National Economic and Development Authority

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National Economic and Development Authority
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA).svg
Agency overview
Formed 1972 (Presidential Decree No. 107)
Annual budget P1.739 billion (2007)[1]
Agency executives
Website www.neda.gov.ph

The National Economic and Development Authority (Filipino: Pambansang Pangasiwaan sa Kabuhayan at Pagpapaunlad), abbreviated as NEDA, is an independent cabinet-level agency of the Philippine government responsible for economic development and planning. It is headed by the President of the Philippines as chairman of the NEDA board, with the Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning, concurrently NEDA Director-General, as vice-chairman. A number of Cabinet members, the Governor of the Central Bank, the Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, the Governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the Chairman of the Commission on Information and Communications Technology, the Chairman of the Subic-Clark Area Development Corporation, and the National President of the Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines are members of the NEDA Board.

The present Director-General and Socioeconomic Planning Secretary is Sec. Ernesto Pernia as appointed by president Rodrigo Duterte.

History and Precursor Agencies[edit]

National Economic Council[edit]

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated with Manuel L. Quezon as President, Sergio Osmeña as Vice President, and a unicameral National Assembly as the Legislature. One of the first acts of the President Manuel L. Quezon was to call for a special session of Congress to enact certain laws needed by the government.[2] Under Commonwealth Act No. 2, enacted on December 23, 1935, an advisory body for economic concerns of the Philippines called the National Economic Council was tasked with advising the government on economic and financial matters, and formulate an economic program based on national independence.[3] The president was authorized to appoint its respective members with the consent of the Commission on Appointments of the National Assembly.[4][5]

The year following its creation, the National Economic Council was organized on February 14, 1936, composed of its inaugural members - the Secretary of Finance (who served as Chairman), the Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Philippine National Bank, the President of the National Development Company, the President of the Manila Railroad Company, Mr. Joaquin M. Elizalde, Hon. R.J. Fernandez, Mr. Wenceslao Trinidad, Mr. Vicente Madrigal, Hon. Francisco Varona, Mr. Ramon Soriano, Hon. Vicente Singson Encarnacion, Hon. Rafael R. Alunan and Hon. Manuel Roxas.[4][6]

The council was organized into eight committees: (1) Committee on agriculture and natural resources, (2) industry, (3) foreign trade and tariff, (4) domestic trade, (5) transportation and communication, (6) taxation, (7) labor and immigration, and (8) banking and finance. The first act of the council was to survey and adopt plans for an effective utilization and conservation of our natural resources. The council also undertook a study, in cooperation with the National Development Company and Metropolitan Water District, on the potential of water power resources which eventually led to the enactment of Commonwealth Act No. 120[7], creating the National Power Corporation. [4][5]

After World War II, the First Congress of the Philippines enacted Republic Act No. 51[8], which allowed the President of the Philippines to reorganize the Executive Branch of Government as he sees fit within one year of its enactment. President Manuel Roxas, subsequently, amended the Administration Code of 1917 by issuing Executive Order No. 94, s. 1947. The Executive Order made the President of the Philippines the head of the National Economic Council.[4][9]

During his administration, President Carlos P. Garcia saw the need to create a new office in charge of the supervision of government corporations, which he called the National Development Authority. President Garcia asked Congress to enact such a law during his 1958 State of the Nation Address.[4][10]. When Congress finally passed the law creating the National Development Authority, President Garcia disagreed with its limited powers, thus vetoing the bill sent to him as he mentioned in his 1959 State of the Nation Address[11]

In 1960, Congress passed a law, which changed the composition of the National Economic Council through Republic Act No. 2699[12] enacted on June 18, 1960. The law increased the Council’s membership by including the Secretary of Commerce and Industry and granting the minority party representation in the membership of the National Economic Council. The Council would continue to perform its functions throughout the Third Republic until the declaration of Martial Law on September 23, 1972.[4]

National Economic Development Authority[edit]

The need for an office in charge of national development was revived during the administration of President Ferdinand E. Marcos. In his 1970 State of the Nation Address[13], Marcos said the administrative machinery of government must be restructured and revitalized to meet the challenge of change and development. Marcos, thereafter, crafted a government reorganization plan which included a National Economic Development Authority and submitted it to Congress for their approval.[4]

