National Museum of Brazil
The national museum of Brazil
|Location||Quinta da Boa Vista in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Type||Natural history, ethnology and archaeology|
The National Museum (Portuguese: Museu Nacional) is the oldest scientific institution of Brazil and one of the largest museums of natural history and anthropology in the Americas. The museum is located inside the Quinta da Boa Vista park, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and is installed in the Paço de São Cristóvão ("Saint Christopher's palace"). The palace served as residence for the Portuguese Royal Family between 1808 and 1821, housed the Brazilian Imperial Family between 1822 and 1889, and also hosted the Republican Constituent Assembly from 1889 to 1891, before being assigned to the use of the museum in 1892. The building is listed as Brazilian National Heritage since 1938.
Founded by king John VI of Portugal on June 6, 1818, under the name of "Royal Museum", the institution was initially housed at the Campo de Santana park, where it exhibited the collections incorporated from the former House of Natural History, popularly known as Casa dos Pássaros ("house of the birds"), created in 1784 by the Vice-King of Brazil Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, as well as collections of mineralogy and zoology. The museum foundation was intended to address the interests of promoting the socioeconomic development of the country by the diffusion of education, culture, and science. Still in the 19th century, the institution was already established as the most important South American museum in its typologies. It was incorporated to the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in 1946.
The National Museum holds a vast collection with more than 20 million objects, encompassing some of the most important material records regarding natural science and anthropology in Brazil, as well a large number of itens originated from distinct regions of the planet and produced by several cultures and ancient civilizations. Formed along more than two centuries through expeditions, excavations, acquisitions, donations and exchanges, the collection is subdivided into seven main nucleus: geology, paleontology, botany, zoology, biological anthropology, archaeology, and ethnology. The collection is the principal basis for the research conducted by the academic departments of the museum — which are responsible for carrying out activities in all the regions of the Brazilian territory and several places of the world, including the Antarctic continent. The museum also has one of the largest scientific libraries of Brazil, with over 470,000 volumes and 2,400 rare works.
In the area of education, the museum offers specializations, extension and post-graduation courses in several fields of the knowledge, in addition to hosting temporary and permanent exhibitions and educational activities open to the general public. The museum manages the Horto Botânico (Botanical Garden), adjacent to the Paço de São Cristóvão, as well as an advanced campus in the city of Santa Teresa, in Espírito Santo — the Santa Lúcia Biological Station, jointly managed with the Museum of Biology Prof. Mello Leitão. A third site, located in the city of Saquarema, is used as a support and logistics center for field activities. Finally, the museum is also dedicated to editorial production, outstanding in that field the publishing of the Archivos do Museu Nacional, the oldest scientific journal of Brazil, continuously published since 1876.
The National Museum was established by the King of Portugal Dom João VI (1769–1826) in 1818 with the name of Royal Museum, in an initiative to stimulate scientific research in Brazil, which until then was an immense and wild colony, practically unexplored by science. Initially the Museum sheltered botanical and animal specimens, especially birds, what caused the old building where it was located in center of Rio de Janeiro, to be known by the population as the "House of the Birds".
After that, with the marriage of D. João VI's son and Brazil's first Emperor, Dom Pedro I (1798–1834) with Princess Leopoldina of Austria, the Museum started to attract the greatest European naturalists of the 19th century, such as Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied (1782–1867), Johann Baptist von Spix (1781–1826) and Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794–1868). Other European researchers who explored the country, such as Augustin Saint-Hilaire (1799–1853) and the Baron von Langsdorff (1774–1891), contributed for the collections of the Royal Museum.
By the end the 19th century, reflecting the personal preferences of Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825–1891), the National Museum started to invest in the areas of the anthropology, paleontology and archaeology. The Emperor himself, who was an avid amateur scientist and enthusiastic supporter of all branches of science, contributed with several of the collections of the art of Ancient Egypt, botanical fossils, etc., which he acquired during many of his trips abroad. In this way, the National Museum was modernized and became the most important museum of Natural History and Human Sciences of South America. Edmund Roberts visited the museum in 1832, noting that the museum only had three open rooms at that time, and that the closed rooms were "sadly plundered of its contents by Don Pedro."
