Confirmed: DMDK-BJP form alliance in Tamil Nadu for LS polls – News Oneindia". Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  46. ^ "TDP back to NDA". The New Indian Express. 6 April 2014. 
  47. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  48. ^ Archived from the original on 4 November 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  49. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  50. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]