National Democratic Congress (Ghana)

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National Democratic Congress
Abbreviation NDC
Leader John Dramani Mahama
Chairperson Kofi Portuphy
General Secretary Asiedu Nketia
Founder Jerry Rawlings
Founded 28 July 1992 (1992-07-28)
Headquarters Adabraka
Near Adabraka Cluster of Schools
Student wing TEIN
Ideology Social democracy
Political position Centre-left
International affiliation Progressive Alliance
Socialist International
Colors Green, White, Red and Black
Slogan Unity, Stability and Development
106 / 275
Pan-African Parliament
3 / 5
Election symbol
The Umbrella with the Head of a Dove at the Tip

The National Democratic Congress (NDC) is a social democratic political party in Ghana, founded by Jerry John Rawlings, who was Head of State of Ghana from 1981 to 1993 and the President of Ghana from 1993 to 2001. Following the formation of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) which ruled Ghana following the military coup d'état on 31 December 1981, there was pressure from the international community to restore democracy. The NDC was formed as the ruling party ahead of elections in 1992, in which Rawlings was elected President, and in 1996 Rawlings as re-elected as the NDC candidate. Rawlings' second term ended in 2001. The NDC lost the presidency in the 2000 election, and it was not until the 2008 election that they regained it with candidate John Atta Mills.

The NDC party symbol is an umbrella with the head of a dove at the tip. The party colors are red, white, green, and black, and the party slogan or motto is "Unity, stability, and development." Internationally, the NDC is a member of the Progressive Alliance[1] and Socialist International.[2]

On 9 December 2012, the Electoral Commission of Ghana declared NDC candidate John Dramani Mahama to be President-elect after a hotly contested race in which he won 50.7% of votes cast.[3]

Electoral performance[edit]

The NDC has contested all national elections since its inception.

2000 elections[edit]

The 2000 election was the first presidential election since 1992 that an incumbent president was not on the ballot. Jerry Rawlings' eight-year tenure had expired as per the Constitution of Ghana. John Atta Mills became the Presidential Candidate of the National Democratic Congress at a special delegate congress held in Ho in the Volta Region of Ghana. He was popularly acclaimed the presidential candidate of the party for the 2000 presidential election. Vice-President. John Atta Mills lost in 2000 to New Patriotic Party's John Kufour after two rounds of voting.

2004 elections[edit]

In the 2004 elections the party's manifesto called for "A Better Ghana".[4] John Atta Mills ran again for the NDC in the 2004 presidential elections, winning 44.6% of the vote, but losing to the New Patriotic Party. In the general elections held on 7 December 2004, the party won only 94 of the 230 seats.

2008 elections[edit]

On 21 December 2006, Mills was overwhelmingly elected by the NDC as its candidate for the 2008 presidential election with a majority of 81.4%, or 1,362 votes. Ekwow Spio-Garbrah was second with 8.7% (146 votes), Alhaji Mahama Iddrisu was third with 8.2% (137 votes), and Eddie Annan was fourth with 1.7% (28 votes).[5] In April 2008, John Mahama was chosen as the party's vice-presidential candidate.[6] On 3 January 2009, Mills was certified as the victor of the 28 December 2008 run-off election and became the next president of Ghana.[7]

2012 transfer of power and elections[edit]

President John Atta Mills died, after a short illness, in the afternoon of 24 July 2012 while still in office. Vice President John Dramani Mahama of the NDC was sworn-in as President that evening.[8] The NDC picked John Dramani Mahama for their presidential candidate and sitting vice president Paa Kwesi Amissah-Arthur as their vice-presidential candidate for the 2012 elections.

2016 primaries[edit]

In November 2015 after securing an overwhelming 1,199 118 out of a total of 1, 286, 728 votes representing 95.10% party members in the presidential primaries, President John Dramani Mahama was endorsed to lead the NDC in the 2016 general elections.[9]

Election results[edit]

Election Votes % Seats +/– Position Government
1992 58.4
189 / 200
Steady Steady 1st Majority gov't
1996 4,099,758 57.4
133 / 200
Decrease 56 Steady 1st Majority gov't
2000 2,690,360 57.4
91 / 200
Decrease 42 Steady 2nd Opposition
2004 3,567,021 40.9
94 / 230
Increase 3 Steady 2nd Opposition
2008 3,776,917 44.2
116 / 230
Increase 22 Steady 1st Majority gov't
2012 5,155,617 46.7
148 / 275
Increase 32 Steady 1st Majority gov't
2016 4,713,277 44.4
104 / 275
Decrease 44 Steady 2nd Opposition

Table presidential elections[edit]

Election Candidate Number of votes Share of votes Outcome of election
2016 John Dramani Mahama 4,713,277 44.4% NDC opposition
2012 John Dramani Mahama 5,574,761 50.7% Mahama NDC government[10]
2008 (2) John Atta Mills 4,501,466 50.1% Mills NDC government[11]
2008 (1) John Atta Mills 4,056,634 47.9% 2nd round election[11]
2004 John Atta Mills 3,850,368 44.6% NDC opposition[12]
2000 (2nd) John Atta Mills 2,728,241 43.3% NDC opposition[13]
2000 (1st) John Atta Mills 2,895,575 44.8% 2nd round election[13]
1996 Jerry Rawlings 4,099,758 57.4% 2nd Rawlings NDC government[14]
1992 Jerry Rawlings 2,327,600 58.4% Rawlings NDC government[15]

Governments formed[edit]

Since the NDC was formed, it has formed two governments following elections, and a third following the death of President Mills. The list of governments is as follows:


  1. ^ List of Political Parties and Associated Partners of the Progressive Alliance
  2. ^ List of Member Parties of the Socialist International.
  3. ^ "Presidential Candidates Ghana Elections 2012". GhanaWeb. 
  4. ^ "National Democratic Congress Manifesto 2004 "A Better Ghana"" (PDF). GhanaWeb. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2007. 
  5. ^ Ghana News Agency (GNA) (22 December 2006). "NDC Congress Results – Prof Wins". Modern Ghana. 
  6. ^ "Mills Chooses John Mahama As Running Mate". ModernGhana. 10 April 2008. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. 
  7. ^ "Opposition Leader Wins Ghana Poll". BBC. 3 January 2009. 
  8. ^ "The Executive - President of the Republic of Ghana". Ghana Government Portal. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. 
  9. ^ Ghana Web (22 November 2015). "Mahama Gets 95.10% NDC Endorsement For 2016 Elections". Ghana Web. Ghana Web. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  10. ^ "REPUBLIC OF GHANA – PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF DECEMBER 2012". Adam Carr. Retrieved 2013-04-05. 
  11. ^ a b "REPUBLIC OF GHANA – PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF DECEMBER 2008". Adam Carr. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  12. ^ "07 December 2004 Presidential Election". Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  13. ^ a b "REPUBLIC OF GHANA – PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF DECEMBER 2000". Adam Carr. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  14. ^ "07 December 1996 Presidential Election". Elections in Ghana. Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  15. ^ "03 November 1992 Presidential Election". Elections in Ghana. Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Provisional National Defence Council
(military government)
Governments of Ghana
Rawlings government

1993 – 2001
Succeeded by
Kufuor government
(New Patriotic Party)
Preceded by
Kufuor government
(New Patriotic Party)
Governments of Ghana
Mills government
& Mahama government

2009 – 2016
Succeeded by
Akufo-Addo government
(New Patriotic Party)