D. Pedro II was well aware of the shortage of true scientists and naturalists in Brazil. He fixed this problem by inviting foreign scientists to come to work at the Museum. The first to come was Ludwig Riedel (1761–1861), a German botanist who had participated in Baron von Langsdorff's famed expedition to Mato Grosso from 1826 to 1828. Other scientists to come were: German chemist Theodor Peckolt and American geologist and paleontologist Charles Frederick Hartt (1840-1878). In the following years the Museum gradually became known so it continued to attract several foreign scientists who wished to achieve scientific stature with their work in Brazil, such as Fritz Müller (1821–1897), Hermann von Ihering (1850–1930), Carl August Wilhelm Schwacke (1848–1894), Orville Adalbert Derby (1851–1915), Émil August Goeldi (1859–1917), Louis Couty (1854–1884) and others, all fired by museum director Ladislau Netto when the emperor was deposed.
The Emperor was still a very popular figure when he was deposed by a military coup in 1889, so the republicans tried to erase the symbols of the Empire. One of these symbols, the Paço de São Cristóvão, the official residence of the emperors in the Quinta da Boa Vista, became vacant; therefore, in 1892, the National Museum, with all its collections, valuables and researchers, was transferred to this palace, where it stays until today.
In 1946, the Museum’s management was passed to the University of Brazil, currently the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The researchers and their offices and laboratories occupy a good part of the Palace and other buildings erected at Botanical Gardens (Horto Florestal), in the Quinta da Boa Vista park. There, one can find one of the largest scientific libraries of Rio. Currently, the National Museum offers graduate courses in the following areas: Anthropology and Sociology, Botany, Geology and Paleontology, and Zoology.
The Museum shelters one of the largest exhibits of the Americas, consisting of animals, insects, minerals, aboriginal collections of utensils, Egyptians mummies and South American archaeological artifacts, meteorites, fossils and many other findings.
The collection of archaeology of the National Museum comprises more than 100,000 objects, covering distinct cultures and important artifacts produced by several civilizations that lived in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Middle East, since the Paleolithic Age until the 19th century. The collection is subdivided into four main segments: Ancient Egypt, Mediterranean cultures, Pre-Columbian archaeology, and Brazilian archaeology — this last nucleus, systematically gathered since 1867, is the largest segment of the archaeological collection, as well as the most important collection of its tipology in the world, covering the history of Pre-Cabraline Brazil in a very comprehensive manner and sheltering some of the most important material records related to Brazilian archaeology. It is, therefore, a collection of considerable scientific value, and object of several works of basic research, theses, dissertations, and monographs.
With more than 700 itens, the collection of Egyptian archaeology of the National Museum is the largest of Latin America and one of the oldest in the Americas. Most part of the objects entered the museum collection in 1826, when the tradesman Nicolau Fiengo brought from Marseille an assemblage of Egyptian antiquities that belonged to the famous Italian explorer Giovanni Battista Belzoni, who had been in charge of excavating the Theban Necropolis (modern-day Luxor) and the Temple of Karnak.
This collection had Argentina as initial destination, and had probably been ordered by the president of that country, Bernardino Rivadavia, creator of the University of Buenos Aires and a noted enthusiast of museums. However, a naval blockade at the La Plata River would impede Fiengo of completing his journey, forcing him to return from Montevideo to Rio de Janeiro, where the pieces were offered at an auction. Emperor Pedro I bought the entire collection for five million réis, and subsequently donated it to the National Museum. It has been sugested that the action of Pedro I would have been influenced by José Bonifácio de Andrada, a relevant early member of Freemasonry in Brazil, perhaps driven by the interest that the organization had for the Egyptian iconography. 
