National Directorate of Security
|ریاست ملی امنیت|
Seal of the National Directorate of Security
|Website||Official website (registered but offline)|
The NDS operates both within the boundaries of Afghanistan and also within foreign nations, and accordingly, is the principal organisation of Afghanistan functioning to obtain intelligence and prosecute individuals found to be guilty of criminal and terrorist activities, and accordingly to protect persons living within Afghanistan from threats to their security (ref. p. 1-2).
The NDS is otherwise known as:
د ملي امنیت ریاست (the Pashto language)
ریاست امنیت ملی (Dari)
Riyasat-e Amniyat-e Milli 
According to information published during 2010, the NDS was not at that time taking direction from the command of the Ministry of Defence or from the orders of persons within the Ministry of the Interior. According to reports of 2012 the NDS reports directly to the President and the National Assembly. The NDS operates a principle of promotion of staff on the basis of meritocracy.
During the former months of 2011 the NDS made a change to the organisation of the departments with an alteration of the numbers assigned to each department within the organisation.
A spokesperson for the NDS, Lutfullah Mashal, stated the Directorate regularly shares intelligence with Afghan officials of a senior rank, both within the boundaries of Kabul and "especially" with officials within the provinces.
During the 15th of May 2015, a representative of NDS, and a counter-representative of the intelligence agency of Pakistan, ISI, signed an agreement on intelligence sharing and the intention to perform operations complementary to shared objectives. Under the terms of agreement ISI personnel will train NDS operatives and in addition, ISI will also provide equipment to NDS. Together with this, an agreement was formed for co-operation to jointly interrogate detained persons. Rahmatullah Nabil opposed the agreement.
Previously, as part of an interview with Speigel published online during August 12, 2008, Saleh stated the agency had provided intelligence to persons within Pakistan on the Taliban. With regards to this intelligence, he had had no indication of a "meaningful response", as a consequence of this intelligence, from forces within Pakistan.
In a report for Guardian News and Media, containing information relevant to the NDS at a time sometime prior to Monday 10 October 2011, a reporter revealed accounts of interrogation techniques using torture of detained persons by an unknown number of employees of NDS. The information was obtained through interviews with 379 randomly selected individuals, of these the report identified instances of torture at five locations (Herat, Kandahar, Khost, Laghman - Jowzjan Province, and the Dept. 124 facility ) within Afghanistan. Of 324 persons identified as conflict-related detainees, 196 were detained only by the NDS, 69 by NDS and ANP, and 8 by the NDS and the Afghan National Army-ANA. The investigation found evidence of 125 of the 273 persons who had experienced treatment while within detention, which would be classified officially as torture. Of those interviewed, 19 children (i.e. those under the age of 18 years of age) made statements which indicated they had experienced torture by NDS employees while under-going interrogation (ref. p. 2, footnote 16).
The UN Arbitrary Detention Verification Campaign was made for the purposes of an impartial investigation of detainees held by certain employees primarily of the NDS and also, with a less-highly prioritized aim, of investigating the ANP, as a consequence of the war within Afghanistan. The NDS co-operated with the officials of the UN in their execution of duty, senior ranked members of the NDS allowed the UNAMA access to almost all detention facilities at the time of the campaign, except for the Kapisa facility and the NDS national detention centre of Counter-Terrorism Dept. 124 (ref. p.iv, & additionally p. 2). UN officials were instructed they were not allowed to make photographic or video recordings for obvious reasons of the maintenance of the necessary security protocol.
(please see also: Enhanced interrogation techniques by employees of agencies of the U.S.A.).
On May 23, 2012, Rear Admiral of the U.S. Navy James Crawford (commander of Rule of Law Field Force, part of Joint Task Force 435) Brigadier general of the U.S. Air Force Dash Jamieson (deputy commander of the Combined Joint Interagency Task Force 435) and Afghan Colonel Ayal, criminal techniques directorate of the Afghan Ministry of Interior gave NDS members a guided tour of the Justice Centre in Parwan.