In 1972, the National Economic Development Authority (without the conjunction “and”) was created as the government’s central planning body. The first major thrust of the government-wide reorganization effected through Presidential Decree (P.D.) No. 1 issued on 24 September 1972[14], otherwise known as the Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP), was the provision for an integrated organizational complex for development planning and program implementation to correct the deficiencies of the system then existing. The IRP identified these deficiencies as: (1) the dispersal of planning functions among several economic planning bodies and ad hoc councils; (2) the lack of effective coordination among economic bodies; (3) the weak link between plan formulation and program execution; (4) the need to improve the capacity for sectoral and regional planning. The decree merged the National Economic Council and the Presidential Economic staff, created by Executive Order No. 8, s. 1966[15], and renamed it to the National Economic Development Authority.[4] President Marcos subsequently issued Presidential Decree No. 1-A which delineated the composition of the National Economic Development Authority.[16]

National Economic and Development Authority[edit]

In 1973, the National Economic Development Authority was dissolved by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 107, s. 1973[17]. The Presidential Decree created the National Economic and Development Authority (now, with the conjunction “and”), which absorbed the National Economic Development Authority as mandated in the 1973 Constitution.[4]

On 12 March 1986, after the February 1986 revolution, Executive Order (EO) No. 5 was issued by President Corazon C. Aquino, directing a government-wide reorganization to promote economy, efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of public services.

On 22 July 1987 Executive Order No. 230 was issued reorganizing the NEDA. Implementation of this EO was completed on 16 February 1988 when the NEDA commenced operations under its reorganized setup.

List of NEDA Director-Generals and Socioeconomic Planning Secretaries[edit]

# Name Term Began Term Ended President
Third Republic of the Philippines
? Sixto Roxas III 1963 (NEC) 1964 (NEC) Diosdado Macapagal
? Hilarion Henares 1965 (NEC) 1969 (NEC) Ferdinand E. Marcos
Fourth Republic of the Philippines
1 Gerardo Sicat 1970 (NEC)
1973 (NEDA)
1973 (NEC)
1981 (NEDA)
Ferdinand E. Marcos
2 Placido Mapa, Jr. 1970 (NEC)
1981 (NEDA)
1970 (NEC)
1983 (NEDA)
3 Cesar Virata[18] 1983 1984
4 Vicente Valdepeñas, Jr. 1984 1986
Fifth Republic of the Philippines
5 Winnie Monsod July 22, 1987 1989 Corazon C. Aquino
6 Jesus Estanislao 1989 January 1, 1990
7 Cayetano Paderanga, Jr. January 2, 1990 June 30, 1992
8 Cielito Habito June 30, 1992 June 30, 1998 Fidel V. Ramos
9 Felipe Medalla June 30, 1998 January 20, 2001 Joseph Ejercito Estrada
10 Dante Canlas January 20, 2001 2002 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
11 Romulo Neri 2002 2005
- Augusto Santos (acting) 2005 2006
(11) Romulo Neri 2006 2007
- Augusto Santos (acting) 2007 July 23, 2008
12 Ralph Recto July 23, 2008 August 16, 2009
- Augusto Santos (acting) August 16, 2009 June 30, 2010
(7) Cayetano Paderanga, Jr. June 30, 2010 May 10, 2012 Benigno S. Aquino III
13 Arsenio Balisacan May 10, 2012 January 31, 2016
- Emmanuel Esguerra (acting) February 1, 2016 June 30, 2016
14 Ernesto Pernia June 30, 2016 Present Rodrigo Roa Duterte

Governing Law[edit]

The present form of the NEDA was organized by President Corazon C. Aquino on July 22 1987 through Executive Order No. 230. It defined the composition of the NEDA Board and the Secretariat and its powers and functions, the powers and functions of the Authority and its committees.[19]

On July 26 1994, President Fidel V. Ramos signed Memorandum Order No. 222 which reactivated the NEDA Board Executive Committee and mandating that the decisions of the NEDA Board Executive Committee shall be final, executory and binding upon the NEDA Board.[20]

On July 27 1992, president Ramos signed Republic Act No. 7640, which constituted the Legislative-Executive Development Advisory Committee (LEDAC). The LEDAC serves as a consultative and advisory body to the President as the head of the NEDA and gives advice on certain programs and policies, which are essential to the realization of the goals of national development.[21]

NEDA Board[edit]

The powers and functions of the NEDA reside in the NEDA Board. It is the Philippines' premier social and economic development planning and policy coordinating body. The Board is composed of the President as chairman, the Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning and NEDA Director-General as vice-chairman, and the following as members: the Executive Secretary and the Secretaries of Finance, Trade and Industry, Agriculture, Environment and Natural Resources, Public Works and Highways, Budget and Management, Labor and Employment, and Interior and Local Government.