The collection started by Pedro I would be expanded by his son, emperor Pedro II, amateur egyptologist and notable collector of archaeological and ethnographic artifacts. One of the most important additions to the Egyptian collection of the National Museum made by Pedro II is the polychromed wood sarcophagus of the singer of Amun, Sha-Amun-en-su, from the Late Period, offered to the emperor as a gift during his second trip to Egypt, in 1876, by the Khedive Isma'il Pasha. The sarcophagus is distinguished for its rarity, since it is one of few examples that have never been opened, still preserving the mummy of the singer in its interior. The collection would be enriched through other acquisitions and donations, becoming, at the beginning of the 20th-century, sufficiently relevant to draw the attention of international researchers and egyptologysts, such as Alberto Childe, who served as conservator of the Department of Archaeology of the museum between 1912 and 1938, and was also responsible for publishing the Guide of the Collections of Classical Archaeology of the National Museum, in 1919.
Besides the forementioned coffin of Sha-Amun-en-su, the museum possesses other three sarcophagi, from the Third Intermediate Period and the Late Era, belonging to three priests of Amun: Hori, Pestjef, and Harsiese. The museum also conserves six human mummies (four adults and two children), as well as a number of mummies and sarcophagi of animals (cats, ibises, fishes, and crocodiles). Among the human examples, the highlight is a mummy of a woman from the Roman Period, which is considered extremely rare for the preparatory technique used, of which there are only eight similar examples worldwide. Called "princess of the Sun" or "princess Kherima", the mummy has her members and fingers of the hands and feet individually swaddled and is richly adorned, with painted strips. "Princess Kherima" is one of the most popular itens of the National Museum collection, being even related to accounts of parapsychological experiences and collective trances, that supposedly occurred in the 1960s. "Kherima" also inspired the romance The Secret of the Mummy by Everton Ralph, member of the Rosicrucian society.
The collection of votive and funerary steles is composed of dozens of pieces dated, in their majority, from the Intermediate Period and the Late Era. The steles of Raia and Haunefer, which are graved with titles of Semitic origins present in the Bible and in the tablets of Mari, stand out, as well as an unfinished stele, attributed to the emperor Tiberius, of the Roman Period. The museum also has a vast collection of shabtis, i.e. statuettes representing funerary servers, including a group of pieces that belonged to pharaoh Seti I, excavated from his tomb at the Valley of the Kings. Still among the group of rare artifacts, there is a limestone statue of a young woman, dated of the New Kingdom, carrying a conic ointment vessel on the top of her head — an iconography that is almost exclusively found among paintings and reliefs. The collection also includes fragments of reliefs, masks, statues of deities in bronze, stone and wood (such as representations of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris), canopic jars, alabaster bowls, funerary cones, jewels, amulets, etc.
The collection of classical archaeology of the National Museum adds up to around 750 pieces and consists mostly of Greek, Roman, Etruscan, and Italiote objects, being the largest collection of its kind in Latin America. Most of the pieces previously belonged to the Greco-Roman collection of empress Teresa Cristina, who was interested in archaeology since her youth. When the empress disembarked in Rio de Janeiro in 1843, right after her proxy wedding to emperor Pedro II, she brought an assemblage of antiquities found during the excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii, the Ancient Roman cities destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. Part of this collection had also belonged to Carolina Murat, sister of Napoleon Bonaparte and queen consort of the king of Naples, Joachim Murat.
In his turn, Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, brother of empress Teresa Cristina, had ordered the excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii, initiated in the 18th century, to be resumed. The recovered pieces were sent to the Royal Bourbon Museum of Naples. Aiming to increase the number of classical artifacts in Brazil and cogitating the future creation of a museum of Greco-Roman archaeology in the country, the empress established formal exchanges with the Kingdom of Naples. She resquested the shipment of Greco-Roman objects to Rio de Janeiro, while sending artifacts of indigenous origins to Italy. The empress also personally financed excavations in Veios, an Etruscan archeological site located fifteen kilometers to the north of Rome, bringing a large part of the objects found to Brazil. Most part of the pieces were gathered between 1853 and 1859, but Teresa Cristina continued to enrich the collection until the fall of the Brazilian empire in 1889, when Republic was proclaimed and the empress left the country with all the royal family.
