The National Library of Malta, often known as the Bibliotheca, is a reference library in Republic Square, Valletta, Malta.
The National Library of Malta was originally founded in 1766, during the magistracy of Emmanuel de Rohan. It was originally known as the Bibliotheca Tanseana in honour of Louis Guérin de Tencin, whose collections formed the nucleus of the library.
The present library building was completed in 1796 to a design by the Polish Italian architect Stefano Ittar. Due to the French occupation of Malta, the library did not open until Malta became a British protectorate, and it was officially inaugurated by Civil Commissioner Sir Hildebrand Oakes in 1812.
It became a legal deposit library in 1925, and from 1936 was known as the Royal Malta Library. The name was changed to National Library of Malta in 1976.