The following have since been added as members to the Board: the Secretaries of Health, Foreign Affairs, and Agrarian Reform (per Memorandum Order No. 164, dated 21 March 1988); the Secretary of Science and Technology (per Memorandum Order No. 235, dated 19 May 1989); and the Secretary of Transportation and Communications (per Memorandum Order No. 321, dated 26 September 1990). In addition, the Secretary of Energy (per Republic Act No. 7638, approved December 9, 1992) and the Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (per Section 124 of Republic Act No. 7653, approved June 14, 1993).

On April 22, 2006, the NEDA Board was reconstituted through Administrative Order No. 148, adding eight new members and replacing five original members.

The currently NEDA Board Members are (as of June 30, 2016):

The Board is assisted by six Cabinet-level inter-agency committees:

  1. Development Budget Coordination Committee (DBCC)
  2. Infrastructure Committee (InfraCom)
  3. Investment Coordination Committee (ICC)
  4. Social Development Committee (SDC)
  5. Committee on Tariff and Related Matters
  6. Regional Development Committee (RDCom)
  7. National Land Use Committee (NLUC).

NEDA Secretariat[edit]

The NEDA Secretariat serves as the research and technical support arm of the NEDA Board. It also provides technical staff support and assistance, including the conduct of studies and formulation of policy measures and other recommendations on the various aspects of development planning and policy formulation, and coordination, evaluation and monitoring of plan implementation. It is headed by a Director-General, with the title of Secretary for Socio-Economic Planning. He is assisted by three deputy directors-general each of whom is responsible for:

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OFFICE (NDO):

    1. Agriculture Staff (ANRES)
    2. Governance Staff (GovS)
    3. Infrastructure Staff (IS)
    4. Monitoring and Evaluation Staff (MES)
    5. National Policy and Planning Staff (NPPS)
    6. Public Investment Staff (PIS)
    7. Social Development Staff (SDS)
    8. Trade, Services, and Industry Staff (TSIS)


REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OFFICE (RDO):

    1. Regional Development Staff (RDS)
    2. Regional Offices (NROs)


CENTRAL SUPPORT OFFICE (CSO):

    1. Administrative Staff (AdS)
    2. Development Information Staff (DIS)
    3. Financial Planning and Management Staff (FPMS)
    4. Information and Communications Technology Staff (ITCS)
    5. Legal Staff (LS)

Other Offices[edit]

  1. The Legislative-Executive Development Advisory Council (LEDAC) Secretariat.
  2. The Legislative Liaison Office (LLO)

Attached Agencies[edit]

  1. Tariff Commission (TC),
  2. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Center,
  3. Philippine National Volunteer Service Coordinating Agency (PNVSCA),
  4. Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA),
  5. Philippine Statistical Research and Training Institute (PSRTI), and
  6. Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS).

Moreover, the, Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) is attached to the NEDA for policy and program coordination or integration.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2007-04-25.
  2. ^ "History: The Department of National Defense". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  3. ^ "Commonwealth Act No. 2 (December 23, 1935)". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "History of the National Economic and Development Authority". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ a b "The First Annual Report of the President of the Philippines to the President of the United States Covering the Period of November 15, 1935 to December 31, 1936". Internet Archive. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  6. ^ Quezon, Manuel. "Second State of the Nation Address, 16 June 1936". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Commonwealth Act No. 120". ChanRobles Virtual Law Libray. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  8. ^ "Republic Act No. 51". The Lawphil Project. Arellano Law Foundation. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  9. ^ "Executive Order No. 94, s. 1947". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  10. ^ Garcia, Carlos. "First State of the Nation Address". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  11. ^ Garcia, Carlos. "Second State of the Nation Address". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  12. ^ "Republic Act No. 2699". ChanRobles Virtual Law Library. ChanRobles Publishing Company. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  13. ^ Marcos, Ferdinand. "Fifth State of the Nation Address". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  14. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 1, s. 1972". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines.
  15. ^ "Executive Order No. 8, s. 1966". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  16. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 1-A, 1972". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  17. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 107, s. 1973". Official Gazette. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  18. ^ The Prime Minister of the Philippines acts as the Director-General of the National Economic Development Authority under the 1973 Constitution.
  19. ^ Executive Order No. 230
  20. ^ Memorandum Order No. 222
  21. ^ Republic Act No. 7640