Among the highlights of the collection, there is a set of four frescos from Pompeii, made around the 1st century AD. Two of the pieces are decorated with marine motifs, respectively depicting a sea dragon and a seahorse as central figures, surrounded by dolphins, and were used to adorn the lower walls of the room of the devotes at the Temple of Isis. The other two frescos are decorated with representations of plants, birds, and landscapes, stylistically close to the paintings of Herculaneum and Stabiae. The museum also houses a large number of objects from Pompeii, portraying the daily life of the Ancient Roman citizens: fibulae, jewels, mirrors, and other pieces of the Roman female toilette, glass and bronze vessels, phallic amulets, oil lamps molded in terracotta, etc.
The collection of Mediterranean pottery comprises dozens of objects and is noted for the diversity of origins, shapes, decorations and utilitarian purposes. Several of the most important styles and schools of classical antiquity are represented, from the Corinthian geometric style of the 7th century BC to the Roman terracotta amphoras of the Early Christian era. The museum houses examples of kraters, oenochoai, kantharos, chalices, kyathos, cups, hydriai, lekythoi, askoi, and lekanides. The groups of Etruscan Bucchero pottery (7th-4th centuries BC), Greek black-figure vases (7th-5th centuries BC), Gnathian vessels (4th century BC), and the vast set of Italiote red-figure vases, with ceramics from Apulia, Campania, Lucania and Magna Graecia, also stand out.
The collection of sculptures comprises a large number of Tanagra figurines, small terracotta sculptures of Greek origin that were largely appreciated in the Ancient world, as well as a group of Etruscan bronze statuettes representing warriors and female figures. The collection of military artifacts includes entire pieces or fragments of helmets, maces, scabbards, bronze blades, brooches and phalleras.
The National Museum houses and important group of about 1,800 artifacts produced by the Indigenous peoples of the Americas during the Pre-Columbian era, as well as Andean mummies. Gathered throughout the 19th century, the collection takes its rise from the holdings of the Brazilian royal family, with several objects coming from the private collection of emperor Pedro II, later enlarged through acquisitions, donations, exchanges, and excavations. By the end of the 19th-century, the collection already had considerable prestige, being cited, in the occasion the 1889 Anthropological Exposition inauguration, as one of the largest collections of South American archaeology.
The collection is mostly comprised of objects related to the textile manufacturing, featherwork, ceramic production, and stonecraft of the Andean cultures (groups of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina) and, to a lesser extent, of the Amazonian natives (including a rare assemblage of Venezuelan artifacts) and Mesoamerican cultures (mainly from present-day Mexico and Nicaragua). Several aspects of the daily routine, social organization, religiosity, and imagery of the Pre-Columbian civilizations are addressed in the collection, exemplified from the basic utilitarian dimensions (clothing, body ornaments, weapons) to more refined artifacts, imbued with notable artistic sense (measurement and musical instruments, ritualistic objects, figurative ceramic sculptures and vessels distinguished for their aesthetic features). Other aspects of the Pre-Columbian life, such as the dynamics of trade, ideological diffusion and cultural influences among the groups are also represented in the collection, being noticeable, for example, on the similarity of the decorative patterns, artistic techniques, as well as in the subjects portrayed in their production, common to nearly all distinct groups, such as the representation of plants, nocturnal animals (bats, serpents, owls) and fantastic creatures associated to natural elements and phenomena.