A Reuters report published June 2012, informed by the chief NDS spokesman Lutfullah Mashal, stated the NDS were attempting the rehabilitation of suicide-bombers who had survived their attempts, by sending those individuals to Kabul to study the Koran and to pray. The detainees were made to exercise and prepare food for other in-mates. Members of the Directorate were also tasked with re-educating and informing those persons of the "darker side" of Taliban doctrine and teachings.
Directors and deputy heads
The president of Afghansistan President Hamid Karzai made a decision public at the closure of the tenure of Rahmatullah Nabil during 2012, for a limitation on the service of each head of the NDS in the future of two years only.
- Muhammad Arif Sarwari (Oct. 2001 – Feb. 2004)
- Amrullah Saleh (Feb. 2004 – June 2010)
- Ibrahim Spinzada (June 2010 – July 2010) transitional period
- Rahmatullah Nabil (July 2010 - September 2012) Hasamudin Hasam (deputy 2011) 
- Asadullah Khalid (September 2012 – August 2013)
- Rahmatullah Nabil (August 2013 – Present), Adib Fahim (appointed as deputy July 1, 2015)
- United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. Treatment of Conflict-Related Detainees in Afghan Custody (PDF). UN Office of The High Commissioner for Human Rights, October 2011, Kabul. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
- PRAVEEN SWAMI -  published by The Hindu May 1, 2014 [Retrieved 2015-07-30](this source the source only of Riyasat-e Amniyat-e Milli)
- BBC. Article. British Broadcasting Corporation - 14 August 2011. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
- Anthony H. Cordesman, Adam Mausner, Jason Lemieux. Afghan National Security Forces: What it Will Take to Implement the ISAF Strategy. CSIS 1 Jan 2010, 230 pages, ISBN 0892066083. Retrieved 2015-07-29.(MOI is taken i.e. understood to refer to the Ministry of Interior according to page 62, not Ministry of Information)
- Abasin Zaheeron, ed. (May 20, 2012). "Iran, Pakistan out to weaken Afghanistan, MPs told". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- International Monetary Fund - Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Issues 8-153 of IMF Staff Country Reports, pubwished by International Monetary Fund 9 May 2008, 322 pages, ISBN 1452786240 [Retrieved 2015-07-29]
- Ahmad Shah Erfanyar - reportage published by Pajhwok Afghan News Jul 11, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- Rezaul H Laskar - Article published by Hindustani Times May 19, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- MIRWAIS ADEEL. Article. Khaama Press May 18, 2015, 11:06 hrs (local time). Retrieved 2015-07-30.[source: 15th, and otherwise]
- Ankit Panda - The Pulse published by The Diplomat May 18, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- Jessica Donati and Mirwais Harooni. reportage. published by Reuters Sat Mar 21, 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-29.
- Karim Amini -  published by tolonews 31 January 2015 [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- Susanne Koelbl. Interview with the Head of Afghanistan's Secret Service. Speigel Online International. Retrieved 2015-07-29.
- Jeremy Kelly -  published by Guardian News and Media Limited Monday 10 October 2011 14.26 BST [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- Staff Sgt. Faiza Z. Evans - Afghan National Directorate of Security visits the JCIP The Official Homepage of the U.S. army [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- BRADEN GOYETTE -  published by New York Daily News Wednesday, June 13, 2012 [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- News published by the Office of the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Aug 29 2012 [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- Carlotta Gall, ed. (August 19, 2010). "New Afghan Intelligence Chief Aims to Build Trust". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- news published by Office of the Chief Executive of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
- NDS - Twitter
- Julian Richards - A Guide to National Security: Threats, Responses and Strategies published by OUP Oxford, 23 Feb 2012, ISBN 0199655065
- Jared N. Gehmann (Sgt.) - focus - published by Afghanistan Resolute Support (Nato)
- Sylvana Q. Sinha (of the Weil’s International Arbitration and Trade Practice Group - World Justice Project) - prison visit to view NDS detainees December 10, 2012
- Independent Strategy and Intelligence Study Group - report June 2, 2015:The NDS disrupt a plot
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