National Liberation Committee for Northern Italy
The Committee of National Liberation for Northern Italy (Italian: CLNAI or Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia) was set up by partisans behind German lines in the Italian Social Republic, a Nazi German puppet state in Northern Italy. It enjoyed the loyalty of most anti-fascist groups in the region.
In Milan, a September 1944 meeting decided a northern National Liberation Committee, within the Italian Social Republic that was established in 1943, was important. National Liberation Committee (CLN) leaders of Rome led by Bonomi recognized in January 1944 the need for coordination of the partisan struggle in the north and then the delegates were Committee of Milan all political and military powers for Upper Italy, despite some disagreement with the Committee of Turin. Directed by independent Pizzoni Alfredo ("Longhi"), the committee became CLNAI Milan (Italy High Committee for National Liberation) and the rest of the Resistance led effectively to the partisan struggle in the heart of the Republic of the military and the German Social G.Bocca.
The initial members of CLNAI were: liberals Justin Arpesani and Casagrande, the Communists Cause's Girolamo Li and Joseph Dozza, shareholders Albasini Scrosati and Ferruccio Parri, the Socialists Veratti (since deceased) and Viotto, the Christian Democrats, and Casò Enrico Falck .
Subsequently, the composition changed: Anton joined the Liberals Tail Dante and Philip Jacini; among Communists, Dozza went to Emilia and Li Causi joined Emilio Sereni and Luigi Longo, who then passed to the CVL, the shareholders, Parri and passed to the CVL Albasini were added to Riccardo Lombardi and Leo Valiani, among the Socialists joined Marzola, Sandro Pertini, Rodolfo Morandi, among Democrats, Casò was replaced by Achille Marazza to which was added also Augusto De Gasperi. The Presidency of CLNAI stood Pizzoni until the Liberation, 27 April 1945 in its place appeared the Socialist Morandi.
The role of CLNAI grew in importance during the war, after the delegation of powers to the north of Rome CLN obtained by January 31, 1944, last on 26 December 1944 as the government of national unity Bonomi gave the powers of direction in northern Italy to CLNAI, thus effectively assumed the role of "third party government" or "shadow government" in the occupied territories.
Organized as a "government of the great North," the CLNAI managed to maintain cohesion among the different political positions, and maintained the relationship, sometimes difficult, with the Allies. It dealt with the problem of financing the guerrilla warfare (especially tasks undertaken by Pizzoni and Falck) through a network connection with Switzerland. In addition also concluded cooperation agreements with the French Resistance and Yugoslav Resistance.
- (in Italian) ANPI – Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d'Italia
- (in Italian) ANCFARGL – Associazione Nazionale Combattenti Forze Armate Regolari Guerra di Liberazione
- (in Italian) INSMLI – Istituto Nazionale per la Storia del Movimento di Liberazione in Italia
- (in Italian) Il portale della guerra di Liberazione
- Articles on Anarchist resistance to Italian Fascism
- 1943–1945: Anarchist partisans in the Italian Resistance
- European Resistance Archive
- Book: War In Italy: By Richard Lamb
- E-Book: Il Partigiano D’Artagnan: By Alberto Cotti
- The Life of Basil Davidson by James Currey