Best represented groups, in the context of Andean cultures, include:
- Nazca culture, which flourished on the southern coast of Peru between the 1st century BC and 800 AD. The National Museum has a large set of fragments of Nazca textiles depicting animals (mainly llamas), fantastic beings, plants, and geometric patterns;
- Moche civilization, which flourished on the northern coast of Peru between the early Christian era and 8th century AD, responsible for building large monuments, temples, pyramids, and ceremonial complexes, represented in the collection by a group of figurative pottery of high artistic and technical quality (zoomorphic, anthropomorphic, and globular vessels) and examples of goldsmithery;
- Wari culture, which inhabited the south-central Andes since the 5th century AD, represented by anthropomorphic ceramic vessels and textile fragments;
- Lambayeque culture, which arose in the homonymous region of Peru during the 8th century AD, exemplified in the collection through textiles, pottery and metalwork;
- Chimú culture, which flourished on the Valley of the Moche River since the 10th century AD, represented by a group of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic pottery (characteristically dark, obtained through the technique of reducing burning, and inspired by stylistic elements of the Moche and Wari cultures), as well as textiles decorated with varying motifs;
- Chancay culture, which developed between the Intermediate and Late periods (from about 1000 to 1470 AD), on the valleys of the rivers Chancay and Chillon, presented in the collection by a set of anthropomorphic pottery (characteristically dark, decorated with light-colored engobe and brown painting) and sophisticated textiles depicting animals and vegetables — namely a large mantle, with three meters of length;
- Inca civilization, which flourished around the 13th century AD and became the largest empire of the Pre-Columbian Americas in the following century. The National Museum possesses a set of figurative pottery and vessels decorated with geometric patterns ("Incan aryballos"), miniature figures of human beings and llamas, made with alloys of gold, silver, and copper, miniatures of Inca ceremonial clothing, featherwork, quipus, mantles, tunics, and several other examples of textiles.
The collection of Andean mummies of the National Museum allows a glimpse at the funerary practices of the cultures of the region. The mummies of the collection were preserved either naturally (as a result of the favorable geo-climatic conditions of the Andean Mountains) or artificially, in the context of religious and ritualistic practices. Originating from Chiu Chiu, at the Atacama Desert, northern Chile, there is a mummy of a man with an estimated age of 3.400 to 4.700 years, preserved in a seated position, with the head resting on the knees and covered by a wool cap. This was the position which the Atacaman cultures used to sleep, due to the cold climate of the desert. It was also the position in which they were buried, together with their belongings. A second mummy in the collection — an Aymara man, found in the surroundings of Lake Titicaca, between Peru and Bolivia — is preserved in the same position, but involved in a funerary bundle. The collection of mummies also include a boy, donated by the Chilean government, and, illustrating the techniques of artificial mummification of Pre-Columbian cultures, an example of a shrunken head, coming from the Jivaroan peoples of equatorial Amazon, of ritualistic purposes.
The collection of Brazilian archaeology of the National Museum brings together a vast set of artifacts produced by the cultures that flourished in the Brazilian territory during the pre-colonial era, with more than 90,000 objects. It is considered the largest collection in its typology worldwide. Gradually assembled since the early 19th century, the collection started being systematically gathered since 1867 and has been continually expanded until the present day, through excavations, acquisitions and donations, also serving as basis for a large number of research projects conducted by the academics from the museum, from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and from other institutions. It is composed of objects coming from all regions of Brazil, establishing a timeline spanning more than 10,000 years.
From the oldest inhabitants of the Brazilian territory (horticulturists and hunter-gatherer groups), the museum preserves several artifacts made of stone (flint, quartz and other minerals) and bones, such as projectile points used for hunting, axe blades of polished stone and other tools used for carving, scraping, cleaving, triturating, and piercing, in addition to artifacts of ceremonial use and adornments. Although objects made of wood, fiber, and resin were also produced, the majority of them didn't stand the test of time and are almost absent in the collection, except for some individual pieces — namely a woven straw basket covered by resin, only partially preserved, found in the southern coast of Brazil.
In the segment regarding the Sambaqui people, i.e. the fishing and gathering communities which lived in the south-central coast of Brazil between 8,000 years before present and the early Christian era, the National Museum holds a large number of vestiges originating from deposits constituted of agglomerated lime and organic material — the so-called Sambaquis, or middens. Two fragments of Sambaquis are preserved in the collection, in addition to a group of human skeletal remains found in these archaeological sites, as well as several cultural testimonies of the Sambaqui people, encompassing utilitarian objects used in routine tasks (vessels, bowls, pestles and mortars carved in stone), ceremonies and rituals (such as votive statuettes). Among the highlights of the Sambaqui collection, there is a large set of zoolites (stone sculptures of votive use, with representation of animals, such as fish and birds, and human figures).
