National Liberation Front of Corsica
|National Liberation Front of Corsica|
Fronte di Liberazione Naziunale CorsuParticipant in Corsican conflict
Front de libération nationale corse
|Active||c. 1976 – present (splinter groups)|
|Area of operations||Corsica, France|
The National Liberation Front of Corsica (French: Front de libération nationale corse; Corsican: Fronte di Liberazione Naziunale Corsu; abbreviated FLNC) is a militant group that advocates an independent state on the island of Corsica, separate from France. The organisation is primarily present in Corsica and less so on the French mainland. A Conculta Naziunalista is often considered to be the political wing of the organisation.
Typical militant acts by the FLNC were bombings aimed at public buildings, banks, tourist infrastructures, military buildings and other perceived French symbols, in addition to aggravated assault against civilians, armed bank robbery, and extortion against private enterprises through so-called "revolutionary taxes". The attacks were usually performed against buildings and the island's infrastructures, but it was also not uncommon for the FLNC to have individual people as targets (such as Claude Érignac, killed in 1998). The overwhelming majority of their attacks on the French mainland took place in or around the cities of Nice, Marseille and Avignon.
Foundation and objectives
The FLNC was created from a merger of Ghjustizia Paolina and the Fronte Paesanu Corsu di Liberazione, the two largest Corsican armed organizations. It is an offshoot of the political party A Cuncolta Independentista which had members in the Corsican Assembly and some support among the locals.
The FLNC carried out its first attacks on the night of 4 May 1976 with 21 bombs exploding in Ajaccio, Bastia, Sartène, Porto-Vecchio and other Corsican towns. The majority of the targets were public buildings and offices of estate agents. On 5 May the FLNC formally announced its existence when it issued a bilingual manifesto which also claimed responsibility for the previous night's attacks.
The manifesto contained six demands:
- The recognition of the National Right of the Corsican people.
- The removal of all instruments of "French colonialism" – including the French Army and "colonists" (French mainlanders living on the island).
- The setting up of a popular democratic government which would express the will and the needs of the Corsican people.
- The confiscation of "colonial" estates.
- Agrarian reform to fulfill the aspirations of farmers, workers and intellectuals and rid the country of all forms of exploitation.
- The right to self-determination of the Corsican people.
- Paris tightens grip on Corsican warlords, The Independent, 1 February 1997.
- "Corsican separatists to end military campaign".
- "Corse: le FLNC dépose les armes".
- http://www.corsematin.com/ta/vescovato/205162/corse-deux-membres-d-un-flnc-unifie-revendiquent-l-attentat, Two members of a unified FLNC claimed the attack, Corse Matin, 10 August 2009
- "Un nouveau groupe clandestin revendique des attentats en Corse".
- "Un groupe clandestin revendique la série d'attentats en Corse".
- Ramsay, p. 118
- Ramsay pgs. 118–119
- Ramsay, Robert (1983). The Corsican Time-Bomb. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-0893-X.
- Charters, David A. (1994). The deadly sin of terrorism. New Brunswick: Centre of Conflict Studies. ISBN 0-313-28964-6.
- Kushner, Harvey (2003). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. California: Sage Publications. ISBN 0-7619-2408-6.