National Museum of Nepal
|Location||Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal http://wikimapia.org/225444/National-Museum-Rashtriya-Sangrahalaya-Chhauni|
The National Museum of Nepal (Rashtriya Sangrahalaya) is a popular attraction of the capital city of Kathmandu. About a century old, the museum stands as a tourist destination and historical symbol for Nepal. Being the largest museum of the country of Nepal, it plays an important role in nationwide archaeological works and development of museums. For the residents of Kathmandu, the monument serves to relive the battles fought on the grounds of Nepal. The main attractions are collection of historical artworks (sculpture and paintings) and a historical display of weapons used in the wars in the 18-19th century. The museum has separate galleries dedicated to statues, paintings, murals, coins and weapons. It has three buildings — Juddha Jayatia Kala Shala, Buddha Art Gallery and the main building which consists of natural historical section (collection of species of animals, butterflies and plants), cultural section and philatelic section.
The National Museum is under the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation. The museum has practical application in portraying and understanding the past and present traditions of the people of Nepal.
The National Museum of Nepal was established in 1928 by General Bhimsen Thapa using an old building built in 1819 A.D. The museum then known as Chhauni Silkhana, literally meaning "arsenal museum", was originally used to display firearms and weapons used in the war history of Nepal.
It was opened to the public in February 1939 by the Prime Minister of Nepal Juddha Shamsher Jung Bahadur Rana. He allowed Nepalese to visit the museum charging very little and raised a building for an art museum and named it after himself Juddha Jatiya Kalashala. Until then only foreign scholars/dignitaries and invitees or guests of the Rana Prime Minister occasionally could have a glimpse of the collection.
The National Museum of Nepal is in the city of Kathmandu at a short distance form the Swayambhunath stupa. The classical building of the museum is on the Western side of the river Vishnu against a hilly background. Entering the museum, on the left is the Art Gallery displaying statues, wood carvings and paintings. The building straight ahead is the Buddhist Art Gallery displaying Buddhist art objects while the building on the right is the Museum of Natural History.
The Art Gallery exhibits metal works, wood and stone carvings. Prominent among the stone images is the one of Licchavi King Jayavarma of the 2nd century. This large statue found in Handigaon stands majestically after being restored by an Italian project. Four stolen sculptures — the head of the 12th century Veenadharini Saraswati from Pharping’s Kamalpokhari; the 9th century Buddha from Bhinchhe Bahal, Patan; the 14th century Surya from Panauti’s Triveni Ghat and the 10th century Garudasana Vishnu from Hyumat Tole, Kathmandu — received from a Los Angeles based art-collector, have remained artifacts of great interest. These objects are kept in the stone work section of the gallery.
Nritya Devi is a restored wooden sculpture of a dancing goddess of the 15th century stored in the wood-carving section. Intricate motifs, carved on teak, sal or rose wood, on mountable window frames give a sense of refinement in woodcarving. A series of paintings depicting Krishna's miraculous deeds known as "Krishna Lila" are important artwork and covers major part of the gallery in the painting section.
Buddhist Art Gallery
The Buddhist Art Gallery stores Buddhist paintings, sculptures and ritualistic objects. To provide a glimpse of the Buddhist art of the kingdom of Nepal, this gallery has been divided into three sections: the Terai, Kathmandu Valley and northern Himalayan sections. The Terai section is adorned with photographs of Lord Buddha’s birthplace in Lumbini. Chaityas (stupas), statues of Buddha and Bodhisatvas cast in bronze comprise the Kathmandu valley section. The northern Himalayan section reflects the influence of Tibetan Buddhism, which apparently developed many rites and rituals. Therefore ritualistic objects like phurpa (magical dart used especially for the ritual slaying of human effigy of foes) and dorje (represents thunder bolt) are found in this section. Thangka paintings made on cotton canvas or silk, Tibetan amulets and religious objects, also adorn the gallery. Appealing images of Manjushri (the deity of wisdom), yantra of the 19th century (showing chakras of the body), Dipankara Buddha are other important parts of the Buddhist collection.
The monumental building housing the Historical Museum was built by Bhimsen Thapa, prime minister of Nepal in the 18th century. Riches of Nepal’s biodiversity are exhibited in these chambers — mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, butterflies and insects. Pelt, horn or endo-skeletons of tiger, leopard, red panda, flying squirrel, rhinoceros, whale, colourful plumage of birds may be cited.
The Military section is a collection of weapons and artifacts from ancient, medieval and modern Nepal. The leather-canons (seized during the 1st Nepal-Tibet war in 1792 A.D), cane helmets (from the time of early rulers), antique, electric and Thomson submachine guns, Birgun (a gun supposedly invented by Gahendra Shamsher JB Rana) have remained valuable possessions. The gallery has a sword presented by Napoleon III and life-size paintings of tiger hunting as royal sport, on display. Historical and modern paintings of Prime Ministers and kings of the Malla and Shah dynasties are exhibited along with show cases presenting Nepalese historical weapons.
The Numismatic section preserves rare copper, silver and gold coins from the Licchavi era (5th to 7th century) until modern times. Some tokens made of clay or leather, and banknotes are also on display.
- "Establishment of National Museum". bharatonline.com. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- Sharma, Janak Lal. "Museum Development in Nepal" (PDF). Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- "National Museum of Nepal". Bharatonline.com. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- "Nepal's Stolen Statues Come Home". Asia Times. September 16, 1999. Retrieved April 8, 2012.