The collection also includes several examples of funerary urns, rattles, dishes, bowls, clothing, dresses, idols, and amulets, with emphasis being placed on ceramic objects, produced by numerous cultures of precolonial Brazil. Best represented groups in the collection include:
- Marajoara culture, which flourished on Marajó island, at the mouth of the Amazon River, between the 5th and the 15th centuries, considered the group that reached the highest level of social complexity in precolonial Brazil. The museum has a vast assemblage of Marajoara pottery, notable for their heightened artistic and aesthetic sense, as well as for the variety of shapes and refined decoration — mostly works of figurative nature (representations of humans and animals), combined with rich geometric patterns (compositions imbued with symmetry, rhythmic repetitions, paired elements, binary oppositions, etc.) and with a predominant usage of the excision technique. Major part of the ceramic pieces are of ceremonial nature, used in funerary contexts, rites of passage, etc. Among the highlights, it's possible to mention the anthropomorphic statuettes (particularly the phallus-shaped female figurines, uniting the male and female principles, a recurring theme of the Marajoara art), large-scale funerary urns, anthropomorphic vases with geometric decoration, ritual thongs, zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and hybrid vessels, etc.
- Santarém culture (or Tapajós culture), which inhabited the region of the Tapajós River in the state of Pará, between the 5th and the 15th centuries, known for their ceramic work of peculiar style and high technical quality, produced with the techniques of modeling, incision, dotted lines, and appliqué, imbued with aesthetic features that suggest the influence of the Mesoamerican civilizations. Among the hightlights of the collection are the anthropomorphic statuettes of naturalist style (characterised by the closed eyes, shaped like coffee beans), the anthropomorphic and zoomorphic vessels, vases for ceremonial use and, above all, the so-called "caryatid vases" - complex ceramic vessels, endowed with bottlenecks, reliefs and pedestals decorated with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figurines and fantastic beings. The museum also possesses several examples of Muiraquitãs, i.e. small statuettes carved in green gems, shaped like animals (mainly frogs) used as adornments or amulets.
- Konduri culture, which reached their apex in the 7th century and met their decline in the 15th century, and inhabited the region between the Trombetas and Nhamundá rivers, in Pará. Although this cultue kept an intense contact with the Santarém culture, their artistic production developed unique features. The Konduri collection is primarily composed of pottery, noted for the techniques of decoration such as incision and dotted lines, the lively polichromy, and the reliefs with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs.
- Trombetas River culture, which inhabited the lower Amazon, in the state of Pará, near the region of Santarém. This culture, still largely unknown, was responsible for producing rare artifacts sculpted in polished stone and objects imbued with stylistic elements common to the Mesoamerican cultures. The museum collection preserves lithic artifacts of ceremonial use, as well as anthropomorphic and zoomorphic statuettes (zoolites representing fish and jaguars).
- Miracanguera culture, which flourished on the left bank of the Amazon river, in the region between Itacoatiara and Manaus, between the 9th and the 15th centuries. The museum preserves several examples of ceremonial pottery, mainly anthropomorphic funerary urns characterized by the presence of bulges, necks, and lids, used to store the ashes of the deceased, and other vessels related to funerary rituals. The Miracanguera pottery is distinguished for the presence of tabatinga layers (clay mixed with organic materials) and the eventual painted decoration of geometric motifs. The plastic composition frequently outlines specific details, such as human figures in a seated position, with the legs represented.
- Maracá culture, which lived in the region of Amapá between the 15th and the 18th centuries, represented in the collection by a group of typical funerary urns depicting male and female figurines in hieratic position, with head-shaped lids, as well as zoomorphic funerary urns depicting quadrupedal animals, originating from indigenous cemeteries located in the outskirts of the Maracá River. The Maracá pottery was frequently adorned with geometric patterns and polychromed with white, yellow, red, and black pigments. Ornaments in the members and the head of the figures expressed the social identity of the deceased.
- Tupi-Guaraní culture, which inhabited the Brazilian coast when the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century — subdivided into the group of the Tupinambá people (in the North, Northeast, and Southeast regions of Brazil) and the group of the Guaraní people (in the South region of Brazil and parts of Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The collection is predominantly composed of ceramics and lithic artifacts of daily use (such as pans, bowls, jars, and dishes) or ritual nature (mainly funerary urns). The Tupi-Guaraní pottery is characterized by its distinct polychromy (with predominance of red, black, and white pigments) and drawings of geometric and sinuous patterns.
The National Museum also preserves the only known examples of indigenous mummies found in the Brazilian territory. The collection consists of the body of an adult woman of approximately 25 years of age, and two children, one located at her feet, with an estimated age of twelve months, involved in a bundle, and a new-born, also covered by a mantle, positioned behind the head of the woman. This mummified set is composed of individuals that probably belonged to the group of the Botocudos (or Aimoré) people, of the Macro-Jê branch. They were found at the Caverna da Babilônia, a cavern located in the city of Rio Novo, interior of the state of Minas Gerais, in a farm that belonged to Maria José de Santana, who donated the mummies to emperor Pedro II. As an act of gratitude for this favor, Pedro II awarded Maria José with the title of Baroness of Santana.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro.|
- Paço de São Cristóvão, the historic palace that houses the National Museum
- National Historical Museum of Brazil
- "Museu Nacional - UFRJ" (in Portuguese). Museus do Rio. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- Grande Enciclopédia Larousse Cultural. Santana de Parnaíba: Banco Safra. 1998. p. 4132.
- "O Museu" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional - UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- "A Revista Arquivos e a Biblioteca do Museu Nacional" (in Portuguese). Revista do Arquivo Nacional. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 25.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 45.
- "Departamento de Antropologia" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
- "Guia de Exposições do Museu Nacional - Egito Antigo (I)" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- Barkos, Margaret Marchiori (2004). Egiptomania - O Egito no Brasil. São Paulo: Paris Editorial. pp. 31–35. ISBN 85-72-44261-8.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 222.
- Brancaglion Junior, Antonio (2007). Revelando o Passado: estudos da coleção egípcia do Museu Nacional (in In: Lessa, Fábio de Souza & Bustamente, Regina. "Memoria & festa"). Rio de Janeiro: Mauad Editora. pp. 75–80.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. pp. 41–42.
- "Múmia Kherima intriga pesquisadores do Museu Nacional" (in Portuguese). O Globo. 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Guia de Exposições do Museu Nacional - Egito Antigo (II)" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Culturas do Mediterrâneo" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 238.
- "Italianos restauram afrescos inéditos da coleção Imperatriz Tereza Cristina" (in Portuguese). Agência Brasil. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Guia de Exposições do Museu Nacional - Culturas Mediterrâneas" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 19.
- "Projeto da Nova Exposição do Museu Nacional/UFRJ" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Guia de Visitação Escolar ao Museu Nacional/UFRJ" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 43.
- "Cultura Moche" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 290.
- "Cultura Lambayeque" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Cultura Chimu" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 296.
- "Cultura Chancay" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- "Cultura Inca" (in Portuguese). Museu Nacional/UFRJ. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 304.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 308.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 309.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 334.
- "Arqueologia Brasileira - Artefatos líticos dos primeiros povoadores" (in Portuguese). Guia de Exposições do Museu Nacional. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 261.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. pp. 264–275.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. p. 282.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. pp. 284–285.
- "Arqueologia Brasileira - Miracanguera" (in Portuguese). Guia de Exposições do Museu Nacional. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
- O Museu Nacional. São Paulo: Banco Safra. 2007. pp. 286–289.
- "Arqueologia Brasileira - Cerâmica Tupi-guaran" (in Portuguese). Guia de Exposições do Museu Nacional. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
- "Só para os íntimos" (in Portuguese). Revista de História. Retrieved 2017-02-16.